Titles

A

Agatanonushi (territorial ruler) (県主) - The term "agatanonushi" refers to a post or kabane (hereditary title) of Yamato sovereignty (the ancient Japan sovereignty) before the introduction of the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Ajari (阿闍梨) - Ajari (also Azari, Sanskrit: acarya, also transliterated as Ajariya) means a "model/example" in Sanskrit, and is a master who is an example to his disciples and teaches the dharma.

Akuto (悪党) - "Akuto" generally refers to a person who disturbs the order of society, or a group of people who commit wrongdoing, but in Japanese history, it refers to a person or class rebelling against the existing system in the middle ages.

Ashigaru taisho (general in command of a troop of foot soldiers) (足軽大将) - An Ashigaru taisho was a commanding officer who lead Ashigaru troops (foot soldiers) under a daimyo (Japanese territorial lord) during Japan's Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States).

Azechi (按察使) - Azechi (Inspector of the provincial government)

Azukari (official post) (預 (官職)) - Azukari was a post which was set up at government offices, temples or shrines and shoen (manor) in the Heian period.

Azukaridokoro (預所) - "Azukaridokoro" (also Azukesho, Azugasso, Azukarisho) was a deputy position the medieval Shoen manor, and integrally controlled it with the official appointment of honjo (proprietor or guarantor of a manor).

Azuma Hyakkan (東百官) - Azuma Hyakkan referred to a person's name that looked like a government post and was used by the samurai in the Kanto region.

B

Banshu (番衆) - "Banshu"(a guard) is a person who keeps watch at night as part of guard group (ban).

Banto (番頭) - Banto

Baron (男爵) - Baron (called danshaku in Japanese) is a title of nobility.

Benkan (Collective name of posts in Daijokan) (弁官) - Benkan collectively means the posts of Sadaiben, Udaiben, Sachuben, Uchuben, Sashoben, and Ushoben in Daijokan which is the highest organization of the Imperial Court.

Bugyo (奉行) - Bugyo is the name of a profession for a samurai family from the Heian period to the Edo period.

Bugyoshu (group of magistrates) (奉行衆) - Bugyoshu, also called Yuhitsukata, were of group of Bugyonin (magistrates) who were lawyers of the bureaucracy within the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Buketenso (武家伝奏) - Buketenso was one of the job titles within the Imperial Court from Muromachi to the Edo period.

Bunin or Fujin (consort of the emperor or one's wife) (夫人) - Fujin or Bunin (one's wife)

C

Cavalry (騎馬隊) - Cavalry was a military force formed by soldiers mounting on horseback, armed with swords, spears, and guns.

Chiba no kunimiyatsuko (千葉国造) - Chiba no kunimiyatsuko 千葉国造 was kuninomiyatsuko (local ruling families in ancient Japan) ruled the middle south of Kazusa Province.

Chichibu no kuni no miyatsuko (regional governor in ancient Japan) (知々夫国造) - Chichibu no kuni no miyatsuko (知々夫国造) was a kuni no miyatsuko, who ruled the west part of Musashi Province.

Chinju-fu Shogun (Commander-in-Chief of the Defense of the North) (鎮守府将軍) - Chinju-fu Shogun was an official who served as shogun, belonging to Ryoge no kan (class outside of the Ritsuryo system), which was set up for the defense of the northern area during the Nara period and the Heian period in Japan.

Chokushisho (勅旨所) - Chokushisho was the organization that succeeded Chokushisho (Bureau of Edicts) abolished in 782.

Chokushisho (Bureau of Edicts) (勅旨省) - Chokushisho was an extra statutory office established in the latter half of the Nara period under the ritsuryo system.

Choteki (朝敵) - "Choteki" refers to those who inflict vengeance on the emperor (imperial line) in Japan.

Chunagon (中納言) - "Chunagon" (vice-councilor of state) is a post ranking below Dainagon (chief councilor of state) in the Daijokan (Grand Council of State), the highest organ in the Imperial Court, and is Ryoge no kan (class outside of the Ritsuryo system), corresponding to Suke (assistant director) in the Shitokan (four classifications of bureaucrats' ranks).

D

Daijo-daijin (Grand minister of state) (太政大臣) - Positioned above the Sadaijin (minister of the left) and the Udaijin (minister of the right), the Daijo-daijin (grand minister of state, also known as Dajo-daijin) was the highest official post in the Daijokan (Grand Council of State) under the Ritsuryo system.

Daijokan chuke (太政官厨家) - The Daijokan chuke essentially indicated the kitchen that belonged to the Daijokan (Grand Council of State), but in ancient times the term referred to the government officials who administered the Daijokan kitchen.

Daijokan, Dajokan (highest organ of state power) (太政官) - Daijokan

Daikan (local governor) (代官) - A daikan (local governor) meant a person, who performed the public administration and construction in a designated territory on behalf of his monarch (state), and his rank.

Daimyo (大名) - Daimyo is an expression that came from Daimyoshu.

Dainagon (chief councilor of state) (大納言) - Dainagon

Daisanji (second to a governor) (大参事) - Daisanji was a government post next to a chief of chihokan (local officials) placed during the time of fu-han-ken sanchisei (fu-han-ken tripartite governance system) in the early Meiji period.

Daishogun (Command in Chief) (大将軍) - Daishogun (also Taishogun)

Danjonokami (also known as Danjoin) (the head of Danjodai) (弾正尹) - Danjonokami (also known as Danjoin) was the head of Danjodai under the ritsuryo legal code system.

Dazai Gonnosochi (大宰権帥) - Dazai Gonnosochi was the Provisional Governor General of Daziafu in Kyushu.

Dazai no sochi (also known as Dazai no sotsu) (Head of Dazaifu) (大宰帥) - Dazai no sochi was the head of Dazaifu.

Doboshu (同朋衆) - Doboshu were people who had the responsibility for miscellaneous duties and entertainment near the shogun since the Muromachi period.

Dochu-bugyo (a governmental post in the Edo bakufu) (道中奉行) - Dochu-bugyo was a governmental post in the Edo bakufu.

Duke (公爵) - A Duke or Prince is the highest of the five peerage ranks.

E

Eishaku (an honorable position or rank) (栄爵) - An eishaku indicates an honorable position or rank.

Eiten (栄典) - Eiten (honor) is a generic term for treatment, positions and titles that the nation gives as a commendation to a person who has rendered distinguished service to the nation and the public.

Emonfu (Headquarters of the Outer Palace Gate Guard) (衛門府) - Emonfu was a government office under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the Ritsuryo Code).

F

Feudal Lords (領主) - The term "feudal lord" is used to refer to a person who holds feudal dominion over a certain area of land and its residents (territory).

Fudai Daimyo (譜代大名) - Fudai daimyo were a class of daimyo (Japanese feudal lords) in the Edo period defined according to their ancestry.

Fudai genin (low-ranked people in the hereditary succession) (譜代下人) - Fudai genin were also called Fudai hokonin (servant and hereditary vassal) and meant genin (servants who served their masters as slaves) and hokonin (a servant) who were in personal slavery and served their master by providing roeki (labor service) as Fudai permanently and patrimonially in the agricultural community of modern times.

Fushin bugyo (普請奉行) - The fushin bugyo was a post held by hatamoto (direct retainers of the bakufu, which is a form of Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) during the Edo period.

G

Geki (government post) (外記) - Geki was one of the government posts belonging to Daijokan, which was the highest organization of the Imperial Court under the ritsuryo legal code system.

Genji choja (源氏長者) - "Genji choja" means the head of the Minamoto clan.

Genji Shoguns (源氏将軍) - Genji Shoguns (Warrior Generals) were the Minamoto clan members given the responsibility of seii taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians").

Genjina (源氏名) - The Genjina (professional names) are nomenclature named after the classic book Genji Monogatari (The Tale of Genji).

Genkun (元勲) - Genkun (the statesmen who contributed to Meiji Restoration) refer to the politicians who made considerable achievements in the overthrow of the Shogunate and the Meiji Restoration, played an important role in the Meiji Government, and were from Kinno-no-Shishi (a royalist).

Genro (an elder statesman) (元老) - Genro indicates a senior top-level statesman in the Japanese government in the era from the latter half of the Mejia period to the early Showa period.

