History

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100-yen coin (百円硬貨) - The 100-yen coin is a subsidiary coin issued by the Japanese government.

53 Stations of the Tokaido Road (東海道五十三次) - The 53 stations of the Tokaido Road (Tokaido gojusan tsugi) can mean:

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Aburanokoji Incident (油小路事件) - An incident in which Kashitaro ITO, a staff officer of the Shinsengumi (a group who guarded Kyoto during the end of Tokugawa Shogunate), and others were assassinated.

Agechi-rei (上知令) - Agechi-rei (上知令) is an order for confiscation of lands issued by the government in the late Edo period and the early Meiji period.

Agemai no sei (上米の制) - Agemai no sei was a rule issued by the Edo Bakufu at the time of Kyoho-no-kaikaku (Kyoho reform).

Aikokukoto Party (愛国公党) - The Aikokukoto Party was the first political organization associated under the Jiyu Minken Undo (Movement for Liberty and People's Right).

Aikyu (相給) - Aikyu is a term meaning a form of territory in the early-modern times when the murauke system (a system of village-wide, collective responsibility for tax payment) was established.

Aisho (Compatibility) (相性) - Aisho refers to the compatibility of qualities and characters between two or more people.

Aka-hata Jiken (Red Flag Incident) (赤旗事件) - Aka-hata Jiken is an incident that clamped down on socialists, occurred on June 22, 1908.

Akazonae (red arms) (赤備え) - Akazonae (red arms) is a kind of military organization in the Sengoku period (Japan), which is a troop formation of which all arms including armor and flag were colored red.

Akebonotei Jiken (Akebonotei Incident) (明保野亭事件) - Akebonotei Jiken, which occurred in Kyoto at the end of the Edo period, was an incident where a retainer of the Tosa clan was wounded and committed suicide, together with a retainer of the Aizu clan who also committed suicide with his own sword, which resulted from mis-information during an operation to arrest masterless samurai from the Choshu clan.

Akita Ranga (Akita Dutch-style painting) (秋田蘭画) - Akita Ranga is a genre of Japanese painting in a semi-Western style from the Edo period that was adopted by the lord and statesmen of the Kubota clan (the Akita clan); paintings in this style were composed using techniques of Western paintings with traditional Japanese drawing materials.

Akizuki-no-ran War (turmoil of Akizuki) (秋月の乱) - The Akizuki-no-ran War is a revolt by the warrior class against the Meiji Government which took place in Akizuki, Fukuoka Prefecture (currently Akizuki, Asakura City, Fukuoka Prefecture) in 1876.

Ako Incident (阿衡事件) - The Ako Incident was a political incident that occurred in the early Heian period.

Ako Roshi (lordless samurai of Ako Domain) (赤穂浪士) - Ako Roshi refers to a group of 47 warriors under the former feudal retainer of Ako, Kuranosuke OISHI, who on January 30, 1703 broke into the residence of Yoshinaka KIRA, from a Koke (honorable family) who were enemies of the former lord Naganori ASANO, to murder him and get revenge.

Akugyaku (悪逆) - Akugyaku was one of hachi-gyaku (eight unpardonable crimes) defined by the ritsuryo (legal codes of the Nara and Heian periods).

Amazuka-kofun Tumulus (天塚古墳) - Amazuka-kofun Tumulus is a kofun (tumulus) at Uzumasa Matsumoto-cho, Ukyo Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture.

An Ancient Capital (古都) - An ancient capital can be defined as a place which has been the national capital since the ancient times or a place which was once the national capital city.

Ane-gawa River Earthquake (姉川地震) - The Ane-gawa River Earthquake occurred in August 14, 1909 at 3:31pm with its seismic center near Ane-gawa River in the North East part in Shiga Prefecture (at latitude 35.4 degrees north and longitude 136.3 degrees east.)

Angaryo Family (Abe Family and Kamo Family) (安賀両家) - The Angaryo family is the collective name of the Abe clan and the Kamo clan which are the head families of Onmyodo (way of Yin and Yang; occult divination system based on the Taoist theory of the five elements).

Anglo-Japanese Alliance (日英同盟) - The Anglo-Japanese Alliance was the military alliance concluded in the late Meiji Period between Japan and Great Britain.

Anna Incident (安和の変) - The Anna Incident was a case of ostracism caused by the Fujiwara clan against other clans that occurred during the Heian period in 969.

Annexation of Korea (韓国併合) - The annexation of Korea refers to the Japanese annexation of the Korean Empire (which currently corresponds to the area of the Republic of Korea and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea), based on the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty on August 22, 1910.

Ansei no Taigoku (suppression of extremists by the Shogunate) (安政の大獄) - Ansei no Taigoku was an act of suppression conducted by the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) between 1858 and 1859.

Anti-Nobunaga network (信長包囲網) - The anti-Nobunaga network is a commonly used name for the seige around Nobunaga led by Yoshiaki ASHIKAGA; from the end of the Sengoku period to the beginning of the Azuchi-Momoyama period, Nobunaga ODA was an official backing for Yoshiaki ASHIKAGA, Seii Taishogun of the Muromachi shogunate, although, in reality, they were conflicted and Yoshiaki established that anti-Nobunaga network.

Aobyoshi (book on the customs and manners of samurai) (青標紙) - Aobyoshi is a book on the customs and manners of samurai, written by Hiroki ONO (also called Gonnojo or Ninken), a shogun's retainer and a scholar of Japanese classical literature in the late Edo period.

Aomatsuba Incident (青松葉事件) - The Aomatsuba Incident was Sabaku-ha (supporters of the Shogun) crackdown incident which happened in the Owari Domain from February 13 to 18 in 1868.

Aosamurai (青侍) - Aosamurai were samurai warriors who served domestic governing institution of nobles and court nobles.

Aoso-Za (The Guild Of 'Aoso' [Boehmeria Nipononivea, A Fiber Material For Clothing]) (青苧座) - "Aoso-za" refers to "za" (the guild) of "aoso" (Boehmeria nipononivea, a fiber material for clothing), which was established in the later middle ages of Japan.

Appointment (Ninkan) (任官) - Ninkan means being appointed to a government post.

Appointment to Shogun (将軍宣下) - The appointment to Shogun refers to a ceremony where the Emperor granted the title of seii taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians") as the head of a military government and to govern Japan.

Arachi no-seki checking station (愛発関) - Arachi no-seki was a sekisho (checking station) on the border between Omi Province and Echizen Province.

Arahabaki (アラハバキ) - Arahabaki belief is a folk belief found in the Tohoku region.

Architectural History of Japan (日本建築史) - This section describes the history of architecture in Japan.

Arrival of the Black Ships (黒船来航) - In 1853, the East India Squadron of the United States Navy arrived in Japan at Uraga, near the entrance of Tokyo Bay (Uraga, Yokosuka City, Kanagawa Prefecture)--an incident that came to be known as the "Arrival of the Black Ships."

Arson Case of Kinkaku-ji Temple (金閣寺放火事件) - The Arson Case of Kinkaku-ji Temple was an arson case which occurred at Rokuon-ji Temple (commonly called Kinkaku-ji Temple) located in Kinkakuji Town, Kamigyo Ward (present-day Kita Ward), Kyoto City early on July 2, 1950.

Asahi Club (朝日倶楽部) - Asahi Club is Innai parliamentary group (May 25, 1898 - December 7, 1901) of the House of Peers existing in the Meiji period.

Ashigaru (足軽) - Ashigaru (common foot soldiers) were a type of low-ranking soldier.

Ashikaga no Sho (足利庄) - Ashikaga no sho was a shoen (manor) that was located in Ashikaga County, Shimotsuke Province (Ashikaga City, Tochigi Prefecture).

Ashina clan (蘆名氏) - The Ashina clan was descended from the Taira clan through the Miura clan with the name Ashina (蘆名) derived from the name of the area known as Ashina (present Ashina (芦名) in Yokosuka City).

Ashio Mining Pollution (足尾鉱毒事件) - Ashio Mining Pollution was a pollution incident which occurred at Ashio copper mine located around Watarase-gawa River in Tochigi Prefecture and Gunma Prefecture at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.

Ashio Riot (足尾暴動事件) - The "Ashio Riot" was an event occurred from February 4, 1907 to February 7, that mine workers in Ashio Copper Mine destroyed and set fire to the facilities in the mine.

Aso Clan (阿蘇氏) - The Aso clan originated in Higo Province.

Asomi (朝臣) - Asomi (or Ason) (written as 朝臣) was the second rank of kabane (hereditary title) which was created in a system of Yakusa no Kabane (the eight honorary titles) established in 684.

Asuka Culture (飛鳥文化) - Asuka Culture was a Buddhist culture that flourished mainly in Yamato Province under Empress Suiko.

Asuka Period (飛鳥時代) - The Asuka Period is a period in Japanese history, stretching from the end of the 6th century to the beginning of the 8th century, during which the capital was located in a place named Asuka.

Asuka-Fujiwara: Archaeological sites of Japan's Ancient Capitals and Related Properties (飛鳥・藤原の宮都とその関連資産群) - Asuka-Fujiwara: Archaeological sites of Japan's Ancient Capitals and Related Properties is the generic term of archaeological sites in Asuka, Nara Prefecture and has been accepted to the World Heritage (cultural heritage) Tentative List of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Asuka-kyo (the Capital of Asuka) (飛鳥京) - Asuka-kyo (also known as Asuka no Miyako [the capital of Asuka]) is the name of the ancient capital mainly in the Asuka period, which is believed to be existed in the general area covering present-day Asuka Village, Takaichi County, Nara Prefecture.

Asukakiyomihara-ryo Code (飛鳥浄御原令) - Asukakyomihara-ryo Code is a systematic legal code that was enacted in the second half of the Asuka period in Japan.

Asuke clan (足助氏) - The Asuke clan is one of the Japanese clans.

Ata (a unit of length used in ancient China and Japan) (咫) - Ata is a length unit used both in China and Japan.

Ate okonai jo (充行状) - Ate okonai jo (also Ote okonai jo or ategai jo) was a style of document used during the medieval period.

Azuchi Momoyama Period (安土桃山時代) - The Azuchi Momoyama period (1568 - 1603) is one of the age classifications in Japan, referring to the period in which Nobunaga ODA and Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI held the right to rule Japan (Oda government, Toyotomi government).

Azuchi-jo Castle (安土城) - Azuchi-jo Castle was a flatland-mountain Japanese castle (hirayamajiro) located at present Shimotoira, Azuchi-cho, Gamo County, Shiga Prefecture.

Azukarichi (rented land) (預地) - "Azukarichi" (or "Azukechi") indicates the land a person has entrusted to another person to keep and manage.

Azuke (punishment) (預 (刑罰)) - Azuke means a way of detention pending trial or punishment in Bukeho (the law system for the samurai society and the military government) in which a person is interned in some private citizen's place such as relatives.

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Baikan (売官) - Baikan means selling government posts.

Baishin (indirect vassal) (陪臣) - Baishin refers to a name indicating a vassal of vassal in the samurai's relationship between lord and vassal.

Bakufu (幕府) - Bakufu refers to the government office of military rule or samurai government itself; however, there are some exceptions, such as, the Taira clan government and the Shokuho government (the government of Nobunaga ODA and Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI. "Shoku" and "ho" are the initial letters of Oda and Toyotomi).

Bakufu kaigun (navy) (幕府海軍) - Bakufu kaigun (navy) was a navy with western-style armaments which was organized by Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) to accomplish battles at sea as a mission.

Bakufu rikugun (bakufu [Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun] army) (幕府陸軍) - Bakufu rikugun is a military organization with western-style armaments which was organized by Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) in the Edo Period to accomplish battles on land as a mission.

Bakuhan-taisei (the feudal system characteristic of the shogunate) (幕藩体制) - "Bakuhan-taisei" is a historical concept of social system of early modern Japan viewed basically from feudal homage between bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) (or seii-taishogun, literally "great general who subdues the barbarians) and han (domains) (or daimyo, meaning "feudal lords").

Bakumatsu (幕末) - Bakumatsu, one of the Japanese periodization, refers to the final years of the Edo period when the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) ruling a county came to an end.

Ban Dainagon Ekotoba (伴大納言絵詞) - Ban Dainagon Ekotoba or Tomo no Dainagon Ekotoba is a narrative picture scroll depicting the Otenmon Incident at the end of the Heian period.

Banjo (working pattern taken by lower-ranking government officials) (番上) - Banjo refers to a working pattern taken by lower-ranking government officials such as Zonin and so on in the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in Japan.

Bank of Yanagihara (柳原銀行) - The Bank of Yanagihara was a private bank founded in Yanagihara-cho, Kyoto Prefecture (present Kyoto City) in the Meiji period.

Bankoku koho (万国公法) - "Bankoku Koho" is a translated name of a commentary on international law, which gave considerable influences to various countries in East Asia by diffusing modern international law in a period from the second half of the nineteenth century to the first half of the twentieth century.

Bansha no goku (Imprisonment of scholars of Western learning) (蛮社の獄) - Bansha no goku was the suppression of free speech that occurred in May 1839.

Bansho (番所) - Bansho is a facility in which guards were stationed for security and surveillance.

Bansho-wage Goyo (Government Office for Translation of Barbarian Books) (蛮書和解御用) - Bansho-wage Goyo (Government Office for Translation of Barbarian Books) was a translation organization established by the Edo Bakufu in 1811.

Banya (番屋) - Banya (a simple lodging house)

Banyaku (番役) - Banyaku refers to working different shifts by rotation in the Japanese history.

Banyu Enzetsu (Speech with Brute Courage) (蛮勇演説) - Banyu Enzetsu is a speech made by Navy Minister Sukenori KABAYAMA in the second Imperial Diet in December 1891.

Basara (ばさら) - "Basara" is a word which expressed the social and cultural trends during the Northern and Southern Courts period (in the Japanese medieval period), which was actually used as a vogue word at that time.

Battle at Makishima-jo Castle (填島城の戦い) - The Battle at Makishima-jo Castle refers to the battle which occurred between Nobunaga ODA's army and Yoshiaki ASHIKAGA's army from April (March in old lunar calendar) to August (July in old lunar calendar) in 1573.

Battle of Anegawa (姉川の戦い) - The Battle of Anegawa refers to the battle which took place in the region around Anegawa kawara, Azai-gun, Omi Province (the present Nomura-cho, Nagahama City, Shiga Prefecture (around former Nomura, Azai-machi, Higashiasai-gun)) on August 9, 1570 during the Warring States Period.

Battle of Bitchu Takamatsu-jo Castle (備中高松城の戦い) - The Battle of Bitchu Takamatsu-jo Castle was a battle in 1582 in which, on the order of Nobunaga ODA, his karo (retainer) Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI conquered Takamatsu-jo Castle, owned by Muneharu SHIMIZU, in Bitchu Province in the territory of the Mori clan.