Gobugyo (magistrates of Toyotomi Administration) (五奉行) - Gobugyo indicates a system consisting of five government officials (whose duties can be called magistrate or commissioner), that mainly took charge of practical businesses of the Toyotomi Administration at the last days of the administration during the Azuchi Momoyama period.

Goi no Kurodo (Chamberlain of Fifth Rank) (五位蔵人) - Goi no Kurodo was a post of Ryoge no kan (class outside of the Ritsuryo system) under the Japanese Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Gokamon (御家門) - Gokamon refers to a family with distinguished family lineage.

Gokenin (御家人) - Gokenin is a word used to describe the samurai retainers of the shogun but its meaning differed between the middle ages and early modern period.

Gokenin (an immediate vassal of the shogunate) in Kyoto (在京御家人) - The term "gokenin in Kyoto" (zaikyo gokenin) refers to a gokenin (an immediate vassal of the shogunate in the Kamakura and Muromachi through Edo periods) who was permanently stationed in and around Kyoto under jurisdiction of the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Gonkan (権官) - The term "Gonkan" means official court posts that were created beyond the prefixed number of personnel.

Gorenshi (御連枝) - Gorenshi refers to brothers of prestigious families such as the Imperial Family and families of kuge (court nobles) and seii taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians"), and so on.

Goshi (country samurai) (郷士) - Goshi is historical terminology referring to samurai hierarchy that existed during the Edo period.

Gotairo (five administrators in Toyotomi regime) (五大老) - Gotairo indicates the five most powerful daimyo clans, appointed as Karo (or Tairo) of the Toyotomi family, and acted as executive organs of the Toyotomi Administration at the last days of the administration, during the Bunroku era (1593-1598).

Gundai (郡代) - Gundai (a magistrate of a region or an administrator of a town) is the name of a post set in the bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) and in clan domains from the Muromachi period to the Edo period.

Gunji (郡司) - Gunji (district manager) was:

H

Hakucho (the ordinary people or inferior servants) (白丁) - Hakucho is a term referring to male ryomin (ordinary people) with no special rank or title and no public employment in the Chinese and Japanese ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Han-i (藩医) - Han-i was a doctor who served a feudal domain in the Edo period.

Hatamoto (direct retainers of shogun) (旗本) - The "hatamoto" is a general term indicating those who were direct retainers of the Tokugawa shogun family, provided with an amount of rice crop less than 10,000 koku (approximately 180 liters/koku) and the family status of omemie (vassal with the privilege to have an audience with the shogun) or higher who attended the ceremonies in the shogun's presence.

Heian Cavalry (平安騎馬隊) - Heian cavalry (Heian Kibatai) is the cavalry of the Kyoto Prefectural Police.

Hida no kuninomiyatsuko (斐陀国造) - Hida no kuninomiyatsuko 斐陀国造 (also known as Hidakokuzo) was kuninomiyatsuko (local ruling families in ancient Japan) ruled Hida Province.

Hikan (low ranking clerks) (被官) - Who were Hikan?

Hitsuke-tozoku-aratame-kata (literally, investigative division for arson and organized robbery) (火付盗賊改方) - The Hitsuke-tozoku-aratame-kata post was for mostly cracking down such felonies as arson, robbers (burglars) and gambling.

Hocho (保長) - A hocho was a headman of goho (the end administrative organization obliged to prevent crime and pay tax jointly) established under the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code [historical law system]) in the ancient Japan.

Hokoshu (奉公衆) - Hokoshu was a govermental position established by the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Hokumen no bushi (the Imperial Palace Guards for the north side) (北面武士) - "Hokumen no bushi" were samurai who served the retired emperor, standing by as the gero (servant) on the north side of the in (imperial palace of the retired emperor), and guarding or accompanying the retired emperor when he made trips outside..

Homen (放免) - Homen was the name of Shimobe (miscellaneous servants and attendants) of Kebiishi (a official with judicial and police power) which was Ryoge no kan (a post outside the original Ritsuryo code created by Imperial edicts) in Japan.

Honjo bugyo (本所奉行) - Honjo bugyo was one of the positions of Edo bakufu.

Honkan (品官) - Honkan was a general term of government posts which did not belong to the system for shitokan (four classifications of bureaucrats' ranks) of each government official in the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code [historical law system]) of Japan.

Hoshinno (法親王) - Hoshinno was an Imperial Prince who became a priest and renounced the world remaining within the imperial court.

Hyakkan na (百官名) - Hyakkan na refers to an official-rank-style name that samurai called himself.

Hyoefu (the Middle Palace Guards) (兵衛府) - The Middle Palace Guard was an administrative office in the Ritsuryo system.

Hyojoshu (government post) (評定衆) - Hyojoshu was a government post established during the periods of Kamakura and Muromachi.

I

Ichinokami (the ranking Council Member) (一上) - Ichinokami was the head of the Kugyo (top court officials) and usually referred to the Minister of the Left.

Ichiryo Gusoku (一領具足) - Ichiryo gusoku (literally means a set of armor) was a designation for a part time soldier and farmer and their organization (in sociology) which was formed and managed by Chosokabe clan, the daimyo (Japanese territorial lord) of Tosa Province in the Sengoku period targeting on armed peasants and jizamurai (local samurai) before heinobunri (a policy to strictly separate soldiers and farmers).

Ijimu no kuni no miyatsuko (regional governor in ancient Japan) (伊甚国造) - Chichibu no kuni no miyatsuko (知々夫国造) was a kuni no miyatsuko, who ruled the west part of Musashi Province.

Ikai (the court rank) (位階) - "Ikai" (the court rank) is a ranking system of the government officials.

Ikoku keigobanyaku (military service) (異国警固番役) - Ikoku keigobanyaku was a military service imposed by the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) on Gokenin in Kyushu.

Inba no kuni no miyatsuko (regional governor in ancient Japan) (印波国造) - Inba no kuni no miyatsuko (also known as Inbakokuzo) was a kuni no miyatsuko that ruled the middle part of Kazusa Province.

Inshi/In no tsukasa (院司) - Inshi (or In no tsukasa) is an official of In no cho (Retired Emperor's Office) set up directly under the retired emperors and nyoin (empress, empress dowager or grand empress dowager) during the ancient period to the middle ages in Japan.

Iohara no kuni miyatsuko (regional governor in ancient Japan) (廬原国造) - Iohara no kuni miyatsuko (廬原国造), also known as Iohara kokuzo, was a kuni no miyatsuko that ruled the west part of Suruga Province.

Izu no kuni no miyatsuko (regional governer in ancient Japan) (伊豆国造) - Izu no kuni no miyatsuko (or Izu kokuzou) was a Kuni no miyatsuko that governed Izu Province in ancient Japan.

J

Jigenin/Shimobito (government official who were not allowed to see the emperor) (地下人) - Jigenin' or 'Shimobito' is one of the statuses of aristocrats in Japan.

Jikata kosha (地方巧者) - Jikata kosha was an Edo Period bureaucrat overseeing domain agriculture who had extensive knowledge of regional affairs.

Jikatasanyaku (the three officers of a village) (地方三役) - Jikatasanyaku was a generic name for village officers in the early-modern times of Japan (the Edo period).

Jingikan (神祇官) - Jingikan (Jingikan/kamizukasa/kanzukasa) was a state organization in Japan.

Jinryo bugyo (神領奉行) - "Jinryo bugyo" was an official post in the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Jisha denso (寺社伝奏) - Jisha denso was a post placed in the Kuge (court nobles) Government in the medieval period and modern times.

Jisha-bugyo (寺社奉行) - Jisha-bugyo was one of the shogunate administrators in military government from the Muromachi to Edo eras, and was in charge of temples and shrines.

Jito (manager and lord of manor) (地頭) - Jito was a post established by Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) and Muromachi bakufu to manage and control shoen (manor) and kokuga-ryo (koryo (duchy), or an Imperial demesne).

Jo (Third official among Shitokan) (掾) - Jo was the third official among Shitokan under the Japanese ritsuryo system.

Jodai (Castellan) (城代) - The jodai is a person who took care of a castle in the absence of the lord.

Jokan (政官) - "Jokan" (written as "上官" or "政官") is the collective term for government officers who were mainly engaged in clerical work in the Daijokan (Grand Council of State) under the Ritsuryo system (a system of a centralized government based on the Ritsuryo Code).