Battle of Dannoura (壇ノ浦の戦い) - The battle of Dannoura was fought in the closing days of the Heian period, on April 25, 1185, under the old lunar calendar), and took place in Nagato Province, at Akamaseki, Dannoura (modern-day Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi Pref.).

Battle of Fubeyama (Mt. Fube) (布部山の戦い) - The Battle of Fubeyama (Mt. Fube) was a war between an army of the Amago clan which was directed by Yukimori YAMANAKA to reconstruct the Amago clan and the Mori clan who was attempting to prevent it.

Battle of Fushimi Castle (伏見城の戦い) - The Battle of Fushimi Castle is a preliminary skirmish of the Battle of Sekigahara, which took place from August 26, to September 8, 1600.

Battle of Gassan Toda-jo Castle (月山富田城の戦い) - The Battle of Gassan Toda-jo Castle was a battle that occurred from 1542 to 1543 and from 1565 to 1566 over Gassan Toda-jo Castle located in Izumo Province (present-day Yasugi City, Shimane Prefecture) which was the base of the Amago clan.

Battle of Hakone and Takenoshita (箱根・竹ノ下の戦い) - The Battle of Hakone and Takenoshita was a battle between the Takauji ASHIKAGA forces and Yoshisada NITTA forces that broke out on February 1, 1336 during the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Battle of Hakusukinoe (白村江の戦い) - The Battle of Hakusukinoe (also known as the Battle of Hakusonko) was a battle that took place between the allied forces comprised of Wakoku (later to be named Japan) and the surviving people of Kudara against Silla-Tang allied forces on August 663 in Hakusonko (the current outskirts of South Korea) on the Korean Peninsula.

Battle of Hoju-ji Temple (法住寺合戦) - The Battle of Hoju-ji Temple (Hoju-ji kassen) was a military coup on January 10, 1184, in which MINAMOTO no Yoshinaka attacked In no gosho (the retired emperor's court) Hojuji-dono Palace, imprisoning Cloistered Emperor Goshirakawa and Emperor Gotoba and taking over the government.

Battle of Ichinotani (一ノ谷の戦い) - The Battle of Ichinotani was a battle at Fukuwara-kyo in Settsu Province on March 27, 1184, during the end of the Heian period.

Battle of Ishizu (石津の戦い) - The Battle of Ishizu was fought on June 10, 1338, during the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan), in Ishizu of Sakaiura, Izumi Province (areas in and around present-day Sakai City, Osaka Prefecture) between Akiie KITABATAKE, who supported the Southern Court, and KO no Moronao, who supported the Northern Court.

Battle of Jugorigahara (十五里ヶ原の戦い) - During the Battle of Jugorigahara, which was fought in September and October 1588, the allied troops of Kagekatsu UESUGI and Yoshikatsu DAIHOJI, led by Shigenaga HONJO, fought against Yoshiaki MOGAMI's troops, which were led by the brothers Yoshinaga and Katsumasa TOZENJI.

Battle of Kanegasaki (the period of the Northern and Southern Courts) (金ヶ崎の戦い (南北朝時代)) - The Battle of Kanegasaki, was a battle between the troop of the Southern Court (Japan) led by Yoshisada NITTA who held Kanegasaki-jo Castle in Echizen Province (Tsuruga City, Fukui Prefecture), and the troop of the Northern Court (Japan) led by Takatsune SHIBA who attacked the castle, from 1336 to 1337 in the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Battle of Katsurakawara (桂川原の戦い) - The Battle of Katsurakawara was a battle fought on the riverbed of Katsura-gawa River in the odo-gawa River system in Kyoto Prefecture from the night on March 14 to March 15, 1527.

Battle of Kawanakajima (川中島の戦い) - The Battle of Kawanakajima indicates the battles over the control of the Northern Shinano area, fought between Shingen TAKEDA (Harunobu TAKEDA), the warring daimyo (lord) in Kai Province (present Yamanashi Prefecture) and Kenshin UESUGI (Kagetora NAGAO), the warring daimyo in Echigo Province (present Niagara Prefecture).

Battle of Kawarayama-jo Castle (河原山城の戦い) - The Battle of Kawarayama-jo Castle is a battle that broke out in Aseri County, Hoki Province in July 1585.

Battle of Kumeda (久米田の戦い) - The battle of Kumeda was a battle that took place in Japan in which Takamasa HATAKEYAMA attacked Yoshitaka MIYOSHI who lined up around Kumeda-dera Temple (present Kishiwada City, Osaka Prefecture) in Yagi-mura, Izumi Province (Osaka) on March 5, 1562.

Battle of Kyoko-ji Temple (教興寺の戦い) - The Battle of Kyoko-ji Temple was fought between Nagayoshi MIYOSHI and Takamasa HATAKEYAMA near Kyoko-ji Mura, Takayasu County, Kawachi Province (present-day Kyoko-ji, Yao City, Osaka Prefecture) on May 19 and 20, 1562.

Battle of Kyushu (九州の役) - The Battle of Kyushu was a general name for battles between Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI (surname "Toyotomi" was bestowed on September 9, 1586) and the Shimazu clan from August and September 1586 to May and June 1587.

Battle of Matsukawa (松川の戦い) - The Battle of Matsukawa is said to be the battle where Shigenaga HONJO and Nagayoshi SUDA under the command of Kagekatsu UESUGI fought against Masamune DATE in the central area of the present Fukushima City, Fukushima Prefecture on April 26, 1601, according to "Kaisei Mikawago Fudoki (Foundation of the Tokugawa clan)" (Vol. 42: The battle between Uesugi and Date), "Jozenkidan (a collection of anecdotes compiled in the Edo period)" (Vol. 16: The Battle of Matsukawa between Date and Uesugi in Mutsu Province with the episode of Zenzaemon NAGAI and Sanai OKA), "Togoku Taiheiki (the battle chronicle on the eastern Japan)" (Vol. 15: Attack to the Fukushima-jo Castle by Masamune in the Battle of Matsukawa), "Aizujin Monogatari (stories on the Battle in Aizu)" (Vol. 4: Attack to the Fukushima-jo Castle by Masamune in the Battle of Matsukawa and the episode of Oiinosuke SUDA cutting off the camp enclosure during the Battle of Abukuma-gawa River against Masamune).

Battle of Minatogawa (湊川の戦い) - The Battle of Minatogawa was fought on July 12, 1336 during the period of Northern and Southern Courts (Japan) in Minatogawa, Settsu Province (modern day Chuo Ward/Hyogo Ward, Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture) between the forces of the brothers Takauji and Tadayoshi ASHIKAGA who had traveled east from Kyushu and Yoshisada NITTA and Masashige KUSUNOKI who were loyal to Emperor Godaigo.

Battle of Nagashino (長篠の戦い) - The Battle of Nagashino is a battle fought on June 29, 1575 between the Nobunaga ODA - Ieyasu TOKUGAWA allied forces of 38,000 soldiers and the Katsuyori TAKEDA forces of 15,000 men over Nagashino-jo Castle in Mikawa Province (current Nagashino, Shinshiro City, Aichi Prefecture).

Battle of Nejirozaka (根白坂の戦い) - The Battle of Nejirozaka was a battle fought between pro-Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI forces and pro-Yoshihisa SHIMAZU forces in Nejirozaka, Hyuga Province on May 24, 1587.

Battle of Nyoigatake (如意ケ嶽の戦い) - The Battle of Nyoigatake was fought near Mt. Nyoigatake in Sakyo Ward of Kyoto City at midnight of July 14, 1509.

Battle of Otsu-jo Castle (大津城の戦い) - The Battle of Otsu-jo Castle took place from October 13, 1600 to October 21, 1600.

Battle of Sakaiura (堺浦の戦い) - The Battle of Sakaiura is a battle fought in Sakaiura, Izumi Province (present-day Sakai City, Osaka Prefecture).

Battle of Sattatoge (the period of the Northern and Southern Courts) (薩た峠の戦い (南北朝時代)) - The Battle of Sattatoge (also referred to as the Battle of Mt. Satta) was a battle fought between the troops of Takauji ASHIKAGA and Tadayoshi ASHIKAGA at Sattatoge (Satta-toge Pass) in Suruga Province (Shimizu Ward, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka Prefecture) in December 1351, during the period of the Northern and Southern Courts.

Battle of Shimanto-gawa River (四万十川の戦い) - The Battle of Shimanto-gawa River, which is also referred to as the 'Battle of Watari-gawa River,' was a battle that confirmed the unification of Tosa Province (Kochi Prefecture) by Motochika CHOSOKABE in 1575.

Battle of Shizugatake (賤ヶ岳の戦い) - The Battle of Shizugatake was a war which occurred in 1583 between Hideyoshi HASHIBA (later Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI) and Katsuie SHIBATA near Shizugatake Mountain in Ika District of Omi Province (present Ika County, Shiga Prefecture).

Battle of Shokusan (稷山の戦い) - The Battle of Shokusan was fought between the Japanese army and the Ming army during the Keicho Campaign.

Battle of Subushi (a battle fought between the Imperial Army and Emishi in Rikuchu Province in Nara period) (巣伏の戦い) - The Battle of Subushi was a battle between the Imperial army and Emishi (natives of the Japanese islands of Hokkaido and northern Honshu that opposed and resisted the rule of the Japanese Emperors) occurred in Tohoku region (later Rikuchu Province) in the Nara period.

Battle of Tanabe-jo Castle (田辺城の戦い) - The Battle of Tanabe-jo Castle is a battle that erupted over Tanabe-jo Castle in Tango Province (present-day Maizuru City, Kyoto Prefecture) from August 27 to October 12, 1600.

Battle of Tatarahama (多々良浜の戦い) - The Battle of Tatarahama was a battle in 1336 during the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Battle of Tatenawate (田手畷の戦い) - The Battle of Tatenawate was a war that took place in 1530 over hegemony of Kitakyushu between two daimyo (Japanese territorial lord) during the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States): the Ouchi clan of Suo Province and Shoni clan of Hizen Province.

Battle of Tensho (天正の陣) - The Battle of Tensho (Tensho no Jin) was one in which the army led by Takakage KOBAYAKAWA, of the Mori clan in the Chugoku region, landed at Nii County, Iyo Province (the present-day Niihama City, Ehime Prefecture) in Shikoku in 1585, doing so at the orders of Hideyoshi HASHIBA (Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI), who was attempting to integrate the entire nation, and defeated the local troops led by the lord of Kaneko-jo Castle, Motoie KANEKO, of the Kaneko clan, with overwhelming force.

Battle of the Nakatomi-gawa River (中富川の戦い) - The Battle of the Nakatomi-gawa River, in 1582, was a battle between Motochika CHOSOKABE, a lord of Tosa Province, who intended to integrate the Shikoku region, and Masayasu SOGO, a lord of Awa Province.

Battle of Toba-Fushimi (鳥羽・伏見の戦い) - The Battle of Toba-Fushimi from January 27 to 30, 1868 was the beginning of the Boshin War, and was fought in Kamitoba (Minami Ward, Kyoto City) on the outskirts of southern Kyoto, Shimotoba, Takeda, and Fushimi (Fushimi Ward, Kyoto City).

Battle of Ueda (上田合戦) - The Battle of Ueda is a generic name for the battles between the Sanada clan and the Tokugawa clan fought around Ueda-jo Castle in Shinano Province (present day Ueda City, Nagano Prefecture) and neighboring mountain castles, and around Kan-gawa River that runs north-south in the eastern part of Ueda City, etc.

Battle of Uji-gawa River (宇治川の戦い) - The Battle of Uji-gawa River was a battle that took place in January 1184, at the end of Heian period, between MINAMOTO no Yoshinaka, and MINAMOTO no Noriyori and MINAMOTO no Yoshitsune who were dispatched by MINAMOTO no Yoritomo in Kamakura.

Battle of Yamazaki (山崎の戦い) - The Battle of Yamazaki was fought between Mitsuhide AKECHI, who had defeated Nobunaga ODA in the Honnoji Incident in June and July 1582, and Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI returning from an attack on Takamatsu-jo Castle (in Bicchu Province); the scene of the battle was Yamazaki (Yamazaki, Shimamoto-cho, Mishima-gun, Osaka Prefecture and Oyamazaki-cho, Otokuni-gun, Kyoto Prefecture), located on the border between Settsu Province and Yamashiro Province, where Toyotomi's forces passed on their way to Kyoto and clashed head on with Akechi's on July 2.

Beipu Incident (北埔事件) - The Beipu Incident was an anti-Japanese incident in Taiwan that occurred during the period of Japanese rule (in Taiwan) and that was instigated by Tsai Ching-Lin, one of the Hakka people.

Bemin System (the system of Yamato sovereignty) (部民制) - Bemin system is a system during the Yamato sovereignty, which refers to the system of subordination and service to the sovereignty and the system of the division of duties at the Imperial Court.

Besshufusensho (別聚符宣抄) - Besshufusensho is a law code containing Daijokanpu (official documents from Daijokan to local governments) and imperial decrees issued between 902 and 971

Bikkaiho (Adultery Control Law) (密懐法) - Bikkaiho (Adultery Control Law) was a law that stipulated the handling of adultery.

Bitasen (鐚銭) - Bitasen was a coin of very poor quality among those circulated during late Medieval Japan.

Blade Technique (Sekijin-giho) (石刃技法) - The blade technique is a technique of removing vertically-long lithic flakes from stone, which emerged during the upper Paleolithic period and characterizes the period.

Bogo no Mitchoku (a secret imperial decree) (戊午の密勅) - Bogo no mitchoku is an incident that Emperor Komei gave a chokusho (imperial decree) to the Mito Domain on September 14, 1858.

Boji (ぼう示) - The term "Boji" means a notice put up at shishi (northern, southern, eastern and western boundary) of a territory or the important positions of a boundary.

Bokkaishi (delegate from Bo Hai) (渤海使) - Bokkaishi was the envoy to Japan from Bo Hai, and a record stated there were 34 visits (one visit from the Liao Dynasty) of the envoy during 728 to 922.

Boshin War (戊辰戦争) - The Boshin War from 1868 to 1869 was a civil war in Japan in which the new Meiji government, brought about by the restoration of the Japanese monarchy, eradicated the power of the Edo Shogunate.

Botefuri (棒手売) - Botefuri meant selling goods carried on a pole

Boxer Rebellion (義和団の乱) - The Boxer Rebellion was the disturbance that occurred at the end of the Qing dynasty in China.

Bronze mirror (銅鏡) - Bronze mirror is made of bronze alloy.

Bu (Shakkanho) (歩 (尺貫法)) - Bu is a unit of length under the shakkanho (old Japanese system of weights and measures).

Budan Seiji (government by the military) (武断政治) - Budan Seiji is an authoritarian government based on military power.

Budan-ha (武断派) - The Budan-ha (a political faction that is willing to resort to military means to achieve its aims) was a faction in the Toyotomi government.

Buei Sodo (武衛騒動) - The Buei Sodo was an internal conflict that occurred within the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) in 1465.

Bugei (military art) (Japan) (武芸 (日本)) - Bugei is a military art practiced by soldiers, military officers, and samurai in order to fight in a battlefield during the period from the ancient times to the medieval period, the early modern period in Japan.

Buke (Samurai Families) (武家) - The word "buke" refers to the collection of various powers which support the authority of a bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun), and this word sometimes also refers to a Shogun family or general samurai.

Buke hokonin (武家奉公人) - Buke hokonin literally means a person who served a samurai family.

Buke no Toryo (武家の棟梁) - The term "Buke no toryo" means the leader of groups of samurai.

Buke Shohatto (code of warrior households). (武家諸法度) - Buke Shohatto refers to the code by which Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) governed the territorial lords during the Edo period.

Bukeho (武家法) - Bukeho refers to a set of codes enforced on samurai society and on the military government during the medieval and the early modern times in Japan.

Bukeryo (Lands of military families) (武家領) - Bukeryo was shoryo (individual holdings) of military families during the medieval Japan.

Bukeshisso (武家執奏) - Bukeshisso is a term that relates to the Court-Bakufu (the Imperial Court and Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) relationship between the Muromachi bakufu and the Northern Court in Japan (the court noble government), and the term has the two following meanings:

Bukeyaku (武家役) - Bukeyaku was a general term for taxation imposed by the Kamakura and Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Bunan no Koji Sodo (Bunan-era Koji Dispute) (文安の麹騒動) - Bunan no Koji Sodo was an incident in which Kitano koji za (a guild in Kitano for producers of koji malt, a kind of mold grown on produce such as boiled rice), who controlled production of koji malt (which is part of the sake brewing process) in Kyoto, was attacked by the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) causing its decline during the Muromachi Period.

Bunchi Seiji (文治政治) - Bunchi seiji (civilian government) refers to a form of the governance practiced from the fourth shogun Ietsuna TOKUGAWA to the seventh Ietsugu TOKUGAWA.

Bunchi-ha Faction (文治派) - The Bunchi-ha was a faction that existed during the Toyotomi administration.

Bunin (appointment) (補任) - Bunin (appointment) is to grant government officials a government post or Ikai (Court rank).

Buninjo (appointment letter) (補任状) - Buninjo (appointment letter) is a generic term of documents issued by an appointer when a specific person is appointed to a governmental post, Ikai (Court rank), and various posts.

Bunji Imperial Sanction (文治の勅許) - Bunji Imperial Sanction was the imperial sanction in Japan to permit placement and appointment and dismissal of shugo (military governor) and jitoshiki (manager and lord of manor) in various districts given to MINAMOTO no Yoritomo by the Imperial Court on December 28, 1185.

Bunjin (Literati in China) (文人) - The term "Bunjin" refers to a type of people in traditional society in China and 'an educated person who is good at literature.'

Bunkakosei-kaikan Hall Affair (文化厚生会館事件) - The Bunkakosei-kaikan Hall Affair is a conflict that started with the Buraku Liberation League, Kyoto Federation being divided into two groups, one (Asada Furen, Asada faction's Federation) with Zennosuke ASADA as a chairman, approved by the Headquarter of the Buraku Liberation League and the other (Miki Furen, Miki faction's Federation) with Ippei MIKI as a chairman, supported by the Japanese Communist Party.

Bunkoku (分国) - "Bunkoku" is a unit used to delineate province-sized areas during the medieval period in Japan.

Bunkokuho (分国法) - Bunkokuho is a law established by warlords during the Sengoku period to govern their domains.

Bunkyo-hifuron (文鏡秘府論) - Bunkyo-hifuron was a written literary theory compiled in the early Heian period, in which theories to create prose and poetry were collected through the period of the Six Dynasties to the Tang dynasty of China.

Bunkyu Eiho coin (文久永宝) - Bunkyu Eiho coin was a coin circulated at the end of the Edo period.

Bunkyu Reform (文久の改革) - The Bunkyu Reform was a series of policy changes covering personnel affairs, office organization and various rules and regulations carried out by the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) in 1862.

Bunroku-Keicho War (文禄・慶長の役) - The Bunroku-Keicho War was a war conducted during the period from 1592 (Japan: Bunroku one; Ming and Yi Dynasty Korea: Banreki twenty) to 1598 (Japan: Keicho three; Ming and Yi Dynasty Korea: Banreki twenty-six).

Bureaucratic system in Japan (日本の官制) - In this portion, an overview of the governance in pre-modern times will be given, especially under the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) which was abolished.

Bushi (武士) - Bushi (武士, mononofu, samurai) existed from the 10th century to the 19th century and was a member of a family community whose top was the master of Soke (the head family) and whose profession was a warrior.

Bushidan (武士団) - Bushidan (warrior bands) refers to the group of bushi (samurai) that existed mainly from the late Heian, Kamakura, the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan) (Japan), and lasted until the Muromachi period.

Bushido (the way of the samurai) (武士道) - Bushido refers to systemized thought that generally forms the basis of value and ethical standards in samurai hierarchy during feudal Japan.

Busho (武将) - Busho refers to those who stood out among people engaged in military affairs, such as a military officer and a samurai.

Buson Yokai Emaki (蕪村妖怪絵巻) - "Buson Yokai Emaki" is a Japanese picture scroll of specters drawn by YOSA no Buson, a Haiku poet and painter during the middle of the Edo period.

Buyaku (夫役) - Buyaku refers to labor allocation imposed on subjects by each ruler in Japanese history.

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Campaign of the three biggest petitions (三大事件建白運動) - The campaign of the three biggest petitions is a political movement caused by petitions ("The three biggest petitions") submitted to Genroin (the Chamber of Elders) (Japan) by Kenkichi KATAOKA in October 1887.

Capital of Japan (日本の首都) - In this article, we describe the history of capitals and their changes in Japan.

Case of a condemned, who resuscitated after hanging in Ishizuchi Prefecture. (石鐵県死刑囚蘇生事件) - In early Meiji Period the incident occurred and a condemned resuscitated after the execution of hanging in Ishizuchi Prefecture.

Case of an Attack on the Shichijo Police Station (七条警察署襲撃事件) - The case of an attack on the Shichijo Police Station was an assault that occurred on January 24, 1946 in Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture.

Case of student union of Kyoto Prefecture (京都府学連事件) - It is a popular name of a judgment by the Supreme Court of Japan that mainly judged photographing for criminal investigation as lawful and constitutional.

Case of the Murder of a Shichijo Police Constable (七条警察署巡査殺害事件) - The case of the murder of a Shichijo Police constable is a homicide that occurred on June 9, 1946 in Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture.

Case of Theft of Kusanagi no Tsurugi (草薙剣盗難事件) - The case of theft of Kusanagi no tsurugi (alternate name for Ama-no-Murakumo no Tsurugi, the sword of the Imperial regalia) occurred in 668.

Central Negotiation Committee (中央交渉会) - The Central Negotiation Committee is parliamentary group (April 23, 1892 - March 1, 1893) during Meiji Period.

Certificate of Ownership (安堵状) - Certificate of ownership refers to the letter in which lords such as shogun, provincial military governor and feudal lord gave vassal samurais a guarantee for the ownership of a territory and enfeoffment from the Kamakura period onwards.

Chakuryu (嫡流) - Chakuryu refers to the direct line of descent from a clan.

Changes of Dynasties Theories (王朝交替説) - Changes of dynasties theories are doctrines which say, due to the interruption in the imperial line of the Imperial Family in the Kofun period in Japan, dynasties were changed several times.

Charter Oath of Five Articles (五箇条の御誓文) - Charter Oath of Five Articles was basic policy of the Meiji government represented to Kugyo (court nobles) and lords by the Emperor Meiji (15 years old at that time) on April 6, 1868.

Chemulpo Treaty (済物浦条約) - The Chemulpo Treaty is a treaty concluded between Japan and Yi Dynasty Korea on August 30, 1882.

Cheng Shun-kung (Tei Shunko) (鄭舜功) - Cheng Shun-kung (鄭舜功, Tei Shunko; dates unknown) was an adventurer during the latter half of the Ming period in China.

Chichibu Incident (秩父事件) - The Chichibu Incident was an armed uprising that peasants in Chichibu County, Saitama Prefecture made against the government from October 31 to November 9, 1884.

Chigyo (知行) - Chigyo is a history-related concept indicating a territory-controlling right executed by territorial lords during the medieval period and early-modern times in Japan.

Chigyo-koku (知行国) - Chigyo-koku indicates the provincial system and province in ancient and medieval Japan in which dominant nobles, shrines or temples acquired chigyo-ken (also called Kokumu-ken or rimu) (the right to manage the province) and obtained their revenues from there.

Chihanji (governor in the early Meiji period) (知藩事) - Chihanji was a name for a local government official position in the early Meiji period.

Chiho Kahei (Local Currency) (地方貨幣) - Chiho Kahei was a currency issued principally to be used within a territory and was issued by various domains in the Edo period, and particularly, gold and silver coins issued by various daimyo to be used within their territories from the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States) to the early Edo period were also called Ryogoku Kahei.

Chikusen-joirei (an ordinance to ordain a court rank to someone who saved a certain amount of money) (蓄銭叙位令) - "Chikusen-joirei" was an ordinance which took effect in October 711 in order to promote circulation of money and attempt to circulation to the government.

Childhood Names (幼名) - The term "childhood name" (yomyo or yomei in Japanese) refers to a name for use by someone only in his childhood (this custom was more or less limited to male children).

Chingokokka (鎮護国家) - Chingokokka refers to a government policy to stabilize internal affairs using Buddhism or a thought that Buddhism has power to protect and stabilize a country.

Chinju-fu (in ancient times) (鎮守府 (古代)) - Chinju-fu is an office in charge of military affairs in ancient Japan, located in Mutsu Province.

Chinzei Bugyo (a magistrate of Kyushu region) (鎮西奉行) - Chinzei Bugyo was an appointed position within the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) which commanded the gokenin (shogunal retainers) of Chinzei (Kyushu region).

Chipped stone tool (打製石器) - Chipped stone tool is a stone tool made with smashed stone without giving a polish.

Chitsuroku-shobun (Abolition Measure of Hereditary Stipend) (秩禄処分) - Chitsuroku-shobun was a policy of complete abolition of hereditary stipend implemented by the Meiji government in 1876.

Cho (牒) - Cho is a form of official documents under the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Cho (a unit of length in old Japanese system of weights and measures) (町 (単位)) - Cho is a unit of length (distance) or area in old Japanese system of weights and measures.

Chodai (a room or a place to sleep especially built for nobilities) (帳台) - Chodai is a tent-shaped screen with about 242 square centimeters which was built as a nobility's living room or bedroom.

Chodoin (朝堂院) - The Chodoin was a state chamber of the Greater Imperial Palace (called daidairi) in the palace in the ancient times.

Chogin (Silver coins) (丁銀) - Chogin is the name of the silver coins which were in circulation, mainly for business transaction, from the late Muromachi period to the Meiji Restoration in Japan.

Chohogannenrei (長保元年令) - Chohogannenrei is the Daijokanpu (official document of the Daijokan, the office of the supreme political leader) issued as shinsei (a code of new law) on September 9, 999.

Choji-ya (丁子屋) - Choji-ya (丁子屋) is one of the oldest yago (trade name), which is confirmed to have already existed in the Edo period.

Chokan-kanmon (長寛勘文) - Chokan-kanmon (or Chokan no kanmon) was kanmon (written report for what the Imperial court requested) written in the Chokan era (1163 - 1164) during the Heian period.

Chokodo-ryo (Chokodo's territory) (長講堂領) - Chokodo-ryo was an Imperial family shoen (manor) under the shoen koryo sei (a system of Public lands and Private estates) during the medieval period.

Chokyo-Entoku Wars (長享・延徳の乱) - The Chokyo-Entoku Wars were campaigns conducted by the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) twice in 1487 and in 1491 in the late Muromachi period against Omi no kuni shugo (the provincial constable of Omi Province) Takayori ROKKAKU, and it is also referred to as Rokkaku Seibatsu (suppression).

Chonin (Townspeople) (町人) - Chonin (or machinin) is a term referring to craftsmen and merchants who lived in the urban area during the Edo period.

Choroku no Hen (長禄の変) - Choroku no hen was an incident that occurred on December 27, 1457 during the Muromachi period when former retainers of the Akamatsu family attacked angu (emperor's temporary palace) of Gonancho (Second Southern Court), made a surprise assault on the brothers of Sonshuo and Chugio who were descendants of the Southern Court emperor (the latter was a seii taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians" of the Southern Court), and took away Shinji (the sacred jewel).

Choroku–Kansei Famine (長禄・寛正の飢饉) - The Choroku–Kansei Famine was a country-wide famine that struck Japan in 1459 (the third year of the Choroku era) and lasted until 1461 (the second year of the Kansei era).

Chosan (逃散) - Chosan was means of resistance and forms of struggle waged by farmers in Japan from the middle ages to the early modern period.

Chosen Sotoku-fu (Governor-General of Korea) (朝鮮総督府) - Chosen Sotoku-fu was a government office established by the Empire of Japan of the day in 1910 in order to govern Korea in the period of Japan's rule by the annexation of Korea.

Chosen Tsushinshi (the Korean Emissary) (朝鮮通信使) - Chosen Tsushinshi is the name of envoys dispatched by Yi Dynasty Korea to Japan.

Chosen-dera Temple (Korean Temple) (朝鮮寺) - Chosen-dera Temple (Korean Temple) refers to the common name of the temples worshipped by korean people living in Japan, particularly, the women.

Choshu Conquest (長州征討) - The Choshu Conquest was the battle between the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) and the Choshu clan, which was fought twice in the latter half of the Edo period.

Chosonsei (town and village system) (町村制) - Chosonsei, as well as Shisei (a municipal system), is the fundamental law governing local autonomy under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan.

Chotoku Coup (長徳の変) - The Chotoku Coup, occurred after FUJIWARA no Michinaga received Nairan no senji (an imperial edict to appoint a person to the position of Nairan, who has a right to read and deal with documents before reporting to the Emperor from Daijokan, the Great Council of State), after the death of FUJIWARA no Michitaka on May 17, 995.

Choya Gunsai (朝野群載) - Choya gunsai was edited by MIYOSHI no Tameyasu, San hakase (Doctor of Numbers), who classified monjo (written materials) n the Heian period such as prose and poetry, imperial decrees, official documents from the Dajokan (Great Council of State).

Choyobun (朝用分) - Choyobun refers to the taxation that the Southern Court temporarily imposed on the territories of temples and shrines under their control in order to secure provisions and revenue during the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Christian daimyo (キリシタン大名) - The Tensho Boy Mission to Europe (known as the Tensho Keno Shonen Shisetsu in Japanese) was sent to Rome together with Sumitada OMURA and Harunobu ARIMA.

Chubunsen (Import duties in the Muromachi period) (抽分銭) - Chubunsen was an import duty in the Muromachi period.