Joro otoshiyori (上臈御年寄) - Joro otoshiyori is the title of women serving in the O-oku during the Edo Period.

Joshi (upper-class samurai) (上士) - Joshi was an upper-class feudal retainer in the Edo period.

Jugo (准后) - Jugo is an aristocratic title equal to the following three titles: taikotaigo (Emperor's grandmother), kotaigo (Empress Dowager) and kogo (Empress Consort).

Jugoi (Junior Fifth Rank) (a rank in Japan) (従五位) - The term "Jugoi" (Junior Fifth Rank) refers to an Ikai (court rank) or a Shinkai (ranks granted to Shinto gods) in Japan.

Juichii (従一位) - "Juichii (Junior First Rank)" is a rank in court ranks and shinkai (ranks granted to Shinto gods) in Japan.

Jun-Sessho (associate regent) (准摂政) - Jun-Sessho refers to the permission given by the Emperor to a Kanpaku (Chief Advisor to the Emperor) or minister to govern affairs of state as a Sesshu (regent) under the Ritsuryo system, and it also refers to the person who received this permission.

Jundaijin (a government post) (准大臣) - Jundaijin was a government post in the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Junii (Junior Second Rank) (従二位) - Junii (Junior Second Rank) was a court rank and shinkai (ranks granted to Shinto gods) in Japan.

Junkenshi (巡見使) - The junkenshi is an envoy of the Edo shogunate dispatched for surveillance of the daimyos (feudal lords) and hatamotos (shogunal retainers), and for research on the situation.

Junsatsushi (a circuit-riding inspector or investigating commissioner) (China) (巡察使 (中国)) - Junsatsushi (a circuit-riding inspector or investigating commissioner) was a government official title which originated in the Tang Dynasty of China.

Jusanmi (従三位) - "Jusanmi" (Junior Third Rank) is a rank in court ranks and shinkai (ranks granted to Shinto gods).

Jusenshi (mint) (鋳銭司) - Jusenshi (also referred as Chusenshi) was one of Ryoge no kan (class outside of the Ritsuryo system) established in ancient Japan.

Jushii (従四位) - "Jushii" (Junior Fourth Rank) is a rank in court ranks and shinkai (ranks granted to Shinto gods) in Japan.

K

Kageyushi (勘解由使) - Kageyushi was a Ryoge no kan (official posts outside of the Ritsuryo code) under the Japanese Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the Ritsuryo code).

Kahan (加判) - Kahan, also called Kahan no retsu (joint surety) means originally a chief retainer who had authority to sign or put seal at carrying out an order of a lord.

Kaiganbogyo-goyogakari (a governmental post of the Edo bakufu) (海岸防禦御用掛) - Kaiganbogyo-goyogakari was a governmental post of the Edo bakufu.

Kamakura Kubo (鎌倉公方) - Kamakura kubo was an administrator post in Kamakura Government which was established as an outpost position for the ten provinces of the Kanto region by the Seii taishogun (literally, 'great general who subdues the barbarians) of Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) during the Muromachi period.

Kamitsukenu no kuninomiyatsuko (上毛野国造) - Kamitsukenu no kuninomiyatsuko (also known as Kamitsukenukokuzo, Kamitsuke no kuninomiyatsuko, and Kamitsukenokokuzo) was kuninomiyatsuko (local ruling families in ancient Japan) ruled Kamitsuke Province.

Kamitsuunakami no kuninomiyatsuko (上海上国造) - Kamitsuunakami no kunimiyatsuko 上海上国造 (also known as Kamitsuunakamikokuzo) was kuninomiyatsuko (local ruling families in ancient Japan) ruled the central part of Kazusa Province.

Kamonryo (Bureau of Housekeeping) (掃部寮) - Kamonryo refers to Ryoge no kan (class outside of the Ritsuryo system) belonging to Kunaisho (Ministry of the Sovereign's Household) under the Ritsuryo system in Ritsuryo Japan.

Kampaku (関白) - Kampaku is a post held by a person who governs in the Emperor's stead.

Kanjo bugyo (commissioner of finance) (勘定奉行) - Kanjo bugyo was a governmental post in the Edo period and the highest accounting officer, who was in charge of finance and control of the tenryo (the areas controlled directly by the bakufu).

Kanjo-kumigashira (勘定組頭) - Kanjo-kumigashira is a bureaucratic post in the Edo shogunate.

Kanjoginmiyaku (a governmental post in the Edo period) (勘定吟味役) - Kanjoginmiyaku was a governmental post in charge of auditing all jobs in the Kanjo-sho office (the office for finance) in the Edo Bakufu.

Kannin (officials) (官人) - Kannin (also known as Kanjin, Tsukasabito) means an official and a civil servant.

Kanrei (管領) - Kanrei is the name of a post in the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Kanrei-dai (representative of a shogunal deputy) (管領代) - "Kanrei-dai" was a job title within the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Kansatsushi (inspector) (観察使) - Kansatsushi refers to a government post which was established in Tang Dynasty China, in Yi Dynasty Korea, and in Japan in the early Heian period, for the purpose of inspecting the local administration.

Kanshoku (Government Post) (官職) - Kanshoku (government post) means the posts of government officials.

Kanto Bugyo (官途奉行) - Kanto bugyo was a post held by an officer in the Kamakura bakufu or Muromachi bakufu (both of which were Japanese feudal governments headed by a shogun) who would confer ranks and titles on gokenin (immediate vassals of the shogun).

Kanto moshitsugi (関東申次) - Kanto moshitsugi, also called Knato shisso, was a post introduced in the imperial court during the Kamakura period and played, together with the Rokuhara Tandai (an administrative and judicial agency in Rokuhara, Kyoto) on the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) side, the role of doing communications and adjustments between the bakufu and the imperial court or the government by cloistered emperors.

KASHIN Koji (果心居士) - Koji KASHIN (year of birth unknown) was a magician who made his appearance at the end of the Muromachi period.

Kebiishi (police and judicial chief) (検非違使) - Kebiishi was a Ryoge no kan post (class outside of the Ritsuryo system) under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the Ritsuryo Code).

Kengyo (検校) - Kengyo (one of the officers governing Shoen manor) is the highest title of official rank for blind officers during the middle and early modern ages.

Kenmotsu (officials belonging to Nakatsukasasho) (監物) - Kenmotsu was officials of Honkan that belonged to Nakatsukasasho under the ritsuryo legal code system.

Kenrei (県令) - Kenrei refers to:

Kiden hakase (Professor of History) (紀伝博士) - Kiden hakase refers to a post established in Daigaku-ryo (Bureau of Education under the Ritsuryo system) in the early Heian period and taught Kidendo (the study of the histories), but, was integrated into Monjo hakase (Professor of Literature) later.

Kihei Taishogun (commander of cavalry) (騎兵大将軍) - Kihei Taishogun was a military official established in the Nara period under the ritsuryo system.

Kindachi (公達) - The term "kindachi" in a wide sense refers to Shoo (princes without imperial proclamation), but, in a more limited sense, it is used as a term referring to imperial princes and the children of Sekke (the family of regents and advisers), or the Seiga family (the important family next to Sekke).

Kitano mandokoro (北政所) - Kitano mandokoro is the title given, through an emperor's proclamation, to the legally wedded wife of the person in the position of Sessho (regent) or Kanpaku (chief adviser to the Emperor).

Kizoku (nobles) (貴族) - Kizoku indicated persons whose social privileges were generally recognized due to their blood lines or their family statuses and also indicated the clans of such persons.

Kobushichishoku (工部七職) - Kobushichishoku refers to a collective name of craftsmen engaged in seven processes in manufacturing the Hikone Buddhist altar.

Kojunin (小十人) (escort guards) (小十人) - The term "Kojunin" refers to a post of the security and military division (Bankata [security officials]) of the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Kokujin (国人) - "Kokujin" are the samurai class, mainly originating from the jito (manager and lord of manor) class in the Kamakura period, who engaged in the development of provinces from the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan) to the Muromachi period.

Kokumo/Kokubo (imperial mother) (国母) - Kokumo (or Kokubo) is the title for real mothers of emperors or kings.

Kokushi (国師) - Kokushi was a shigo (a posthumous name) given to monks by the Emperor and used to express the emperor's respect to the monks.