Chucho Jijitsu (The record of the central nation) (中朝事実) - Chucho Jijitsu (The record of the central nation) is a history book about the thought of reverence for the emperor, written by Soko YAMAGA.

Chugaisho (中外抄) - Chugaisho is a collection of narrative recordings during the times under cloistered rule.

Chugushiki (中宮職) - Chugushiki was the office which belonged to Nakatsukasasho (Ministry of Central Affairs) and was in charge of the consort's household affairs under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Chuko (periodization) (中古 (時代区分)) - Chuko (Middle Ages) is a word used to represent a time period, and is the second of the three words: joko (ancient times), chuko (middle ages), and kinko (early modern age).

City Ordinances on the Preservation of Vistaed View (京都市眺望景観創生条例) - The City Ordinances on the Preservation of Vistaed View are ordinances in Kyoto City to 'create Kyoto's surrounding scenery and vistaed views, and preserve them for future generations' (Article 1).

Civilization and Enlightenment of Japan (文明開化) - The civilization and enlightenment occurred during the transitional phase of Japan in Meiji period, seeing drastic changes in various systems, organizations and cultural customs of Japan as the results of the Westernization.

Conquest of Kishu (紀州征伐) - The words "Kishu Seibatsu" or "Kishu-zeme" refer to the conquest of Kii Province by Nobunaga ODA and Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI in the Sengoku period (period of warring states) (in the Azuchi-Momoyama period).

Conscription Ordinance (徴兵令) - The Conscription Ordinance (Edict of Dajokan [Grand Council of state] Non-number) (1889 Law No.1) was enacted in 1873, which stipulated the obligation of Japanese citizens to military service.

Conservative Revolution (保守革命) - The Conservative Revolution (Konservative Revolution) is a general name that Armin Mohler, a German intellectual historian, gave to a set of anti-Nazi and nationalist intellectual trends during the Weimar Republic.

Consortium of Universities in Kyoto (大学コンソーシアム京都) - The Consortium of Universities in Kyoto is a foundation consisting of universities in and around Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan, including Ritsumeikan University, Ryukoku University, and Doshisha University.

Constitution of 1868 (Seitaisho) (政体書) - The Constitution of 1868 was the proclamation in which the Meiji government determined the governmental organization of the early Meiji period.

Constitution of the Empire of Japan (大日本帝国憲法) - The Constitution of the Empire of Japan was the organic law of the Empire of Japan based on the idea of modern constitutionalism, promulgated on February 11, 1889, and came into effect on November 29, 1890.

Core stone tools (石核石器) - Core stone tools are made from the core part of the stone (known as stone core), which appears after flakes have been removed from ore (country rock).

Coup of the seventh year of Kenkyu (建久七年の政変) - Coup of the seventh year of Kenkyu was a coup that took place in 1196.

Court (local administrative organ) (裁判所 (地方制度)) - A local court was established in 1868 as a local administrative organ by the new government in Kyoto for it to govern areas which did not belong to any feudal domains.

Court noble law (公家法) - Court noble law is a legal system that was valid in the court noble society between the Heian period and the Edo period.

D

Dachin-Uma Kasegi (駄賃馬稼) - Dachin-uma kasegi refers to an occupation in Japan before modern times that engaged in the transportation of freight and people by carrying them on horseback.

Dai Juroku Shidan (Sixteenth Division) of the Imperial Japanese Army (第16師団 (日本軍)) - The Sixteenth Division was one of the divisions of the Imperial Japanese Army.

Dai Nihon Kyokai (Society for Greater Japan) (大日本協会) - The Dai Nihon Kyokai (Society for Greater Japan) was a political organization (October 1 - December 29, 1893) that was formed in the Meiji period with the aim of gathering together hard-liners on foreign nations.

Dai Nihonshi (大日本史) - Dai Nihonshi is a Japanese history book.

Daidoruijuho (大同類聚方) - Daidoruijuho was a unique Koiho (school of ancient medicine) document compiled in Japan in 808 during the early Heian period, while it was also the oldest government-designated pharmacopoeia.

Daiei Motion Pictures (大映) - Daiei Motion Picture Company refers to a film company that operated from 1942 to 2002.

Daigaku-ryo (大学寮) - The Daigaku-ryo was a set of educational institutions that was founded under the Ritsuryo system to train government officials, which was controlled directly by Shikibu-sho (the Ministry of Ceremonies - equivalent to today's National Personnel Authority).

Daijoin Nikki Mokuroku (大乗院日記目録) - Daijoin Nikki Mokuroku is the book recording the politics, social events, culture, and the history of religion written by Jinson, the 27th Daisojo (highest ranked priest among Japanese Buddhist monks) of Daijoin-Temple, which is the related temple of the nobility oriented/established Kofuku-ji Temple in Nara Prefecture.

Daijokan-so (Daijokan's Report to the Emperor) (太政官奏) - "Daijokan-so" meant for Daijokan (the Grand Council of State) to submit its reports to the Emperor, or the relevant reports, which were operative within the framework of Ritsuryo system (a centralized government system under the Ritsuryo Code).

Daijokancho (太政官牒) - Daijokancho are official documents sent from Daijokan to organizations not under its direct control such as sogo and Buddhist temples.

Daijokanpu (太政官符) - Daijokanpu (also known as Dajokanpu) were official documents issued by Daijokan (Grand Council of State) to lower agencies and Kokuga (local offices of the state) under the Ritsuyo system (ancient government system).

Daiku-shoku system (a centralized district system that abolished all preexisting towns, village, their offices and institutions) (大区小区制) - The daiku-shoku system is one of the local systems set up in 1872 during the Meiji Period.

Daimon (大紋) - Daimon is a type of Japanese kimono for males.

Daimyo Shonin Seido (feudal lord pawn system) (大名証人制度) - Daimyo shonin seido was the system that the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) held hostages from feudal loads and their senior vassals and put them up in Edo.

Daimyo-gyoretsu (feudal lord's costumed procession); daimyo's procession (大名行列) - Daimyo-gyoretsu refers to procession that was formed when daimyo (Japanese feudal lord) went out along with attendants for public purpose.

Daimyogashi (大名貸) - The term "daimyogashi" refers to a loan for a daimyo (Japanese feudal lords) or a domain in financial droughts arranged by influential merchants in Osaka, Kyoto, Edo, and so on.

Daineiji no hen (the revolt of Daineiji) (大寧寺の変) - Daineiji no hen (the revolt of Daineiji) is a coup happened between September 28 to September 30, 1551.

Dainihonkoku Ichinomiya-Ki (大日本国一宮記) - "Dainihonkoku Ichinomiya-Ki" is an Ichinomiya Ichiran (catalogue of high-ranking shrines of Shinto in Japan) which was written in the Muromachi period, and it was collected into "Gunsho ruiju (Collection of historical documents compiled by Hokiichi HANAWA)" (Volume 23, Part of gods, Collection 2).

Daisenno (代銭納) - The term Daisenno means the system of paying kuji (public service), nengu (tribute), and/or jishi (land tax) in cash, instead of in kind, that was introduced in medieval Japan at the shoen (manor), kokugaryo (territories governed by provincial government office), and/or bukeryo (territories of samurai family).

Daizenshiki (Office of the Palace Table) (大膳職) - Daizenshiki was a government office belonging to Kunaisho (Ministry of the Sovereign's Household) in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in Japan.

Dajokan Fukoku and Dajokan Tasshi (太政官布告・太政官達) - Both the Dajokan Fukoku and the Dajokan Tasshi were a form of law promulgated by the Dajokan (Grand Council of State) during the early Meiji period.

Dajokan-satsu (Dajokan Bills) (太政官札) - Dajokan bills are paper currency issued by the Meiji government from May 1868 until June 1868.

Danjodai (Board of Censors) (弾正台) - Danjodai is as follows.

Dappan (Leaving the Domain) (脱藩) - "Dappan" was the act of a samurai leaving his master's domain to become a Ronin (masterless samurai).

Datsu-A Ron (Argument for Leaving Asia) (脱亜論) - Datsu-A Ron was an an editorial published in the Japanese newspaper 'Jiji Shinpo' on March 16, 1885.

Datsua Nyuo (Leave Asia, enter Europe) (脱亜入欧) - Datsua Nyuo (Leave Asia, enter Europe) is a Japanese slogan or thought that 'Japan should get out of Asia which belongs to the Third World, and catch up with European powers.'

Datsua-shiso thought (thought of leaving Asia) (脱亜思想) - Datsua-shiso thought is a concept mainly advocated by Yukichi FUKUZAWA, which encourages an abolishment of Confucianism and a departure from Sinocentrism.

Dazai-fu (local government office in Kyushu region) (大宰府) - Dazai-fu was a local administrative agency established in Chikuzen Province in the late seventh century

Death March of Hakkoda Mountains Incident (八甲田雪中行軍遭難事件) - Death March of Hakkoda Mountains Incident was the incident in which the fifth Infantry Regiment of the eighth Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) division was stranded while on a training exercise on the Hakkoda-san Mountain.

Decchi (apprentice) (丁稚) - Decchi is a system of training future shopkeepers which was common from the Edo period to the end of the Second World War.

Decree of One Castle Per Province (一国一城令) - The decree of one castle per province was established by the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) on August 7, 1615.

Denchu on okite (殿中御掟) - Denchu on okite was a set of regulations Nobunaga ODA made Shogun Yoshiaki ASHIKAGA accept.

Denshutai (Edo shogunate's army) (伝習隊) - Denshutai (Edo shogunate's army) refers to the western-style army which was organized by Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) as the elite troops of the bakufu army, and was directly trained by the French Military Advisory Group.

Development Commission (開拓使) - The Development Commission was a local government established between July 8, 1869 and February 8, 1882 to reclaim lands of Ezo (present-day, Hokkaido, a northern island of Japan).

Diminishing the Territory (減封) - Diminishing the territory was a type of punishment imposed on samurai including daimyo (Japanese feudal lord) and hatamoto (direct vassal of the shogun) during the Edo period, that deprived samurai of their ranks, and partially diminished their territories, castles, and residences.

Distress of Frigate Ertuğrul Fırkateyni (エルトゥールル号遭難事件) - The distress of Frigate Ertuğrul was a shipwreck that Ertuğrul, a sailing frigate of the Ottoman Navy, suffered off the east of Kashinozaki Lighthouse in Kii-Oshima Island, Kushimoto-cho Town, Wakayama prefecture, on the middle of the night of September 16, 1890.

Dochu Shohatto (道中諸法度) - Dochu Shohatto, also referred to as Dochu Jomoku, is traffic regulation issued by the Edo bakufu to people of specific status, such as daimyo (Japanese feudal lord), Court nobles and officials of the bakufu.

Dochuzu (Route Map) (道中図) - Dochuzu is a pictorial map made during the Edo period in which land routes or sea routes are described.

Doeff-Halma Dictionary (a Dutch-Japanese dictionary compiled in the late Edo period) (ドゥーフ・ハルマ) - Doeff-Halma Dictionary (also referred as Zufu Halma or Dufu Halma) was a Dutch-Japanese dictionary that was compiled in late Edo period.

Dogo (土豪) - In a broad sense, dogo refers to 'specific small local clans' as opposed to large regional clans which control wide territories.

Dokoshi (土工司) - Dokoshi (Public Works Office) was one of the institutions belonging to Kunaisho (Ministry of the Sovereign's Household) in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Dokyo (Taoism) (道教) - Dokyo is one of the Sankyo, (Japanese word translates as "three religions"), the three great religions in China, including Confucianism, Chinese Buddhism and Dokyo.

Dondon-yake (どんどん焼け) - Dondon-yake is the fire that broke out in the city of Kyoto at the end of the Edo period from August 19 to 21, 1864.

Dong Du Movement (東遊運動) - The Dong Du Movement (Toyu Undo or Donzu Undo in Japanese: Phong trào Đông Du in Vietnamese) was an independence movement that started in Vietnam at the end of the 19th century.

Doshin (patrol officer) (同心) - The term "doshin" refers to one of the low-level officials of the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Doso (土倉) - Doso (also pronounced tokura or tsuchikura) were moneylenders during the Kamakura and Muromachi periods.

Dosoyaku (tax for doso) (土倉役) - Dosoyaku, also known as kurayaku, was a tax on doso (pawnbrokers and moneylenders) in Kyoto during the medieval era.

Dotaku (銅鐸) - Dotaku are hanging bell-shaped bronze wares produced during the Yayoi period.

Doyokai (土曜会) - The Doyokai (literally "the Saturday Group") was an internal faction within the House of Peers in Japan's National Diet; the Doyokai lasted from the Meiji period into the Taisho period (from December 7, 1901 to November 15, 1919).

Doyoso (public repository to store rice tax, which were allowed to be consumed, in ancient ritsuryo system) (動用倉) - Doyoso is a shoso (public repository) to store doyo, which was shozei (rice tax) allowed to be consumed, in ancient ritsuryosei (system of centralized governance).

Dynastic Polity (王朝国家) - The term "Dynastic polity" is the historical notion which refers to Japan's state regime in a transitional period during which it was in the process of transition from the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the Ritsuryo code) to the medieval national polity.

E

Ecchu Kubo (a government which existed in Ecchu) (越中公方) - Ecchu Kubo was a government which was established at Hojozu, Imizu county, Ecchu Province by Yoshitane ASHIKAGA who was deposed as the shogun of Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) and escaped from Kyoto in 1493.

Edict expelling Jesuit missionaries (バテレン追放令) - The Edict expelling Jesuit missionaries was a prohibition document concerning the mission of Christianity and trade with Spain and Portugal issued by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI in Chikuzen Hakozaki, in July 24, 1587.

Edict on Change of Status (an edict with three articles issued in 1591) (身分統制令) - The Edict on Change of Status was an edict with three articles issued in 1591 by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI.

Edo (江戸) - "Edo" (also described as Yedo, Yeddo, Yendo, Jedo) is the former name for Tokyo.

Edo bakufu (江戸幕府) - Edo bakufu was a samurai government established by Ieyasu TOKUGAWA.

Edo Period (江戸時代) - The Edo period (also known as the Tokugawa period) refers to a period in Japanese history where Japan was governed by the Edo shogunate government.

Eejanaika (ええじゃないか) - Eejanaika is a social phenomenon observed from the end of the Edo period, August 1867 (表記の変更) to the beginning of the Meiji period, April 1868 (表記の変更), starting from Edo and extending to the Shikoku region with the Tokai and Kinki regions as its centers.

Efu (tag) (会符) - Efu was a type of baggage tags which were attached during the Edo period to goods sent by the Imperial Court, the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun), court nobles, samurai families, temples and shrines to clarify who sent the baggage in question.

Egoshu (会合衆) - Egoshu (or Kaigoshu) (wealthy merchants who led self-governing organizations in cities from the Muromachi to the Azuchi-Momoyama period) are consultation organizations, or is a term that refers to the members of this organization which possessed a leading role in the self-government of cities from the Muromachi to the Azuchi-Momoyama period.

Eikyo War (永享の乱) - The Eikyo War (Eikyo no ran) is a war which occurred in the Kanto region (regions surrounding Tokyo) in 1437.

Eikyu no goso (永久の強訴) - The Eikyu no goso was a collective petition to the Imperial Court by a few thousand monks at the Kofuku-ji Temple on May 14, 1113, requesting Ensei, a sculptor of Buddhist statues who became a priest at Enryaku-ji Temple and was appointed to the position of the betto (the superior of a temple) of the Kiyomizu-dera Temple, a branch temple of the Kofuku-ji Temple, be dismissed from the position.

Einin no Tokuseirei (a debt cancellation order) (永仁の徳政令) - Einin no Tokuseirei (a debt cancellation order of Einin era) is considered to be the first Tokuseirei in Japan which was issued in 1927 by Sadatoki HOJO, the ninth regent of the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Eiroku (永禄) - Eiroku is one of the eras of Japan.

Eiroku Incident (永禄の変) - In the Eiroku Incident, troops led by the so-called "Miyoshi Triumvirate" (Nagayuki MIYOSHI, Masayasu MIYOSHI and Tomomichi IWANARI) and Hisahide MATSUNAGA attacked and killed Yoshiteru ASHIKAGA, the 13th Seii Taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians") of the Muromachi Bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun), at the then Imperial Palace in Nijo, Kyoto on Eiroku 8, the 19th day of the 5th month (according to the old calendar) (June 17, 1565).

Eiseiroku (永世禄) - Eiseiroku (a type of premium) was the highest ranked Shotenroku (premium) in early Meiji era, which was awarded to ones with merits for their contribution to the Boshin War and the Restoration of Imperial Rule.

Eishi (guards) (衛士) - 衛士 (eishi or eji)

Eisho Disturbance (永正の錯乱) - Eisho Disturbance refers to an incident during the early Sengoku period (period of warring states) (Japan) where the kanrei (shogunal deputy) for the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) named Masamoto HOSOKAWA was assassinated in 1507.

Eishoki (永昌記) - Eishoki was the diary of the late Heian Period courtier FUJIWARA no Tametaka.

Eizo Kyoto Film Company (映像京都) - The Eizo Kyoto Film Company is a film and television production company.

Ekirei (駅鈴) - Ekirei is a bell provided by the Imperial Court to government officials who traveled on official business, under the ritsuryo system of ancient Japan.

Ekitei-Shi (government office in charge of transportation and communication) (駅逓司) - Ekitei-Shi is a government office in charge of transportation and communication, formed on June 11, 1868.

Election interference (選挙干渉) - Election interference means interference to election made by ruling party to eliminate their opponents.

Empire Agricultural Association (帝国農会) - Empire Agricultural Association refers to the central agricultural administration organization approved in 1910.

Enchishi (園池司) - Enchishi (Gardens and Ponds Office) was one of the institutions belonging to Kunaisho (Ministry of the Sovereign's Household) in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Engi Gishiki (延喜儀式) - Engi Gishiki was one of Gishiki (Court rule and customs Books) considered to be compiled during the Engi era at the beginning of the Heian period.

Engi no Chi (延喜の治) - Engi no chi is an idealized name of the reign of Emperor Daigo during the mid-Heian period (during the first half of the 10th century).

Engi, Tenryaku no chi (延喜・天暦の治) - Engi, Tenryaku no chi is the magnificent imperial reign name for the reigns of Emperor Daigo and Emperor Murakami in the mid Heian Period (the 10th century).

Engikyaku (延喜格) - Engikyaku, a collection of amendments to and enforcement regulations for Ritsuryo (basic national laws), was completed in November 907 (old calendar) during the Heian period and put into force by a senji (written order of the Emperor) in December of the following year (old calendar).

Engu oshinke (院宮王臣家) - Engu oshinke is a collective term referring to a limited number of imperial families and nobles who gathered strength by taking advantage of their relationship with the Emperor in the early Heian Period (8th to 9th century).

Enkyu Ezo War (延久蝦夷合戦) - Enkyu Ezo War was the major warfare occurred in the Heian period.

Enkyu senjimasu (延久宣旨枡) - An official national measure that was enacted by Emperor Gosanjo in 1072, Enkyu senjimasu (also referred to simply as Senjimasu) was used to implement new manor regulation policies, including a manor regulation ordinance issued during the Enkyu era.

Erizeni (撰銭) - Erizeni (also called erisen or sensen) indicates the act of not accepting low-quality coins (called bitasen coins or akusen coins) in payments, carried out in the latter half of the medieval period in Japan.

Erizenirei (撰銭令) - Erizenirei was a ban on the erizeni act (the act of accepting only high-quality coins) enforced by the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) or daimyo (feudal lords) in the Muromachi period.

Eulsa Treaty (第二次日韓協約) - The Eulsa Treaty (Dai-niji Nikkan Kyoyaku [Second Japan-Korean Treaty]) is an agreement concluded between the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire on November 17, 1905, after the Russo-Japanese War ended.

Europeanism (欧化主義) - Europeanism is a policy (a policy of Europeanization) which the Meiji Government implemented to make an impression on Western countries by modernizing Japan, that is to say, by Europeanizing Japanese things, regulations, folkways, and customs in Japan in 1880s, and an active movement of thought and folkways of the times related to the policy.

Expulsion Edict (Hitobarairei) (人掃令) - The Expulsion Edict is a law Kanpaku TOYOTOMI Hidetsugu issued in 1592 during the Azuchi Momoyama period.

Ezo republic (蝦夷共和国) - The Ezo republic that was built in January 1869 was a familiar name of the Ezo Island Government, a political power belonging to Sabaku-ha which existed for a short time in Ezochi (inhabited area of Ainu) (Hokkaido).

Ezo, Emishi or Ebisu (蝦夷) - Ezo (also referred to as "Emishi" or "Ebisu") is an appellation for the people who once lived in the eastern and northern areas of what is now Japan, and who were considered by the Japanese to belong to a different ethnic group.

Ezochishimao Kasha (夷千島王遐叉) - Ezochishimao Kasha (or called Ezochishimao Kahi or Ezochishimao Kayu) refers to the name of person who sent an envoy in 1482 to request the Yi Dynasty Korea for Tripitaka Koreana.

F

Faction of Saiwai-club (幸倶楽部派) - The faction of Saiwai-club was a union of medium and small parliamentary factions in the House of Peers (Japan) led by the Tea Party group from the late Meiji period to the early Showa period.

Factory Acts (工場法) - The Factory Acts were a series of acts designed to protect factory workers, children and women in particular, who were forced into hard work during the Industrial Revolution.

Family registration system in ancient Japan (古代日本の戸籍制度) - Family registration systems in ancient times refer to family registers for keeping tabs on people under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) where were codes selected and compiled in the Asuka period.

Famine of Yowa (養和の飢饉) - The famine of Yowa was a devastating famine that occurred in 1181.

Fire attack against Mt. Hiei (比叡山焼き討ち) - The fire attack against Mt. Hiei was a fire attack mainly against Mt. Hiei.

First Battle of Kizukawaguchi (第一次木津川口の戦い) - The First Battle of Kizukawaguchi refers to the battle between the Mori Clan and the Oda Clan in 1576.

First Ito Cabinet (第1次伊藤内閣) - The First Ito Cabinet was launched when Sangi (councilor), Hirobumi ITO was assigned as the first prime minister and lasted from December 22 to April 30.

First Katsura Cabinet (第1次桂内閣) - That was the first cabinet of Kei-En era (Katsura-Saionji era) that lasted for more than ten years.

First Korea-Japan Agreement (第一次日韓協約) - The First Korea-Japan Agreement was an agreement signed between the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire (Joseon Dynasty) during the Russo-Japanese War on August 22, 1904.

First MATSUKATA Cabinet (第1次松方内閣) - As the prime minister subsequent to Aritomo YAMAGATA (the First YAMAGATA Cabinet), such as Hirobumi ITO, Tsugumichi SAIGO and Akiyoshi YAMADA were lined up, but the imperial command for organizing the Cabinet was given to Masayoshi MATSUKATA on May 2.

First Okuma Cabinet (第1次大隈内閣) - Among the Constitutional Party in power, the cabinet was organized with OKUMA from the former Progressive Party (Japan) as the Prime Minister and Taisuke ITAGAKI from the former Liberal Party (Japan) as Minister of Home Affairs.

First Saionji's Cabinet (第1次西園寺内閣) - Summary

First YAMAGATA Cabinet (第1次山縣内閣) - Since the Constitution of the Empire of Japan was enforced on November 29, the parliamentary system (Imperial Diet) was initiated in Japan during administration of this Cabinet.

Flake (剥片) - Flake is a thin piece of stone removed from ore by percussion.

Flake stone tool (剥片石器) - Flake stone tools are made from thin piece of stone (flake) removed from ore (host rock) by percussion.

Flogging (杖罪) - Flogging (jozai or jokei) was one of the five sentences of the Ritsuryo law.

Foreign Settlements (外国人居留地) - The term "foreign settlement" ("gaikokujin kyoryuchi" in Japanese) refers to one of the demarcated areas of land created by the government that were specifically set aside as places in which foreigners could reside and trade.

Former Foreign Settlement (旧居留地) - The Former Foreign Settlement is the section of exterritoriality for foreigners built mainly based on the Ansei Five-Power Treaties.

Four Fujiwara Brothers (藤原四兄弟) - Fujiwara shi kyodai/Fujiwara yon kyodai (Four Fujiwara Brothers) was the historical term that refers to the four sons of FUJIWARA no Fuhito who held the reins during the Tenpyo era (729-748) in the early Nara period.

Fourth Ito Cabinet (第4次伊藤内閣) - Summary

Franco-Japanese treaty (日仏協約) - The Franco-Japanese treaty is a treaty concluded in Paris between Japan and France on June 10, 1907.

Friendship Club (交友倶楽部) - The friendship club was established on December 24, 1912 as an Innai (within the House) faction within the House of Peers (Japan) and existed until May 3, 1947 when the Constitution of Japan was promulgated.

Fu (符) - Fu is an official document used by government officials in the upper grade to give a command to those in the lower grade under the ritsuryo system.

Fu-han-ken sanchisei (fu-han-ken tripartite governance system) (府藩県三治制) - Fu-han-sanchisei is a local administration system established in the first year of the Meiji Era.

Fu-Rin-Ka-Zan (風林火山) - Fu-Rin-Ka-Zan is a common name for the phrase of 'as fast as the wind, as quiet as the forest, as daring as fire, and as immovable as the mountain,' written on the hatasashi-mono (battle flags) of Shingen TAKEDA, a daimyo (Japanese territorial lord) in the Sengoku period in the Kai Province (Yamanashi Prefecture).

Fuchin (風鎮) - Fuchin is a weight put on the tip of a roller of kakejiku (hanging scroll).

Fuchu (provincial cities which consist of local governments as the core of the city) (府中) - Fuchu is another name for kokufu, an urban area established around its local government office (kokuga) in the ryoseikoku (province).

Fudaraku-tokai (Crossing the sea to fudaraku [or Potalaka; holy sites associated with Kannon, Deity of Mercy]) (補陀落渡海) - Fudaraku-tokai is a form of the ascetic practice of sacrifice performed in medieval Japan.

Fudekozuka (筆子塚) - Fudekozuka is a mound or a memorial tower built by the students of terakoya (private elementary school) or kajuku (private school) which were educational institution for common people in the Edo period, to the memory of their late teacher who taught them reading, writing, arithmetic and other practical arts.

Fudokoku (rice tax stored in a warehouse called fudoso) (不動穀) - Fudokoku is rice in the husk kept in fudoso (a warehouse which was sealed after the regular warehouse became full) put in provinces in the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Fudoso (a warehouse sealed after being examined of its degree of sealing) (不動倉) - Fudoso warehouse was a warehouse which was sealed after being examined of its degree of sealing by the provincial governor and the local official after the content of shoso (warehouse) became full in the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Fuhonsen coin (富本銭) - Fuhonsen coin or Futosen coin are coins made in Japan around 683.

Fujiwara Kyoke (the Capital House of the Fujiwara clan) (藤原京家) - Fujiwara Kyoke is a sub branch of Fujiwara family, started by FUJIWARA no Maro, the forth son of Udaijin (Minister of the Right) FUJIWARA no Fuhito.

Fujiwara Shike (Four families of the Fujiwara clan) (藤原四家) - Fujiwara Shike, also called four families of the Fujiwara clan, means the four family lines founded by four sons of FUJIWARA no Fuhito.

Fujiwara Shikike (the Ceremonial House of the Fujiwara clan) (藤原式家) - Fujiwara Shikike is a sub branch of Fujiwara family, started by FUJIWARA no Umakai, the third son of Udaijin (Minister of the Right) FUJIWARA no Fuhito.

Fujiwara-kyo (藤原京) - Fujiwara-kyo was the first and largest capital in the history of Japan located in Kashihara City, Nara Prefecture, the northwest of Asuka-kyo.

Fukego (富家語) - Fukego or Fukegodan are the quotations from FUJIWARA no Tadazane (1078 - 1162), Kanpaku (chief adviser to the Emperor), otherwise known as Fuke-dono.

Fukensei (prefectural system/law) (府県制) - Fukensei (prefectural system/law) refers to a local administration system established in 1890 as well as the law that stipulates this system.

Fukoku kyohei (fortifying the country, strengthening the military) (富国強兵) - Fukoku kyohei refers to a policy that makes state economics grow and encourages reinforcement of military forces.

Fukuhara-kyo (Capital of Fukuhara) (福原京) - Fukuhara-kyo is the name of a capital city which TAIRA no Kiyomori wanted to establish and promoted after a plan to build Wada-kyo had ended in failure 1180 (towards the end of Heian period).

Fukuro Hoshi Ekotoba (袋法師絵詞) - Fukuro Hoshi Ekotoba (Picture Book of Fukuro Bonze) is a picture scroll.

Fukyo (不孝) - 不孝(Fukyo)

Fumyo (負名) - Fumyo means a form of collecting tax or a contractor for collecting tax under the system of the dynasty state which began sometime around the Heian period of Japan.

Funaokayama-gassen (船岡山合戦) - The Funaokayama-gassen (Battle at Mt. Funaoka) refers to a battle on September 25, 1511, between Takakuni HOSOKAWA along with OUCHI Yoshioki who supported shogun Yoshitane ASHIKAGA and Sumimoto HOSOKAWA who support former shogun Yoshizumi ASHIKAGA.

Funyu no ken (Japan) (不入の権 (日本)) - Funyu no ken is the right of shoen (manor in medieval Japan) to decline the entry of messengers (Kendenshi, Shunoshi, Shidoshi, etc.) from the Kokuga (provincial government offices)

Fuseya (布施屋) - A Fuseya was a temporary relief station and lodging facility for travelers that was established in many parts of Japan during the kodai ritsuryosei (ancient East Asian system of centralized governance).