Kokushi (provincial governor) (国司) - In medieval Japan, a kokushi was a government officer who was sent by the central government to administer a ryoseikoku (an area of regional administration).

Kokushu (国主) - Kokushu was one of social statuses of daimyo (feudal lords) which existed during the early modern Edo period, and it referred to the daimyo having domain of one or more provinces; another name for kokushu was "kunimochidaimyo".

Konoe no daisho (近衛大将) - Konoe no daisho (Major Captain of the Palace Guards) is one of the government posts in the ritsuryo system.

Konoefu (Headquarters of the Inner Palace Guards) (近衛府) - Konoefu was one of Ryoge no kan (official organizations outside of the Ritsuryo code).

Kosho (小姓) - Kosho (小姓) is the name of a post in a samurai family similar to a page or squire.

Koshu (title) (公主) - Koshu (公主) indicates the daughters of the Chinese Emperors.

Kotaiyoriai (交代寄合) - Kotaiyoriai (交代寄合) is one instance of having hatamoto (a direct retainer of a shogun) family status within the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Koto no naishi (勾当内侍) - Koto no naishi was a female court noble during the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Kubo (shogunal representative) (公方) - The term "Kubo" originally referred to the embodiment of public affairs in the premodern Japan or the national sovereign power, that is, the Emperor or the Imperial Court in olden times, and the Shogun in the Kamakura and the Muromachi periods.

Kubo-okura (financial branch) (公方御倉) - The Kubo-okura was the financial branch of the Muromachi bakufu, in charge of managing revenues and expenditures.

Kuge-ryo (the land and land rights of the court nobles called the kuge) (公家領) - The term 'kuge-ryo' is the generic name for landed holdings belonging to 'kuge' (Japanese imperial court nobles) which includes 'kugyo' (high court nobles of third rank or above) and 'kanjin' (government officials), where the 'kugyo' consists of [1] 'ko' which includes the 'daijo daijin' (the Great Minister of State or Chancellor), the 'sa daijin' (Minister of the Left) and the 'u daijin' (Minister of the Right), and [2] 'kei' which includes 'dainagon' (Major Counselor), 'chunagon' (Middle Counselor) and 'sangi' (Consultants of senior fourth rank).

Kugokata (供御方) - "Kugokata" was a position in charge of preparation and service of meals to the seii taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians") and his family in the Muromachi bakufu.

Kugyo (公卿) - "Kugyo" is a term referring to court noble posts responsible for national politics as the top-ranking officers of Daijokan (Grand Council of State) based on provisions of the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code), namely, the top officials (collectively called giseikan), Daijo-daijin (Grand minister of state), Sadaijin (minister of the left), Udaijin (minister of the right), Dainagon (chief councilor of state), Chunagon (vice-councilor of state), and Sangi (imperial advisor) (or Jusanmi (Junior Third Rank) or higher).

Kuji no kuninomiyatsuko (久自国造) - Kuji no kuninomiyatsuko (also known as Kujikokuzo) was kuninomiyatsuko (local ruling families in ancient Japan) ruled the north central part of Hitachi Province.

Kuni no miyatsuko (regional governor in ancient Japan) (国造) - Kuni no miyatsuko was a post, or an official to the post, placed to govern regions across Japan before the Ritsuryo legal code system was introduced.

Kunin-chojakunin (公人朝夕人) - Kunin-chojakunin is a post that existed in the Edo Period.

Kuniyaku (Public duties) (国役) - Kuniyaku were duties imposed by the Imperial Court and kokuga (provincial government offices) from the Heian period to the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Kurodo (Chamberlain) (蔵人) - Kurodo refers to one of Ryoge no kan (class outside of the Ritsuryo system) under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo codes) in Japan.

Kurodo no betto (Chief of the Chamberlain's Office) (蔵人別当) - Kurodo no betto was a post of Ryoge no kan (class outside of the Ritsuryo system) that was equivalent to a Kami (chief) of the Kurododokoro (Chamberlain's Office).

Kurodo no to (the name of a post) (蔵人頭) - The Kurodo no to, an official position outside of the Ritsuryo system (these positions were known as Ryoge no kan), was effectively the head of the Kurodo dokoro (chamberlain's office) (the nominal head, also known as the Kurodo betto, was also a minister).

Kyooyaku (a person in charge of the entertainment) (饗応役) - The Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) established the post of 'Kyooyaku' during the Edo period to have someone provide entertainment for messengers of the emperor (who were known as "chokushi"), messengers of the retired emperor (who were known as "inshi"), or messengers of the empress (who were known as "nyoinshi") that had been sent to Edo.

Kyoto Daikan (京都代官) - Kyoto daikan was a post of an officer which was set up in Kyoto in the Edo period under the control of Kyoto shoshidai (the chief administrator of the imperial capital and of imperial lands), mainly administering the finance of the Edo bakufu and the Imperial court in Kinai (the five kuni in the immediate vicinity of Kyoto), such as administrating tenryo (bakufu-owned land), fief of the imperial family, and fief of the nobilities.

Kyoto Fuchishu (京都扶持衆) (京都扶持衆) - The Kyoto Fuchishu were samurai warriors who established master-subordinate relationships with the Seii Taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians") of the Muromachi Bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) in the Muromachi Period in the Kanto (currently, Tokyo and six other prefectures) and Tohoku (north of the Kanto region) regions.

Kyoto Mimawariyaku (a post of Kyoto patrols) (京都見廻役) - Kyoto Mimawariyaku was a post established by the Edo bakufu to maintain public order in Kyoto at the end of the Edo period.

Kyoto Shoshidai (京都所司代) - When Nobunaga ODA went to the capital with Yoshiaki ASHIKAGA in hand and put Kyoto under his dominion, he made his vassal Sadakatsu MURAI the Kyoto Shoshidai, in charge of maintaining the peace in Kyoto, imitating the organization of the Muromachi Shogunate.

L

Living National Treasure (人間国宝) - Living National Treasure is a Japanese popular term for individuals certified as Preservers of Important Intangible Cultural Properties by the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology based on the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties.

Local Lord (在地領主) - A local lord (or "Zaichi ryoshu" in Japanese) is an appropriator with the authority to control farmers and fishermen in his territory by executing authority under the Shoen koryo sei (System of Public Lands and Private Estates) in Medieval Japan.

M

Machi-bugyo (town magistrate) (町奉行) - Machi-bugyo was a name of a governmental post in the Edo period that was in charge of administration and judicature in an urban area (called machi-kata) in a territory.

Machidai (町代) - "Machidai" was a town official in Kyoto in the Edo period.

Mandokoro (政所) - Mandokoro was an administrative board for domestic economy that was allowed to be set up by Imperial princes, princesses and court nobles ranked Sanmi (Third Rank) or higher.

Marquis (侯爵) - A "marquis" or "marquess" is the second of five peerage ranks.

Metsuke (a governmental post of the Edo bakufu) (目付) - Metsuke is

Michinokuchinokihe no kunimiyatsuko (道口岐閉国造) - Michinokuchinokihe no kunimiyatsuko 道口岐閉国造 (also known as Michinokuchinokihekokkuzo) was kuninomiyatsuko (local ruling families in ancient Japan) ruled the northern edge of Hitachi Province.

Mikinotsukasa (branch office of ministry) (造酒司) - Mikinotsukasa (also called Sakenotsukasa) was a branch office of Kunaisho, erected under the ritsuryo legal code system.

Minonosakino kuninomiyatsuko (三野前国造) - Minonosakino kuninomiyatsuko 三野前国造 (also known as Minonosakinokokuzo, Minonomichinokuchi no kuninomiyatsuko, and Minonomichinokuchikokuzo) was kuninomiyatsuko (local ruling families in ancient Japan) ruled Mino Province.

Minonoshiri no kunimiyatsuko (三野後国造) - Minonoshiri no kunimiyatsuko (also known as Minonosihrinokokuzo) was kuninomiyatsuko (local ruling families in ancient Japan) ruled the east of Mino Province.

Mokushi (牧士) - Mokushi was a govermental post in the Edo period which was in charge of maintaining ranches under direct control of the bakufu, as subordinates of an officer in the bakufu, and it is said that the officers in the post were responsible for managing the Goyoboku of the Tokugawa bakufu (public ranches of horses + hunting grounds for Shogun).