Fushimiban (伏見版) - Fushimiban are block printed books printed at the Enko-ji Temple (now Ichijoji, Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City), which was established on a corner of the Fushimi School in Fushimi Ward of Yamashiro Province by order of Ieyasu TOKUGAWA in the early Edo period.

Fushu (barbarians) (俘囚) - The Fushu were Emishi who lived in the provinces of Mutsu and Dewa and came under the control of the Imperial Court.

Fuyu no ken (Japan) (不輸の権 (日本)) - Fuyu no ken (the right of tax exemption) was the right of shoen (manor in medieval Japan) to be exempted from all or part of the land tax to be paid to the government.

Fuyusoden (不輸租田) - Fuyusoden was a rice field exempted from tax according to the Japanese ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

G

Gaertner Cultivation Treaty Incident (ガルトネル開墾条約事件) - Gaertner Cultivation Treaty Incident or Gaertner Incident is a diplomatic incident that occurred over the cultivated land in Nanae Town in the first year of Meiji period.

Gafusei (ivory tally system) (牙符制) - Gafusei was one of the systems of examining and certificating an envoy (endorsement).

Gaichi (外地) - Gaichi means the territories of Japan (the Empire of Japan) other than the so-called inland in the period before the end of the World War II.

Gakkanin (学館院) - Gakkanin is a type of Daigaku-besso (academic facility for nobles) that belongs to Daigaku-ryo (Bureau of Education under the ritsuryo system).

Gakoshi (Painting Office) (画工司) - Gakoshi (Painting Office) was one of the institutions belonging to Nakatsukasasho (Ministry of Central Affairs) in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in Japan.

Gakumon no Susume (Encouragement of Learning) (学問のすゝめ) - Gakumon no Susume, or Encouragement of Learning, is a book written by Yukichi FUKUZAWA.

Gakumongenryu (The Origin of Learning) (学問源流) - "Gakumongenryu" is a history book of the study of Chinese classics written by Shiso NABA (Rodo NABA, NABA is also pronounced NAWA) in the middle of the Edo Period.

Gakumonjo (a school) (学問所) - Gakumonjo (a school) was the name of a kind of educational institution in medieval and modern times.

Gakumonryo (学問料) - The term Gakumonryo is a scholarship for Monjosho (students who study poetry and history) who studied Kidendo (the study of history) at Daigaku-ryo (Bureau of Education under the ritsuryo system) during the Heian period and it was also called Kyuryo.

Gakunodo (額の堂) - Gakunodo is a name for a facility inside an armed camp during the Sengoku period.

Gakuryo (学令) - Gakuryo was one of the articles in the ritsuryo codes (legal codes of the Nara and Heian periods).

Gakusei (educational system, the Education System Order) (学制) - Gakusei

Gamo Sodo (The Feud of the Gamo Family) (蒲生騒動) - Gamo Sodo was a family dispute occurred to the Gamo clan, which headed the estate of Aizu-wakamatsu with 920,000 koku of rice (165,959 cubic meters of rice-crop yield), which occurred between 1595 and 1598.

Ganghwa Island incident (江華島事件) - The Ganghwa Island incident is an armed conflict between Japan and Korea which occurred in the vicinity of Ganghwa Island, Joseon Dynasty on September 20, 1875.

Gangyo War (元慶の乱) - The Gangyo War, which occurred in the Heian period, was a rebellion by the Ifu, or less assimilated Emishi (unassimilated northerners) under the rule of the Imperial Court.

Gapsin Coup (甲申政変) - The Gapsin Coup is an event which happened in Korea in December, 1884.

Ge (Official Documents) (解 (公文書)) - A "ge" was an official document submitted by a lower grade governmental official (hikan) to a higher grade official (shokan) in the ritsuryo sytem (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Geba (dismounting a horse as a manner) (下馬 (作法)) - "Geba" means to dismount one's horse in order to salute in front of nobles, in the precincts of shrines and temples, or before entering a castle.

Geishogi Kaiho Rei (Emancipation Edict for Female Performers and Prostitutes) (芸娼妓解放令) - The Geishogi Kaiho Rei is a law issued by the Meiji Government in 1872, whose main aim was to control human traffic of prostitutes.

Gekan (removal from office) (解官) - Gekan means that an incumbent government official is dismissed in the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Gekisei (外記政) - Gekisei refers to a system that Kugyo (high court nobles) who were ministers read moshibumi (a general term for a request or petition submitted by a lower authority to a higher) from shoshi (officials), had conferences and gave decisions on them at Geki Cho, an office of Geki (Secretary of the Grand Council of State).

Gekokujo (下克上) - Gekokujo ("the low overturning the high," a term used to describe retainers overthrowing their lords) describes situations in Japanese history that occur when a person of lower rank overthrows a superior either politically or militarily, and then supplants the superior's position in society.

Genba-ryo (Bureau of Buddhism and Aliens) (玄蕃寮) - Genba-ryo was one of the institutions belonging to Jibusho (the Ministry of Civil Administration) in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in Japan.

Genin (Low ranked people) (下人) - Genin denotes domestically subordinative people in pre-modern society.

Genisyu (源威集) - Genisyu was a military epic written in the late period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan) (in the latter half of the 14th century).

Genko (Mongol invasion) (元寇) - Genko is the Japanese name of two invasions (expeditions) that Japan suffered in the middle Kamakura period from the Mongol Empire (Yuan Dynasty), which was then dominant on the continent, and its subjected kingdom, the Kingdom of Goryeo.

Genko borui (Genko [Mongol invasion attempts against Japan]) (borui [fort to prevent enemy's attack]) (元寇防塁) - Genko borui is the fort constructed with stone along the coast area of Hakata Bay in Kitakyushu in the Kamakura period.

Genko no Ran (Genko Incident) (元弘の乱) - Genko no Ran was an anti-Kamakura bakufu movement broke out in 1331.

Genna Tsuho (Coin of the Genna Era) (元和通宝) - Genna Tsuho is a copper coin named after an era in the Edo period, which is thought to have been minted in around the first or second year of the Genna era (1615 or 1616) in Japan, and it is older than the Kanei Tsuho coin.

Genroin (the Chamber of Elders) (元老院 (日本)) - Genroin was a legislative organ in the early Meiji era in Japan.

Genroin gikan (Councilor of the Chamber of Elders) (元老院議官) - Genroin gikan were those who organized the Chamber of Elders (Japan).

Genroku Ako Incident (元禄赤穂事件) - Genroku Ako Incident is a modern expression for "revenge for their lord," describing an incident which occurred in mid Edo period.

Genroku-Oban (元禄大判) - Genroku-Oban refers to a large-sized gold coin issued in November 1695 following the issuing of the Keicho-Oban.

Geyujo (解由状) - A geyujo is a document that, when an officer in a position is replaced with another person under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in ancient Japan, was issued confirming the change necessary for continuing office duties.

Gimin (義民) - Gimin is a ringleader of uprising during a famine and the like.

Ginza (History) (銀座 (歴史)) - Ginza is a name used for mints in the medieval and modern ages of Japan, where coins were manufactured and silver bullion was bought and sold.

Gishiki (Book) (儀式 (書物)) - Gishiki originally meant court rule and customs in official duties and ceremonial functions at the imperial court under the ritsuryo system, and later, compilations and books for prescribing court rule and customs came to be called 'Gishiki.'

Gisho (forged document and books) (偽書) - Gisho are documents or books in which the origins of either the author or the time at which it was allegedly written is apocryphal.

Giso (議奏) - Giso means reporting conclusions about state affairs to the throne after deliberation by Dijokan (Grand Council of State) under the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Giso warehouse (義倉) - Giso was a warehouse which was constructed in important domestic places to store rice and other grain in case of natural disasters and famine, and the grain in stock was collected from ordinary people or acquired using the cash contributions by the rich.

Gissha Senji (牛車宣旨) - Gissha senji was an imperial decree that allowed one to pass the Miya mon (Imperial palace gate) while riding on a gissha (ox-drawn carriage) when visiting the Imperial inner court.

Go (a unit of cubic volume in old Japanese system of weights and measures originated in China) (合) - Go (a unit) is a unit of cubic volume in old Japanese system of weights and measures.

Gobo no keiji (five edict boards) (五榜の掲示) - Gobo no keiji were five street bulletin boards erected on April 7, 1868 and the first public prohibitions published by the Meiji government.

Gobosei (Pentagram) (五芒星) - Gobosei (Pentagram) is a figure consisting of five lines of equal length that are mutually intersected, and is one kind of star-shaped regular polygon.

Goefu (五衛府) - Goefu was the central military organization under the Ritsuryo System whose main missions were the personal protection of an emperor, the protection of Kyujo (place where an emperor lives), the night patrol in Kyoto and so on.

Gofun (胡粉) - Gofun is a kind of pigment.

Goho-sei System (五保制) - Goho-sei System is one of those introduced from the ritsuryo system of the Tang Dynasty by the Emperor Tenji after the Taika Reforms.

Gojo (五情) - In China, Gojo refers to five emotions.

Gojo Rakuen (五条楽園) - Gojo Rakuen is an old yukaku (a red-light district) site located in the south-east area of Kawaramachi-dori and Gojo-dori Streets in Shimogyo Ward, Kyoto City.

Goken Undo (Constitution protection movement) (護憲運動) - Goken Undo refers to movement initiated during the Taisho Period by Kokumin (the people) and political parties to protect constitutional government.

Gokeshidai (The Ritual Protocol Of The Oe House) (江家次第) - "Gokeshidai" is a collection of the books on "yusoku kojitsu" (court rules of ceremony and etiquette), written in the later Heian period.

Gokinaishi (Topography of Kinai region) (五畿内志) - Gokinaishi (topography of Kinai region) was a local topography of Kinai region (provinces surrounding Kyoto and Nara) compiled in the Edo period.

Gokishichido (Five provinces and seven circuits) (五畿七道) - Gokishichido was a name for the broader-based local administrative districts under the ritsuryo system in ancient Japan.

Gold and silver bimetallism (金銀複本位制) - The gold and silver bimetallism refers to a currency system where both gold and silver coins are designated as standard money; freedom of minting, importing and exporting such money is maintained; and fixed exchange ratio between gold and silver is maintained

Gold standard system (金本位制) - Gold standard system is a monetary system that a fixed quantity of gold represents value of the currency in a country, and so the prices of goods also represent a certain value of gold.

Gonaisho (御内書) - Gonaisho was an official document written in the style of a private letter that was issued by the Seii Taishogun (literally, great general who subdues the barbarians) of the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Gonancho (Second Southern Court) (後南朝) - Gonancho (Second Southern Court) is a general term that refers to descendants of the Southern dynasty (Japan) lineage and their former retainers and their attempts to revive the Southern Court after the two Courts were unified in 1392, and to the political administrations and the members of the Imperial household who were involved.

Gonin-gumi (five-household group) (Japanese history) (五人組 (日本史)) - In Japanese history, the Gonin-gumi, or the five-household group system, was a system of the community association organized under the command of a feudal lord.

Goon (favors) and hoko (services) (御恩と奉公) - Goon and hoko indicate factors and concepts that constituted master-servant relationships among samurai during medieval Japan.

Gorenju (御簾中) - Gorenju was a title of honor used to indicate a legal wife of an aristocrat in Japan.

Goryakuso (御暦奏) - Goryakuso is a ceremony conducted during pre-modern periods, in which a Year calendar is presented on every November first (old lunar calendar) by Onmyoryo to the Emperor via Nakatsukasasho.

Goryo-eji (guards of Imperial mausoleums) (御陵衛士) - Goryo-eji was an organization created to protect the imperial palace of the Emperor Komei.

Goryosho (御料所) - Goryosho, which is also called ryosho or goryo, is the land under the direct control of an official authority such as the Emperor (the Imperial family) or Shogunate.

Gose Domain (御所藩) - Gose Domain was a feudal domain that covered Katsujo-gun and Katsuge-gun in Yamato Province and part of Hine-gun, Izumi Province.

Gosechi no Mai (五節舞) - Gosechi no mai was a dance that took place during a Toyoakari no sechie (a ceremony at a seasonal holiday) which was held at Daijo-sai festivals (a festival to celebrate the succession of an emperor) and Niiname-sai festivals (a ceremonial offering by the Emperor of newly-harvested rice to deities); in the dance, there would be four to five women dancing to music sung by the chief of the Outadokoro (an organization that provided the education and management of ancient Japanese music).

Goseibai-shikimoku (code of conduct for samurai) (御成敗式目) - Goseibai-shikimoku is a law code established for samurai government in the Kamakura period.

Goshiki no Sen (the lowly persons of five kinds) (五色の賤) - Goshiki no sen a status of discrimination in ancient Japan which was constituted under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Gosho Sendo-mairi (御所千度参り) - Gosho Sendo-mairi is an incident occurred on July 21, 1787, in which many people circled around the Gosho (Imperial Palace) to make sendo-mairi (literally a visit to shrine a thousand times for prayer).

Goshu Shimazu Clan (江州島津氏) - The Goshu Shimazu Clan rose in Omi Province and was one of the branch families of the Shimazu Clan of Satsuma Province.

Goshuin (御朱印) - Goshuin is a stamp that is given at a shrine or a temple.

Goteni (御典医) - Goteni (御典医) were doctors who belonged to Tenyakuryo (the Bureau of Medicine) in the Imperial Court, and were simply called teni.

Goto troops in Japan's Invasion of Korea (朝鮮出兵における五島勢) - Here is the article "The Goto troops in Japan's Invasion of Korea" about the activities of Goto Domain in Hizen Province (Fukue Domain, the present Goto Islands in Nagasaki Prefecture) in the Bunroku and Keicho War led by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI.

Government offices centralizing plan (官庁集中計画) - The government offices centralizing plan was the city plan of the capital of Tokyo which was organized in the Meiji period; it planned to build a splendid baroque city which would be equivalent to Paris or Berlin by centralizing official buildings such as the Congress Hall and government offices around Kasumigaseki area in Tokyo.

Government Organization of Early Modern Japan (近代日本の官制) - Under the title "Government Organization of Early Modern Japan," this article outlines the changes of major agencies of the central government of Japan from rom January 3, 1868, when the Meiji restoration was started with Restoration of Imperial Rule, to December 24, 1889, when the official organization system under the Cabinet was established.

Gozen-sata (御前沙汰) - Gozen-sata was an informal consultation chaired and attended by Seii taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians") in the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun.)

Gozenkaigi (Conference in the presence of the emperor) (御前会議) - Gozenkaigi was a conference convened since the Meiji period to establish important national policies in the presence of the emperor.

Gozoku (local ruling family) (豪族) - Gozoku refers to a family who existed within a broader-based political power of a nation, lords and so on, had many lands, properties and private soldiers in a region, and had a certain level of regional sovereignty.