Monjo Hakase (文章博士) - Monjo hakase of Daigaku-ryo (大学寮: an institute for the training of government officials established under ritsuryo-sei [a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo codes], which belonged to Shikibu-sho [Ministry in charge of ceremonies in the Nara and Heian periods]) was a teacher of kiden-do (the study of histories, one of the subjects taught at Daigaku-ryo), and was ryoge-no-kan (a government post outside those determined under ritsuryo-sei).

Moshitsugi (申次) - Moshitsugi (an official for conveying a message) which is also called Souja/Shosha, refers to a position in charge of reporting information to a lord, or refers to the act of reporting information itself.

Moshitsugishu (申次衆) - "Moshitsugishu" was the name of a post in Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Motosu no kunimiyatsuko (本巣国造) - Motosu no kunimiyatsuko (also known as Motosukokuzo) was kuninomiyatsuko (local ruling families in ancient Japan) ruled the central west of Mino Province.

Mugetsu no kuninomiyatsuko (牟義都国造) - Musashi no kuninomiyatsuko 牟義都国造 (also known as Mugetsukokuzo) was kuninomiyatsuko (local ruling families in ancient Japan) ruled the central part of Mino Province.

Musa no kuni no miyatsuko (regional governor in ancient Japan) (武社国造) - Musa no kuni no miyatsuko (武社国造), also known as Musa kokuzo, was a kuni no miyatsuko that ruled the northeast part of Kazusa Province in ancient Japan.

Musashi no kuni no miyatsuko (regional governor in ancient Japan) (无邪志国造) - Musashi no kuni no miyatsuko (无邪志国造), also known as Musashi kokuzo, was a kuni no miyatsuko that ruled the east part of Musashi Province.

Myobu (命婦) - Myobu is a woman who has Ikai (court rank) above Jugoinoge (junior fifth rank), or a title representing a rank of a government official's wife under the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in Japan.

Myoho hakase (Professor of Law) (明法博士) - Myoho hakase was an official post affiliated with the Daigaku-ryo (Bureau of Education) under the ancient Japanese ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Myoseki (Family Name) (名跡) - Myoseki (名跡: Family Name) is a traditional naming convention that closely links family names of individuals with succeeding generations of a family.

N

Nagasa no kuni no miyatsuko (regional governor in ancient Japan) (長狭国造) - Nagas no kuni no miyatsuko (also known as Nagasa kokuzo) was a kuni no miyatsuko that ruled the east part of Awa Province in ancient Japan.

Naidaijin (inner minister) (内大臣) - Naidaijin is one of Japan's official titles.

Naidankata (内談方) - The Naidankata, that functioned from 1344 to 1349, was a Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) controlled deliberative organization managing the shomusata (trial dealing with land-related issues).

Naidanshu (judges) (内談衆) - Naidanshu were in charge of judging trials dealing with land-related issues in hikitsukekata or naidankata (both are offices of adjudication) of the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Naiju (内豎) - The term "Naiju" means children officials who was engaged in miscellaneous jobs at the Imperial palace in the Nara and Heian periods.

Naijudokoro (Imperial Pages Office) (内豎所) - Naijudokoro was a government office of Ryoge no kan (official post outside of the Ritsuryo system) under the Japanese Ritsuryo system.

Naijusho (Ministry of Royal Pages) (内豎省) - Naijusho was an extra statutory office established in the latter half of the Nara period under the ritsuryo system.

Naiki (government posts) (内記) - Naiki was Honkan, the collective name of government posts, which belonged to Nakatsukasasho under the ritsuryo legal code system.

Naikyobo (training center of imperial dancing girls) (内教坊) - Naikyobo refers to a Ryoge no kan (class outside of the Ritsuryo system) under the Ritsuryo system of ancient Japan.

Naishi (内侍) - Naishi was a kind of female government post in Japan before the Modern era.

Naishi no kami (尚侍) - Naishi no kami indicates as follows.

Naishi no suke (a court lady of the first rank) (典侍) - Naishi no suke was a government post in the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) and an undersecretary (a court lady) of Naishi no tsukasa (female palace attendants in kokyu [empress's residence.])

Naishi no tsukasa (内侍司) - Naishi no tsukasa was one of the cutcherry in government-regulated organizations in Japan.

Naishoryo (Bureau of Skilled Artisans) (内匠寮) - Naishoryo is one of the ranks outside the Ritsuryo system belonging to the Nakatsukasa-sho (Ministry of Central Affairs) under the Ritsuryo system.

Naka no kuninomiyatsuko (仲国造) - Naka no kuninomiyatsuko 仲国造 (also known as Nakakokuzo) was kuninomiyatsuko (local ruling families in ancient Japan) ruled the east part of Hitachi Province.

Nanate-gumi (七手組) - Nanate-gumi (Hideyoshi's seven troops) is a group of vassals that was organized by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI..

Nara Peerage (奈良華族) - The Nara Peerage refers to a family line and its people, who returned to the court noble society and entitled to be the peerage after the Meiji Restoration due to the special circumstances described below.

Nasu no kuninomiyatsuko (那須国造) - Nasu no kuninomiyatsuko was kuninomiyatsuko ruled the northeast part of Shimotsuke Province.

Nenyo (one of the positions in the In's or retired emperor's) office (年預) - The Nenyo was an official position during the middle ages in Japan.

Niedono (贄殿) - Niedono was an institution attached to Naizenshi (Imperial Table Office) under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) of Ritsuryo Japan.

Niiharino kuninomiyatsuko (新治国造) - Niiharino kuninomiyatsuko (also known as Niiharikokuzo) was kuninomiyatsuko (local ruling families in ancient Japan) ruled the west part of Hitachi Province.

Nosenkata (an institution to collect taxes from moneylenders and sake breweries) (納銭方) - The Nosenkata was an organization commissioned to collect the dosoyaku (taxes imposed on pawnbrokers and moneylenders by the Muromachi bakufu - Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) and sakayayaku (taxes imposed on sake brewery by the Muromachi bakufu), whose members were appointed by the Muromachi bakufu from among influential figures belonging to the doso (pawnbrokers and moneylenders) or the sakaya (sake breweries).

Nyogo (rank of court lady) (女御) - Nyogo was one of the ranks and titles of the imperial consorts in the pre-modern days of Japan, and its role was to attend on the emperor in his bedroom.

Nyoin (a close female relative of the Emperor or a womwan of comparable standing) (女院) - Nyoin indicates a title bestowed upon a woman, such as the three empresses (grand empress dowager, empress dowager, empress) or an equivalent status (jugo, honorary rank next to the three Empresses and princess, etc.) and is a system that continued from the middle of the Heian period until the Meiji Restoration.

O

Oban-gashira or Obanto (大番頭) - Oban-gashira Or Obanto have the following meanings:

Obanyaku (大番役) - Obanyaku was the post assigned to samurai from non-capital areas to maintain the security of Kyoto during the later Heian to early Muromachi period or to maintain the security of Kamakura city during the Kamakura period.

Observation (観察) - Observation means to watch an object carefully to find out its actual condition.

Oe (title or appellation) (大兄) - Oe was an appellation and title for powerful Imperial Princes, used in Wa (ancient Japan) from the first half of the 6th century to the middle of the 7th century.

Official court titles for samurai (武家官位) - The Japanese term Buke-kani is used to refer to the official ranks (official posts and court ranks) that samurai were granted or adopted for themselves mainly from the Sengoku period (Japan) to the Edo period.

Omandokoro (大政所) - Omandokoro

Ometsuke (inspector general) (大目付) - Ometsuke was a governmental post in the Edo period belonging to Roju (the second highest post in the Edo bakufu government) in the government system, and played a role of an inspector who watched daimyo (Japanese feudal lord), koke (privileged families under Tokugawa Shogunate), and the Imperial court to protect the bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) from rebellion of these powers.

Omote Yuhitsu (表右筆) - Omote Yuhitsu was one of the office organizations of Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Omuraji (ancient Japan) (大連 (古代日本)) - Omuraji is one of the governmental posts of the Yamato sovereignty (the ancient Japan sovereignty) during the Kofun period (tumulus period).

On hakase (Professor of Pronunciation of Chinese Language) (音博士) - On hakase (also known as Koe no hakase) was a hakase position (professor) established under the Ritsuryo system in Japan.

Ongoku Bugyo (遠国奉行) - Ongoku Bugyo were placed in important places within Shogunate-owned land (tenryo) outside of Edo, and were divided into bugyo (magistrate)and yakugata who handled the governance of that land.

Onmyoji (陰陽師) - Onmyoji (pronounced as on-myo-ji or on-yo-ji, meaning oracle) was the name of a government post in the Onmyoryo (Bureau of Divination) of the Nakatsukasasho (Central Affairs Ministry) under the Ritsuryo legal system of ancient Japan.

Onshogata (office for administering reward grants) (恩賞方) - The Onshogata was a department set up in the Kenmu Government and the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun), which took charge of desk work relating to administering Onsho award (reward grants).

Oomi (a government post in ancient Japan) (大臣 (古代日本)) - Ooomi was a post in the Yamato Kingdom in the Kofun period.

Oryoshi (押領使) - "Oryoshi" was a ryoge no kan (official posts outside of the Ritsuryo code) under the Japanese Ritsuryo system (ancient centralized government system based on the Ritsuryo code).

Osho (和尚) - Osho (Sanskrit: upādhyāya) is an honorific title for Buddhist priests.

Otogishu (advisers) (御伽衆) - Otogishu is the official duties, which existed in families of Sengoku daimyo (Japanese territorial lords in the Sengoku period) from the the Sengoku period (period of Warring States) to the early Edo period.

Otomoshu (御供衆) - "Otomoshu" were a group of busho (military commander) attendants who proceeded to the ancient capital of Kyoto from Kamakura and devoted themselves to raising Shogun Takauji ASHIKAGA's army.

Otoshiyori (御年寄) - Otoshiyori was a female servant post (or also indicated the servant herself) in O-oku (the inner halls of Edo Castle where the wife of the Shogun and her servants resided) in the Edo period, and was often called Rojo as well.

Otsu-bugyo (大津奉行) - Otsu-bugyo (Otsu magistrate) is a post created in Otsu domain of Omi Province (present-day Otsu City, Shiga Prefecture) in the Middle Ages.

Otsukegaro (a governmental post in the Edo bakufu, or a person or persons in the post) (御附家老) - Otsukegaro is a karo (chief retainer) in the early Edo bakufu period who, when kikoshi (a young nobleman) in the linage of the Tokugawa Shogun family became the lord of a domain (daimyo), was appointed directly by Seii taishogun (literally, "the great general who was to subdue the barbarians") for serving the lord.

P

Q

R

Regent (摂政) - A regent (Sessho), in a state with a monarchy, is the practice of carrying out government and national affairs in place of the monarch, or the post that does so, when the monarch is unable to do so because he is an infant, ill or not in the country.

Rinjizoyaku (臨時雑役) - "Rinjizoyaku" is a collective term for the odd-job tasks that kokuga (provincial government office) obliged local farmers to perform as a kind of tax payable in labor or in kind.

Roju (member of shogun's council of elders) (老中) - Roju was a post in the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) and domains in the Edo period.

Rokuhara Tandai (an administrative and judicial agency in Rokuhara, Kyoto) (六波羅探題) - "Rokuhara Tandai" is a job title in the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Rokui no Kurodo (a government post) (六位蔵人) - Rokui no Kurodo was a Ryoge no kan (class outside of the Ritsuryo system) post for officers at Kurododokoro (the Chamberlain's Office).

Rronin (masterless samurai) (浪人 (武士)) - 浪人 (ronin) indicated a person who wandered about provinces other than the one that was recorded in his family register, and was also called a furo (vagabond)

Rusui (a governmental post placed in the Edo bakufu and in domains) (留守居) - Rusui was a governmental post placed in the Edo bakufu and in domains.

Ryo (a rank in government offices under ritsuryo system) (寮 (律令制)) - Ryo was a rank in government offices under the ancient Japanese ritsuryo legal code system.

Ryoge no kan (class outside of the Ritsuryo system) (令外官) - Ryoge no kan was a newly established government post which was not defined within the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

S

Sadaijin (Minister of the Left) (左大臣) - The Minister of the Left was a government post in the Daijokan (Grand Council of State), the central administrative body of the Imperial Court.

Saemon no jo (Government Post) (左衛門尉) - Saemon no jo was a government post under the Japanese ritsuryo legal code system.

Sagamu no kuni no miyatsuko (regional governor in ancient Japan) (相武国造) - Sagamu no kuni no miyatsuko (also known as Sagamu kokuzo) was a kuni no miyatsuko ruled the east part of Sagami Province.

Saiguryo (the Office of the High Priestess [of the Ise-jingu Shrine]) (斎宮寮) - Saiguryo was an extra statutory office established under the ritsuryo system, placed in Ise Province.

Saiho Shochishi (an investigating commissioner) (採訪処置使) - Saiho Shochishi (an investigating commissioner) was a title of the government official in Tang dynasty of China.

Saiin (the Priestess or the residence of the Priestess) (斎院) - The name of Saiin was given to a Priestess who served at the Kamo-jinja Shrine from the Heian to the Kamakura period, or at the residence of the Priestess.

Saio (the Priestess) (斎王) - Saio or Itsuki no miko (the Priestess) was an unmarried princess of the blood or female relative of the Emperor who served as a shrine maiden at the Ise-jingu Shrine and the Kamo-jinja Shrine.

Sakan (Kokushi) (目 (国司)) - Sakan was the fourth among the four official ranks of Shitokan under the ritsuryo legal code system.

Sakuji bugyo (作事奉行) - Sakuji bugyo was a post held by hatamoto during the Edo Period.

Samurai daisho (侍大将) - Samurai daisho is a man who commands an army under Dai Shogun (the great general).

Samuraidokoro (侍所) - Samuraidokoro was the organization that played military and police roles in the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) and in the Muromachi bakufu.

Sanboku-Isso (三木一草) - "Sanboku-Isso" was the name given to the four meritorious retainers who received the Emperor Godaigo's favor under the Kemmu Restoration.

Sanchuro (three mediators in Toyotomi Administration) (三中老) - Sanshuro, which literally means three high-ranking officials called Churo, were the posts established in the last days of the Toyotomi Administration, allowing those three men in the posts to participate in politics, and to mediate between Gotairo and Gobugyo when they cannot agree.

Sangi (参議) - "Sangi" is one of the posts in the Daijokan (Grand Council of State), which is the highest organ in the Imperial Court organization for Ryoge no kan (class outside of the Ritsuryo system) in Japan.

Sanpitsu (three famous ancient calligraphers) (三筆) - Sanpitsu is the name to call three excellent calligraphers.

Sanryo bugyo (commissioner in charge of imperial mausolems) (山陵奉行) - Sanryo bugyo was one of the positions of Edo bakufu which was placed at the end of Edo period to manage and maintain the Imperial mausoleum.

Sanshi (a government post) (算師) - Sanshi is a government post in charge of calculation in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Satsumanokami (薩摩守) - Satsumanokami was the post of Kami (chief) of Kokushi in Satsuma province.

Seii Taishogun (征夷大将軍) - Seii Taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians") was one of the Shogun positions in Japan's Ryoge no kan (class outside of the Ritsuryo system).

Seijisosaishoku (president of political affairs) (政事総裁職) - Seijisosaishoku was one of the three most important posts in the Edo bakufu, which was newly established towards the end of the bakufu system in the late Edo period, together with Shogun-kokenshoku (the post for the guardian of shogun) and Kyoto shugoshoku (the military governor of Kyoto).

Seisei taishogun (literally, great general who subdues the western barbarians) (征西大将軍) - The term "Seisei taishogun" is a general who was nominated by the Emperor (Imperial court) in the Heian period in order to conquer Kyushu region.

Seito taishogun (literally, great general who subdues the eastern barbarians) (征討大将軍) - Seito taishogun was a military official temporarily set up by the new government during the Boshin Civil War.

Seito taishogun (literally, great general who subdues the eastern barbarians) (征東大将軍) - The term "Seito taishogun" is the title for general which was used in China and Japan in the past.