Gradual Discharge Matchlock (緩発式火縄銃) - Gradual discharge matchlock is a gun with a type of matchlock explosion mechanism, 'gradual discharge.'

Great Fire of Jisho (治承の大火) - The Great Fire of Jisho happened within the Heian-kyo on May 9, 1179.

Great Kyoto Fire of the Tenmei Era (天明の京都大火) - Great Kyoto Fire of the Tenmei Era was a fire that broke out in Kyoto on March 7, 1788.

Grinding Stones (磨石) - Grinding stones refer to a kind of small stone tools used to grind nuts and seeds mainly chestnut, walnut and acorn into powder in the Jomon period.

Ground Stone Tool (磨製石器) - Ground stone tool is a kind of stone tools in classification by fabrication method.

Gun-ku-cho-son Henseiho (the law for reorganization of counties, wards, towns and villages) (郡区町村編制法) - Gun-ku-cho-son Henseiho (the law for reorganization of counties, wards, towns and villages) was the law regarding a Japanese local government system, established in 1878.

Gunbu Daijin Geneki Bukan sei (Military Ministers to be Officers on Active-duty Rule) (軍部大臣現役武官制) - Gunbu Daijin Geneki Bukan sei (Military Ministers to be Officers on Active-duty Rule) is a regulation to limit the appointing authority of Military Ministers (Minister of War and the Navy) to only active military officers.

Gunchujo (軍忠状) - Gunchujo were documents that proved participation in battles and other military exploits in medieval Japan.

Gundan (army corps) (in ancient Japan) (軍団 (古代日本)) - Gundan refers to a military organization established around the country under the ritsuryo system (the system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in ancient Japan.

Gunga (county district offices) (郡衙) - Gunga (county district offices) was a government office attended to the affairs of state by government officials (lower or middle ranked) of the counties (called Gunji) under the kodai Ritsuryosei (ancient East Asian system of centralized governance) in Japan.

Gunsei (a domestic law concerning Gun [County]) (郡制) - Gunsei was a domestic law of Japan during the period of Meiji and Taisho era, which stipulated Gun, a district occupying an intermediate position between a prefecture and a municipality, as a local government.

Gunyaku (軍役) - Gunyaku (also known as Guneki) was a military service and provisions that was imposed by the lord on a retainer to offer in wartime.

Gunyoshuhyo (Military currency) (軍用手票) - Gunyoshuhyo is pseudo currency issued during wars for military forces to pay for commodities and other necessaries in its occupying areas or areas under their control.

Gushikami restraint/murder case (具志頭制縛致死事件) - The Gushikami restraint/murder case was a lynch murder case that occurred in Gushikami magiri (currently Yaese town), Shimajiri gun, Okinawa Prefecture on May 18, 1907.

Gyaku-en (逆縁) - The gyaku-en indicates the concept of not believing in the teachings of Buddha (i.e., defying the 'en', or connection with Buddha) unquestioningly or someone who can not be saved.

Gyobu-sho (刑部省) - Gyobu-sho (Ministry of Justice) was a government-regulated organization in Japan under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo codes).

Gyochukokyo (御注孝経) - "Gyochukokyo" is a collection of commentaries on the "Kokyo" (Classic of Filial Piety) compiled by Genso (Emperor Xuanzong [Tang]).

Gyojisho (行事所) - The Gyojisho came into existence in the Daijoe (first ceremonial offering of rice by newly-enthroned Emperor) and so on in about the middle ninth century, gradually grew into a functionality-oriented project team in various regular/temporal rites and festivals, and dealt with general affairs of rites and festivals including supplying necessary goods.

Gyoki-zu (行基図) - Gyoki-zu (Gyoki Map) is an ancient-style map of Japan which is said to have been created by a Buddhist monk, Gyoki in the Nara period.

Gyorogusho (魚魯愚鈔) - Gyorogusho was a book on the study of ancient courtly traditions and etiquette which compiled documents relating to the appointment to official positions such as moshibumi (letter of appointment) and omagaki (a list of candidates) as well as other related records such as "Seiryoki" and "Saikyuki."

H

Hachigyaku (eight unpardonable crimes) (八虐) - Hachigyaku means the eight most serious crimes in the ritsuryo code.

Hachijoin-ryo (territory of Hachijo-in) (八条院領) - The Hachijoin-ryo was one of the groups of shoen (manor in medieval Japan) possessed by members of the imperial family under shoen koryo sei (The System of Public Lands and Private Estates) in the medieval period.

Hachimanyama-jo Castle (八幡山城) - the Asai clan, Hidetsugu HASHIBA, Takatsugu KYOGOKU, Kuruwa (walls of a castle), stone wall

Hagi-no-ran War (turmoil of dissatisfied warriors at Hagi) (萩の乱) - Hagi-no-ran War (turmoil of dissatisfied warriors at Hagi) was one of Shizoku no hanrans (rebellion by family or person with samurai ancestors) against Meiji government broke out in Hagi City, Yamaguchi Prefecture in 1876.

Haihan-chiken (abolition of feudal domains and establishment of prefectures) (廃藩置県) - Haihan-chiken was an administrative reform implemented on August 29, 1871 through which the Meiji government abolished feudal domains and established prefectures that were under the control of the central government.

Haikomei (name for men representing the order of their birth) (輩行名) - A haikomei is a type of name for men used mostly in Japan.

Haishakukin (borrowed money) (拝借金) - Haishakukin (borrowed money) was money that the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) lent without interest to daimyo (Japanese feudal lord) and hatamoto (direct retainer of the Edo bakufu) as a means of financial support.

Haitorei (decree banning the wearing of swords) (廃刀令) - Haitorei (decree banning the wearing of swords) was an abbreviated expression of the edict titled "Taireifuku narabini gunjin keisatsukanri to seifuku chakuyo no hoka taito kinshi" (decree banning the wearing of swords except for full-dress uniform wearers, military men and police officers) issued by the Grand Council of State on March 28.

Haji pottery (土師器) - Haji pottery is a type of earthenware that evolved from Yayoi-type pottery and was produced from the Kofun (tumulus) to Nara and Heian periods, until replaced by Kawarake earthenware in the medieval and early modern times.

Hakari-za (秤座) - Hakari-za is za (trade guild) which imposed a monopoly on manufacturing, distribution, test and repair of scales with the special license of the Edo bakufu during the Edo period.

Hakodate Court (箱館裁判所) - The Hakodate Court was established quickly as a local administrative organ in Hakodate (present-day, Hakodate City) in 1868 to govern Ezo (a northern island of Japan inhabited by Ainu indigenous people).

Hakuho culture (白鳳文化) - Hakuho culture is a magnanimous culture which flourished between the Taika Reforms in 645 and the relocation of Heijo-kyo capital in 710, falling between the Asuka culture represented by the architecture and Buddha statues of Horyu-ji Temple and the Tenpyo culture represented by Buddha statues of Todai-ji Temple and buildings of Toshodai-ji Temple.

Hamaguri Rebellion (禁門の変) - The Hamaguri Rebellion (kinmon no hen) occurred on August 20, 1864 (the first year of the Genji era, July 19th in the old calendar) in the final days of the Edo period.

Han (藩) - Han refers to the territories ruled by lords.

Hanbatsu (domain clique) (藩閥) - Hanbatsu (domain clique) is a critical designation for the group of people from the former domains in southwest Japan (the domains of Satsuma, Choshu, Tosa and Hizen; they were so-called, Sacchodohi), who occupied important posts in the Japanese government from the Meiji to the Taisho period.

Hanchin (藩鎮) - Hanchin is a term used for the provincial organization that existed from the Tang Dynasty to the Northern Song Dynasty.

Hancho (domain office) (藩庁) - Hancho is a political term used during the Edo period.

Handen Shuju-no-ho (班田収授法) - "Handen Shuju-no-ho" (the law of periodic reallocations of rice land) was a legal system related to provision and expropriation of agricultural land (rice land), enforced in ancient Japan.

Haniwa (a clay figure) (埴輪) - The Haniwa are unglazed pottery characteristic of the Kofun period (tumulus period) in Japan.

Hanmoto Mitodoke (a government officer job in the Edo period) (判元見届) - Hanmoto Mitodoke was a term used to describe the act of confirmation by a government officer that was sent from the Edo bakufu, when a samurai family applied for matsugo-yoshi (adopting a son on the family head's deathbed).

Hanpo (one of appointments of government posts) (判補) - Hanpo refers to one of Bunin (appointments of government posts) in the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Hanreki-shosha (organization to distribute the calendar) (頒暦商社) - Hanreki-shosha was an exclusive organization to distribute the calendar in the early Meiji period.

Hansatsu (a Han Bill) (藩札) - A han bill was paper currency issued by each domain for use within their respective territories.

Hanshi (藩士) - Hanshi were samurai who served Edo period clans.

Hanzei (Half Payment of Taxes) (半済) - "Hanzei"means that the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) gave the power of collection of half of the customs or taxes on production from manors and lands under the control of the feudal government to the provincial constables.

Hari Hakase (針博士) - Hari hakase (Doctor of acupuncture) is a member of Tenyakuryo (medical and pharmaceutical department) of the Imperial Household Ministry.

Haruma Wage (the first Dutch-Japanese dictionary) (ハルマ和解) - Haruma Wage is the first Dutch-Japanese dictionary.

Hata bugyo (flag magistrate) (旗奉行) - Hata bugyo (flag magistrate) was one of organizations in Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Hatago (旅籠) - Hatago (inn) is a house where travelers lodge and meals are offered to the travelers in the Edo period.

Hatamoto-satsu (a local currency during the Edo period) (旗本札) - Hatamoto-satsu was the paper money that a hatamoto (direct retainers of the bakufu [Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun]) who possessed his or her own territory in the Edo period issued independently in his or her own territory.

Hatamoto-yoriaiseki (a family rank of high-ranking hatamoto, direct vassal of the shogun) (旗本寄合席) - Hatamoto-yoriaiseki was kakaku (family status) of high-ranking hatamoto with income of 3,000 koku or greater without official appointment, or retirees (known as yakuyoriai) who possessed social standing higher than hoi (those with the rank who wore clothes that did not bear family crests) in the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Hayago (早合) - A hayago is a pouch for gun powder and bullet which was used to simplify the loading process for muzzle loaders (guns where bullets were loaded from the muzzle) such as matchlock and other guns, presumably from the latter part of the Sengoku period (period of Warring States) or from the Azuchi Momoyama period.

Hayatoshi (隼人司) - Hayatoshi (Hayato Office) was the institution that belonged to Emonfu (Headquarters of the Outer Palace Guards) and later Hyobusho (ministry of military) on the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Heguri Clan (an ancient powerful local clan based in Heguri County, Yamato Province) (平群氏) - The Heguri clan is said to be a descendant of TAKENOUCHI no Sukune and one of the ancient powerful local clans based in Heguri no go, Heguri County in Yamato Province (present Heguri Town, Ikoma County, Nara Prefecture).

Heian Nobles (平安貴族) - The "Heian nobles" refer to the noblemen in the Heian Period.

Heian Period (平安時代) - The Heian period denotes a period of Japanese history spanning roughly 390 years, from 794 when Emperor Kanmu moved the capital to Heian Kyo (ancient Kyoto) to the establishment of the Kamakura Bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) in 1185.

Heian-kyo (平安京) - Heian-kyo (literally "tranquility and peace capital") was the old capital of Japan established by Emperor Kanmu in 794.

Heiji Rebellion (平治の乱) - The Heiji Rebellion (Heiji no ran), which began on January 19, 1159 in Heian period, was a coup d'etat that occurred because of antagonism among the close vassals of the retired emperor.

Heijo-kyo (平城京) - Heijo-kyo (also pronounced Heizei-kyo) used to be the ancient capital of Japan.

Heijo-kyu Palace (平城宮) - Heijo-kyu Palace was Dai-dairi (the place of the Imperial Palace and government offices) of an ancient capital Heijo-kyo in Nara.

Heike no Ochudo (fugitives from the Genpei War) (平家の落人) - The term Heike no Ochudo means fugitives who retreated to remote regions after their defeat in the Jisho-Juei War (the Genpei War).

Heike Nokyo (平家納経) - "Heike Nokyo" is a general term representing the Buddhist scriptures donated to Itsukushima-jinja Shrine by Heike (Taira family [the same character is read Hei or Taira depending on the context]) with prayer for prosperity of the greater Taira family including Ise-Heishi.

Heimin (commoners) (平民) - Heimin means ordinary citizens without any official rank or title.

Heiminsha (Commoners' company) (平民社) - Heiminsha is a newspaper company established by newspaper reporters of "Yorozu-choho" newspaper company, Shusui KOTOKU and Toshihiko SAKAI (KOSEN), to promote and spread socialist thoughts, who retired from the Choho press company in order to insist their claim of pacifism, when the company, which had been claiming pacifism against the move to the Russo-Japanese War, shifted its policy from pacifism to the theory of making war.

Heinobunri (兵農分離) - Heinobunri indicates the disarming of the classes pushed forward during the period from the Azuchi-Momoyama through Edo periods except for the samurai (warrior) class.

Heizenmon Incident (平禅門の乱) - The Heizenmon Incident refers to the coup which took place in Kamakura in 1293 during the Kamakura period.

Hennentai (a descriptive method of history) (編年体) - "Hennentai" is one of descriptive methods of history, whereby historical affairs are described in chronological order.

Heredity (世襲) - Heredity means that a specific status or title (e.g. official rank, peerage) held by a parent or their occupation or the like is passed on to their children, family members or in-laws, thus ensuring that such successors obtain social power and authority.

Hibiya Incendiary Incident (日比谷焼打事件) - Hibiya Incendiary Incident was a revolt caused from the dissatisfaction with the compensation after the Russo-Japanese War, triggered by the rally held at Hibiya Park in Tokyo on September 5, 1905.

Hibyoin (quarantine hospital) (避病院) - Hibyoin was a hospital specialized for infectious diseases built in the Meiji period in Japan.

Higashiyama Gobunko (the imperial library) (東山御文庫) - Higashiyama Go-bunko refers to the imperial family library located in northeast corner of Kyoto Imperial Palace.

Higashiyama gyomotsu (東山御物) - Higashiyama gyomotsu (Higashiyama gomotsu) refers to the paintings, chaki (tea utensils), kaki (flower vase), stationery and other items collected by Yoshimasa ASHIKAGA, the eighth seii taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the eastern barbarians") of the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Higisho (the taking of a religious oath with red-hot iron) (火起請) - Higisho is a kind of ordeal believed as God's judgment conducted in Japan during the medieval period and modern times, also being referred to as Tekka (red-hot iron) or Kasei (oath of fire).

HIKAMI no Kawatsugu's War (a political event in Nara period) (氷上川継の乱) - HIKAMI no Kawatsugu's War was a political event in the Nara period.