Sengoku Daimyo (Japanese territorial lord in the Sengoku period) (戦国大名) - The term sengoku daimyo refers to a daimyo who exercised unitary control over several districts or provinces during Japan's sengoku (warring states) period.

Senke jissoku (千家十職) - Senke jissoku is an honorific title for the 10 shokka (family of artisans) such as nurishi (lacquerer) and sashimonoshi (woodworker) who are involved in the sado (tea ceremony) and who pay visits to the san senke (three Sen families, namely, Omote, Ura and Mushakoji).

Senkokushisho (History Compilation Bureau) (撰国史所) - Senkokushisho was the organization which was established while Japan was under the Ritsuryo system, for the purpose of compiling official history book Rikkokushi (the Six National histories) and "Shin-kokushi" (the New National History).

Sento gosho (仙洞御所) - "Sento gosho" is the imperial palace of an abdicated emperor (retired or cloistered emperor).

Seven Generals (七将) - The Seven Generals (or "Nanasho") are the feudal lords who were reared by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI from an early age and famous as the brave generals.

Seven Great Spearmen in Japan (日本槍柱七本) - The Seven Great Spearmen in Japan are the seven people who were praised for their yaribataraki (spear works) by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI.

Shi (government post) (史 (律令制)) - Shi was a collective name of Daishi and Shoshi established in Jingikan and Daijokan (Benkankyoku) under the Japanese ritsuryo legal code system.

Shibichudai (紫微中台) - Shibichudai was a household agency of the Empress Komyo (at the time when Shibichudai was established, she was already Empress Dowager Komyo since her husband the Emperor Shomu had abdicated the throne to his daughter the Empress Koken) which was established by FUJIWARA no Nakamaro (also referred as EMI no Oshikatsu) in 749.

Shihan (grand master) (師範) - Grand master

Shiki (a rank in government offices under ritsuryo system) (職 (律令制)) - Shiki was a rank in government offices under the ritsuryo system.

Shikken (regent for the shogun) (執権) - Shikken is a name of a post in the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Shimotsukenu no kuninomiyatsuko (下毛野国造) - Shimotsukenu no kuninomiyatsuko (also known as Shimotsukenukokuzo, Shimotsukeno no kunimomiyatsuko, and Shimotsukenokokuzo) was kuninomiyatsuko (local ruling families in ancient Japan) ruled Shimotsuke Province.

Shimotsuunakami kuninomiyatsuko (下海上国造) - Shimotsuunakami kuninomiyatsuko 下海上国造 was kuninomiyatsuko (local ruling families in ancient Japan) ruled the east part of Shimousa Province.

Shimozami (下座見) - Shimozami was a subordinate of gate watcher serving at Mitsuke (area lying outside the gates of a castle) in Edo.

Shinaga no kuni no miyatsuko (regional governor in ancient Japan) (師長国造) - Shinaga no kuni no miyatsuko (師長国造), also known as Shinaga kokuzo, was a kuni no miyatsuko ruled the west part of Sagami Province.

Shinagon (四納言) - "Shinagon" refers to the four court nobles (MINAMOTO no Toshikata, FUJIWARA no Kinto, FUJIWARA no Tadanobu, and FUJIWARA no Yukinari) who were active in the era of Emperor Ichijo in the middle Heian Period.

Shinano no kuninomiyatsuko (科野国造) - Shinano no kuninomiyatsuko (also known as Shinanokokuzo) was kuninomiyatsuko (local ruling families in ancient Japan) ruled Shinano Province.

Shinban (新番) - Shinban is a post in a samurai family in the area of security and military affairs (bankata)

Shishiki (四職) - The Shishiki(Shishoku) represents the ranking or social status of samurai families in the Muromachi Period.

Shitsuji (執事) - A term "Shitsuji" generally means a person who oversees a clerical job, and in the case of prestigious families or temples/shrines, it means a person who presides over household affairs or administration.

Sho no sansei (three saints of calligraphy) (書の三聖) - Sho no sansei are three masters of calligraphy.

Shobanshu (相伴衆) - Shobanshu was a status indicating a position in the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Shodaibu (aristocracy lower than Kugyo) (諸大夫) - Shodaibu is the name of class of government officials (especially one of low to medium rank), which was used from ancient times through medieval period to the early-modern times in Japan.

Shoen-ryoshu (lord of a manor) (荘園領主) - "Shoen-ryoshu" was a lord that governed a Shoen (manor).

Shogoi (正五位) - Shogoi (Senior Fifth Rank) is one of the ranks in Japan's aristocratic and religious hierarchies.

Shogun (将軍) - Shogun is a job grade and title given to the commander of a relatively large armed force and is also the rank of a military clique leader.

Shogun family (将軍家) - The shogun family was a houshold system where the head of samurai, who was designated as seii taishogun (literally: "great general who subdues the barbarians") or for the head of palace guards, generated, in the medieval times in Japan, imitating the houshold system of kuge (the court noble) when establishing his government.

Shogun-kokenshoku (将軍後見職) - Shogun-kokenshoku is one of the three key posts in Edo shogunate created in the final years of the Edo period, along with Seiji sosaishoku (president of political affairs) and Kyoto shugoshoku (military governor of Kyoto).

Shoichii (正一位) - "Shoichii (Senior First Rank)" is one of court ranks and ranks granted to Shinto gods in Japan.

Shokan (荘官) - Shokan was the general name of an officer governing Japanese shoen (manor) entrusted by the lord of the manor.

Shokei (court novels who work at the Imperial Court in high ranking posts) (上卿) - The Shokei, mainly in the Heian period, referred to a person of the highest rank in an organization or a function that nobles were involved in, but the Shokei commonly served in the following two posts:

Shomotsu-bugyo (a governmental post of the Edo bakufu) (書物奉行) - Shomotsu-bugyo was a governmental post of the Edo bakufu.

Shomyo (lesser daimyo) (小名) - Shomyo were samurai who were not well known.

Shonagon (Post in Daijokan) (少納言) - Shonagon was a post in Daijokan, which was the highest organization in the Imperial Court.

Shonii (正二位) - Shonii (Senior Second Rank) is one of the ranks in Ikai (court ranks) and Shinkai (ranks granted to Shinto gods) in Japan.

Shorokui (正六位) - Shorokui (Senior Sixth Rank) is one of the ranks in Ikai (court ranks) and Shinkai (ranks granted to Shinto gods).

Shosanmi (正三位) - Shosanmi (Senior Third Rank) is one of the ranks in Ikai (court ranks) and Shinkai (ranks granted to Shinto gods).

Shoshidai (所司代) - Shoshidai (representative of shoshi) is:

Shoshii (Senior Fourth Rank) (正四位) - Shoshii (Senior Fourth Rank) is one of the ranks in the ranking order (ikai) and the ranking order of Shinto gods (shinkai) in Japan.

Shugo (守護) - Shugo was a samurai office in Japan's Kamakura and Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun), and was a military commander and administrative official placed in each ryoseikoku (province).

Shugodai (守護代) - Shugodai is an official post that was placed under the Shugo in the Kamakura and Muromachi periods.

Shunshi (俊士) - From the Heian Period, "Shunshi" was the title given to monjosho (students of literary studies at Imperial universities).

Shurei (officials belonging to Nakatsukasasho) (主鈴) - Shurei was officials of Honknan that belonged to Nakatsukasasho under the ritsuryo legal code system.

Shurishiki (The Palace Repairs Office) (修理職) - Shurishiki (also known as Surishiki) refers to a Ryoge no kan (class outside of the Ritsuryo system) established in the Heian period.

Six great educators in the Meiji period (明治六大教育家) - The term "the six great educators in the Meiji period" refers to a special, collective title of six great educators who contributed a great deal to promoting the modern education in the Meiji period.

Sobayonin (lord chamberlain) (側用人) - Sobayonin was a post in the bakufu and domains in the Edo period.

Sodaisho (a commander in chief) (総大将) - Sodaisho was a commander in chief who lead an army composed of more than one corps.

Sojaban (an official in charge of the ceremonies) (奏者番) - Sojaban (or Soshaban) was a governmental post in the Edo bakufu or domains.

Sotsuzoku (low-ranking samurai) (卒族) - Sotsuzoku was a name of social status in the early Meiji period.

Successive Ministers of Education (歴代の文部大臣) - This section "Successive Ministers of Education" carries lists of successive Ministers of Education, Monbukyo (chief of Ministry of Education), which was the predecessor of Minister of Education, and Ministers of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (the present title of the former Minister of Education) in Japan.

Suino (出納) - Suino was the officer of Kurododokoro (the Chamberlain's Office) and was in charge of all of general affaires including the receipts and disbursement of the treasury of Kurododokoro.

Suito (Shoen) (出納 (荘園)) - "Suito" is a position set up for the lower-lanked officers in the Shoen manor in medieval Japan.

Suruga no kuni no miyatsuko (regional governor in ancient Japan) (珠流河国造) - Suruga no kuni no miyatsuko (珠流河国造), also known as Suruga kokuzo, was a kuni no miyatsuko ruled over the east part of Suruga Province in ancient Japan.

T

Taifu/Daifu/Tayu (大夫) - Taifu refers to a social status of nobility with territory from the Zhou period to the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period in China.

Tairo (chief minister) (大老) - Tairo was the highest post in the Edo bakufu government system, provisionally placed above Roju as an assistant to Shogun.

Taishin (大身) - Taishin (person of high rank and income) refers to a person who has a high rank and a high stipend.

Taka no kunimiyatsuko (高国造) - Taka no kunimiyatsuko 高国造 was kuninomiyatsuko (local ruling families in ancient Japan) ruled the north part of Hitachi Province.

Takiguchi no musha (Takiguchi samurai) (滝口武者) - Takiguchi no musha (Takiguchi samurai) were bushi (samurai warriors) who guarded the dairi (imperial palace) under the command of the Kurodo dokoro (imperial secretariat) from the end of the ninth century.

Tamori (field administrator) (田守) - Tamori was a position in charge of managing fields on public lands, which was set up by the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Tandai (探題) - "Tandai" (探題) is a position set in a Buddhist temple.

Tenjobito/Uebito (a high-ranking courtier allowed into the Imperial Palace) (殿上人) - Tenjobito/Uebito was a court official of fifth rank or above in Japanese pre-modern government organization and permitted to enter the emperor's private living quarters, i.e., the south side of the emperor's residence Seiryoden.

Tenka-bito (天下人) - Tenka-bito (or tenka-nin) refers to the people who controlled the world as they knew it (in this case, the Japanese islands).

Tenyaku (government post) (典鑰) - Tenyaku referred to Honkan, a government post, which belonged to Nakatsukasasho in the ritsuryo legal code system.

Teppokata (鉄砲方) - Teppokata was one of the posts of Edo bakufu.

To no ben (頭弁) - The term "To no ben" refers to a person who assumed the position of Benkan (Controller) concurrently with the position of Kurodo no to (Head Chamberlain) under Japanese government officials system.

Toei Daio (東叡大王) - Toei Daio is one of the honoric titles for Sanzan Kanryo no miya.

Tomei (Tang name) (唐名) - Tang names (tomei, tomyo, or karana) are Chinese names of government posts or departments each of which corresponds to a Japanese name of a government post or department whose official duties were similar to those of Tang under the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in Japan.

Tono Chujo (a government post) (頭中将) - Tono Chujo is the name of a government post in the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in Japan.

Torimi (鳥見) - Torimi (officer for falconry) is a position in the Edo shogunate.

Toshi choja (藤氏長者) - Toshi choja indicates ujichoja (the head) of the Fujiwara clan.

Totsuomi no kuni no miyatsuko (regional governor in ancient Japan) (遠淡海国造) - Totsuomi kuni no miyatsuko (遠淡海国造), also known as Totsuomi kokuzo, was a kuni no miyatsuko ruled the west part of Totomi Province in ancient Japan.

Tozama Daimyo (nonhereditary feudal lord) (外様大名) - Tozama daimyo was a class of daimyo in Edo period defined according to ancestry.

Tsuibushi (Pursuit and Apprehension Agent) (追捕使) - Tsuibushi (Pursuit and Apprehension Agent) was a Ryoge no kan (a Japanese government post which was not established by the Ritsuryo codes).

Tsukaiban (使番) - Tsukaiban is a post in the Edo shogunate.

Tsukasa (a rank in government offices) (司) - Tsukasa (also known as Shi) was a rank in government offices mainly placed under the ministries in the ancient Japanese ritsuryo legal code system.

Tsukuba no kuninomiyatsuko (筑波国造) - Tsukuba no kuninomiyatsuko (also known as Tsukubakokuzo) was Kuninomiyatsuko ruled the south part of Hitachi Province.

U

Uchitsuomi (内臣) - Uchitsuomi (Naishin) was one of Ryoge no kan (official posts outside of Ritsuryo code) which existed from the Asuka period to Heian period under the government based on the Ritsuryo code.

Udaijin (Minister of the Right) (右大臣) - Udaijin was one of the positioins in Daijokan (Grand Council of State), which was the highest body in the organization of the imperial court.

Udoneri (government post) (内舎人) - Udoneri was a government post under the ritsuryo legal code system.

Uji no shaku (氏爵) - Uji no shaku refers to conferring a rank of Jugoi (Junior Fifth Rank) on one person each annually from among persons ranked Shorokuinojo (Senior Sixth Rank, Upper Grade) in the O clan, Minamoto clan, Taira clan, Fujiwara clan, Tachibana clan and others when the investiture was conducted on January 6 (old calendar) of every year from the Heian period.

Umakunita no kuni no miyatsuko (regional governor in ancient Japan) (馬来田国造) - Umakuta no kuni no miyatsuko (also known as Makuta no kuni no miyatsuko, Umakuta kokuzo, Makuta kokuzo) was a kuni no miyatsuko that ruled the middle west part of Kazusa Province in ancient Japan.

Umamawari (horse guards) (馬廻) - The Umamawari was established in the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States) (Japan) and was a job based on the government service system for samurai families.

Uneme (采女) - Uneme was a maid-in-waiting who attended to the emperor or empress in the Imperial Court to exclusively take care of the emperor or empress including meals.

Ushutandai (Post in Muromachi bakufu) (羽州探題) - Ushutandai was a post of the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) placed in Dewa Province during the Muromachi period.

V

Vice Shogun (副将軍) - Vice shogun is the post of military officer which was ranked the next position of "Dai Shogun (the great general)" or shogun in Japan.

W

Wakadoshiyori (若年寄) - What is Wakadoshiyori?

X

Y

Yakata (屋形) - Yakata means a mansion of exalted personage such as kuge (court nobles) and buke (samurai families).

Yari-bugyo (槍奉行) - Yari-bugyo was a post in the Edo shogunate.

Yasedoji/Yasenodoji/Hasedoji (八瀬童子) - Yasedoji, Yasenodoji, or Hasedoji was a group of people who lived in Rakuhoku Yasego, the Yase Village in the northern Kyoto (present day Yase, Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture) serving as Yotei (koshi carrier) for the Emperor from the Muromachi period.

Yomei no suke (a sinecure post as honorary deputy governor) (揚名介) - Yomei no suke is a vice minister of kokushi (provincial governors), an honorary post without official duties and benefits.

Yonin (steward) (用人) - Yonin was a member of the organization that formed part of a samurai family during the Edo period.

Yoriki (a governmental post in the Edo bakufu) (与力) - Yoriki was a typical governmental post in the Edo bakufu.

Yunonagashi (a government post in ancient Japan) (湯沐令) - Yunonagashi was a government post established in Japan during the Asuka period and took charge of managing Tomokuyu (also known as Yu no mura) that was a territory of the Imperial family.

Z

Zejo (是定) - Zejo was the title of the chieftain of the Tachibana and O clans in the Heian period.

Zogusho (Ministry of Making and Mending Palaces) (造宮省) - Zogusho was an extra statutory office responsible for castle building and repairing headed by Zogukyo (Minister of Making and Mending Palaces).

Zojishi (Officials in Charge of Building Temples) (造寺司) - Zojishi was an extra statutory office established in the Nara period for building national temples or those corresponding to national temples.

Zuijin (随身) - Zuijin (also called as zuishin) was a government official in Konoefu (the Headquarters of the Inner Palace Guards) during and after the Heian period; zuijin followed nobles to guard them when they went out.

Zuryomei (Honorary titles) (受領名) - Zuryomei were unofficial names for government posts.