HIKI Conspiracy of Yoshikazu (比企能員の変) - The Conspiracy of Yoshikazu HIKI is a coup within the Kamakura bakufu that took place on October 15, 1203 in the early Kamakura period.

Hikone Domain (彦根藩) - Hikone Domain refers to a domain which possessed the northern part of Omi Province.

Hikone-jo Castle (彦根城) - tenshu (castle tower), yagura (turret), mon (gate), hei (wall), umaya (stable), ishigaki (stone wall), dorui (earthwork), hori (moat)

Himiko (卑弥呼) - Himiko (ca. 175- ca. 248) is said to have been a queen of Wa (Japan) who lived during the later Yayoi period.

Hinin (非人) - The term Hinin is used to describe mainly (1) persons who worked in special occupations or as entertainers in feudal Japan; however they gradually became victims of discrimination, and (2) in the Edo Period, Hinin as well as Eta (Chori) were described as people of the lower classes.

Hino Castle (日野城) - Hino Castle was a Japanese castle located in Hino Town, Gamo County, Shiga Prefecture.

Hino Incident (日野事件) - Hino incident is an incident involving public safety, which took place in Hino-cho, Gamo-gun, Shiga Prefecture on October 18, 1951.

Hirata no Sho (平田荘) - Hirata no sho was a manor located in old Yamato Province.

Hiro (a unit of length defined by old Japanese system of weights and measures) (尋) - Hiro (尋) is a unit of length defined by old Japanese system of weights and measures.

Hisara (Flash pan) (火皿) - Flash pan is a receptacle sticking out from the side of the barrel for priming powder in matchlock guns and flintlock guns.

Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara (古都奈良の文化財) - The Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara is the general term for temples and other historical monuments in Nara City, Nara Prefecture.

History of Japan's trade (日本の貿易史) - We will explain the history of Japan's trade, as it concerns foreign trade.

History of Japanese Navy (日本の海軍史) - The history of Japanese navy goes back to the early medieval period in which Japan interacted with countries on the Asian Continent.

History of Japanese Railways (the Meiji Period) (日本の鉄道史 (明治)) - The history of Japanese railways (the Meiji Period) covers the summary of the changes that took place from the end of the Edo Period to the end of the Meiji Period.

History of Nanki Tokugawa clan. (南紀徳川史) - "The history of Nanki Tokugawa clan" refers to a history book of the Kishu Domain, completed in Meiji period.

History of Noh (能の歴史) - History of Noh means the history of the development of Japanese traditional art of Noh.

History of Todai-ji Temple (東大寺の歴史) - In this article, the history of Todai-ji Temple is described.

Hoan-den (奉安殿) - Hoan-den was the premises where portraits of the emperor and empress (called "goshin-ei portrait") and the Imperial Rescript on Education were housed before and during the war.

Hoei taika (the Great Fire of the Hoei Era) (宝永大火) - Hoei taika (the Great Fire of the Hoei Era) refers to a fire that occurred in Kyoto on April 28, 1708.

Hoei Tsuho (currency of Hoei) (Hoei is the name of era in Edo period) (宝永通宝) - Hoei tsuho is a kind of coin minted in Edo period, which was issued in 1708.

Hogen Disturbance (Hogen-no-ran) (保元の乱) - The Hogen Disturbance occurred during the first year (1156) of the Hogen era in the Heian period, when Emperor Sutoku and Emperor Goshirakawa had a dispute, and the Emperor's side made a surprise attack on the retired emperor's side.

Hoken system (封建制) - The Hoken system is a political system modeled after the Shu Dynasty in China, which was advocated in the political thought of Kanji using nations, such as China.

Hoki War (the rebellion of Emishi in Rikuzen Province in the Nara period) (宝亀の乱) - The Hoki War was the rebellion of Emishi (natives of the Japanese islands of Hokkaido and northern Honshu that opposed and resisted the rule of the Japanese Emperors) in Tohoku region (later Rikuzen Province) in the Nara period.

Hokke Ikki (Hokke Riot) (法華一揆) - The "Hokke Ikki" is the religious riot which occurred in Kyoto, of the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States) around 1532, in Japan.

Hokokamai (a kind of punishment during the Edo period) (奉公構) - Hokokamai refers to a kind of punishment for samurai warriors during the Edo period, which was the circular letter that was issued to vassal deserters or forfeiters of rank by feudal lords.

Hokuriku Chotei (The Imperial Court In The Hokuriku Region) (北陸朝廷) - "Hokuriku Chotei" refers to the Imperial Court that is deemed to have existed during the period of Northern and Southern Courts in the present Hokuriku Region, which was backed up - and was claimed to have legitimacy - by warlords taking the side of the Southern Court.

Honcho Gatsuryo (本朝月令) - Honcho Gatsuryo (or Honcho Getsurei) is the oldest remaining kuji-sho (a document about governmental operations and ceremonies) where, concerning annual events in the middle era of the Heian period, their origins, histories and contents are described.

Honcho Seiki (本朝世紀) - Honcho Seiki refers to the history book compiled during the late Heian period.

Hongan (birthplace) (本貫) - Hongan (also called Ubusuna) refers to the registered address on the family register under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the Ritsuryo code) in China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan.

Honjo (proprietor or guarantor of manor) (本所) - Among honke and ryoke, both of which are the lords of the manor of Nihon-shoen (manor in medieval Japan), honjo was the lord that had the right to assert Shomu (management and control of encouragement of agriculture, taxes and so on in shoen), or in other words, had the effective dominion over the shoen.

Honjo law (本所法) - Honjo low was enacted and enforced by honjo (proprietor or guarantor of manor) for the purpose of ruling over their privately owned Shoen (manor in medieval Japan) as part of their Shomuken (the authority of the jurisdiction and the administration of Shoen).

Honjo Soemon Oboegaki (本城惣右衛門覚書) - The Honjo Soemon Oboegaki is a record sent by Soemon HONJO, a samurai serving Mitsuhide AKECHI during the Honnoji Incident, to three people who are thought to be his relatives, during his late years in the Edo period.

Honke (本家) - Honke is a nominal owner of the highest-graded patches of land under the stratified land ruling structure of Japanese Shoen (refer to the Shiki system in the shoen koryo sei (The System of Public Lands and Private Estates) section).

Honke-matsuke-ronso (disputes between head family and branch family) (本家末家論争) - A Honke-matsuke-ronso was a dispute between a head family and a branch family of a daimyo (Japanese feudal lord) family (particularly early modern daimyo) concerning social standing during the Edo period.

Honnoji Incident (本能寺の変) - Honnoji Incident is about an event on June 21, 1582 whereby Mitsuhide AKECHI, a key vassal of Nobunaga ODA, rose in revolt and attacked his master, Nobunaga, who had been staying in Honno-ji Temple in Kyoto and Nobunaga committed suicide.

Honzowamyo (本草和名) - Honzowamyo is the oldest Japanese dictionary of medicines still in existence, and was compiled by Sukehito FUKANE.

Hora Buraku (a discriminated community in Kashihara City, Nara Prefecture) (洞部落) - Hora Buraku was a discriminated community which used to exist in Kashihara City, Nara Prefecture.

Horanomiya (detached palace) (保良宮) - Horanomiya was an Imperial Palace which Emperor Junnin built in Omi Province in Nara period, which was placed as 'Hokukyo' in the system of multi-capital of Heijo-kyo (the ancient capital of Japan in current Nara).

Horeki Incident (宝暦事件) - The Horeki Incident is the first incident in which imperialists were oppressed in the middle of the Edo period.

Horokuhiya (焙烙火矢) - Horokuhiya was a weapon invented and used in Japan during the Sengoku period (period of warring states) (Japan).

Hoshi (保司) - Hoshi refers to officers of provincial government who administered ho, which was a type of Kokugaryo (the territories governed by a provincial government office) in medieval Japan.

Hosho-sen (奉書船) - A hosho-sen was a ship carrying not only a shuinjo (license for foreign trade) issued by the Seii Taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians") but also a hosho (permit) written by roju (members of shogun's council of elders).

Hosokawa's Government (Sengoku Period) (細川政権 (戦国時代)) - Hosokawa's government was a Japanese military government in the Sengoku period which existed from 1493 through 1549.

Host Rock (母岩) - Host rock (also known as wall rock) is a rock that is used as a base for something.

Hotobun (formal response speech to imperial rescript) Incident (奉答文事件) - The Hotobun Incident was an incident which occurred in 1903, as a chairman of the House of Representatives, Hironaka KONO read impeachment of the First Taro KATSURA Cabinet in Hotobun (formal response speech) to the imperial rescript at the opening of the Diet, and this led to the dissolution of the House of Representatives in the end.

Hyakki yagyo emaki (Picture scroll of Hyakki yagyo) (百鬼夜行絵巻) - Hyakki yagyo emaki is a type of Japanese picture scrolls.

Hyakuman Chobu Kaikon Keikaku (The million-hectare development plan) (百万町歩開墾計画) - The Hyakuman Chobu Kaikon Keikaku (The million- hectare development plan) was a government scheme during the Nara Period.

Hyakumanto Darani (The one million pagodas and Dharani prayers) (百万塔陀羅尼) - Hyakumanto Darani is the collection of Dharanis that was dedicated to Buddhist temples by way of being placed in one million mini pagodas during the Nara period for the protection of the nation as well as for repentance.

Hyakuren sho (History book from the Kamakura period) (百錬抄) - Hyakuren sho (百錬抄) is a history book in which extracts from diaries of kuge (court nobles) and other records were complied.

Hyakuryo Kunyosho (百寮訓要抄) - Hyakuryo Kunyosho was a book on the study of ancient courtly traditions and etiquette which Kanpaku (chief adviser to the Emperor) Yoshimoto Nijo wrote for Yoshimitsu ASHIKAGA, seii taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians) of the Muromachi bakufu.

Hyakusho (百姓) - The term "hyakusho," which can also be pronounced "hyakusei" or "omitakara," was originally a word of Chinese origin that indicates all people with a hundred (many) surnames, i.e., all the social class with surnames.

Hyobusho (Ministry of Military) (兵部省) - Hyobusho (Tsuwamono no tsukasa or Ministry of Military) was an administrative organ taking in charge of military administration for the national defense in earlier times in Japan.

Hyojohajime (評定始) - Hyojohajime was a ceremony held by an influential house of medieval Japan conducted at the first consultation in the New Year.

Hyojosho (conference chamber) (評定所) - The Hyojosho is an institution that handled lawsuits before modern times, or the place where such institution was located.

Hyomashi (兵馬司) - Hyomashi (Office of Military Horses) was the institution belonged to Hyobusho (ministry of military) on the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) of Japan.

Hyoro (army provisions) (兵糧) - Hyoro is food supply for the army during times of war.

Hyoro Bugyo (兵粮奉行) - Hyoro Bugyo or Konida Bugyo refers to a bugyo (magistrate) who was in charge of the transportation of provisions (konida) during marches and battles during the Sengoku period (period of Warring States) in Japan.

Hyoro-ryosho (grant areas for the support of troops in the field) (兵粮料所) - Hyoro-ryosho were areas of land set aside during the medieval period and devoted to producing rations and provisions (specifically, rice) for soldiers.

Hyoron Shinbun (literally, Critical Newspaper) (評論新聞) - Hyoron Shinbun was a periodical literature which was existed in the Meiji period.

I

I (移) (移) - "I" (移) is a form of official documents under the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code), to be exchanged between government officials when there are no hierarchical relationships between them.

I-do (The Medical Service Under The Japanese Ritsuryo System) (医道) - "I-do" refers to the medical service under the Japanese "Ritsuryo system" (system of centralized regime based on the ritsuryo code), or the education of the youth to make them offer services.

Ibaraki Doji (茨木童子) - Ibaraki Doji was a Heian-period oni (a mythical creature resembling a demon or ogre) who supposedly went on a rampage in Kyoto from his lair on Mt. Oe.

Ichi no Tsukasa (市司) - Ichi no tsukasa (Market Office) was the institution that belonged to Kyoshiki (the Capital Bureau) on the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) of the Ritsuryo system Japan.

Ichiban-yari (a group of spearmen or a person to spark a war) (一番槍) - The term Ichiban-yari refers to a warrior or group of warriors who engaged in combat using a spear.

Ichibu kin gold coin (一分金) - Ichibu kin gold coin was a kind of gold coin that was distributed in the Edo period.

Ichien Chigyo (一円知行) - Ichien Chigyo was a term used during the Japanese Middle Ages to mean that a particular individual has integrated control over lands in complicated and multi-layered relationships of dominance and rights of the Shoen Koryo (public lands and private estates) system.

Ichikaiso Government (一会桑政権) - The Ichikaiso Government was a politically prominent group in Kyoto, the center of politics at the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate; it was formed of Kinri-goshuei-sotoku (Governor-general of the inner palace's guard) Sekkai-bogyo-shiki (Commander of the coastal defense of Osaka-wan Bay) Yoshinobu HITOTSUBASHI, Kyoto-shugoshoku (Military governor of Kyoto) Katamori MATSUDAIRA from the Aizu clan, and Kyoto-shoshidai (Deputy for Governor-general of Kyoto) Sadaaki MATSUDAIRA from the Kuwana clan.

Ichiza (一座) - Ichiza was the term for the highest seat among court positions at the Imperial Court.

Ichoku (違勅) - Ichoku refers to a charge meted out as a reuslt of not following an Emperor's command.

Iden (fields given according to the court rank) (位田) - Iden refers to the rice fields which were given to the ones higher than goi (Fifth Rank) in the rank and the imperial family, depending on the rank or honi (court rank) in the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in Japan.

Identification of severed heads (首実検) - In feudal days of old, lower ranked samurai took the heads severed from the bodies of foes killed on the battlefield to their commanders for identification called "Kubi jikken"; this activity took place because a severed head was crucial piece of identification evidence leading to conferring of honors on lower ranking samurai.

Ie seido (family system) (家制度) - Ie seido was a family system, which was introduced to the Civil Codes established in 1898 (hereunder referred as Old Civil Codes), under the system, a small group consisting of relatives and living in a house is considered as a family and a family has a family head who was given an authority to lead a family.

Ienoko (Follower) (家子) - Ienoko are constituent members of bushidan (warrior bands).

Ieyasu TOKUGAWA Imposter Theory (徳川家康の影武者説) - Although it is commonly believed that Ieyasu TOKUGAWA founded the Edo shogunate, there is another theory that suggests an imposter took the place of Ieyasu TOKUGAWA at some stage of his life.

Iga school (伊賀流) - Iga school is one of the most famous schools of Ninjutsu as well as Koga-ryu school.

Igashi no Hen (Incident of the Iga clan) (伊賀氏の変) - Igashi no Hen is a political turmoil that happened in the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun), which lasted about a month from June 1224 in the early Kamakura period.

Igo (移郷) - Igo is a kind of punishment carried out during the Nara and Heian periods to remove a criminal to another province.

Ihai (移配) - Ihai is a policy under which the Ritsuryo-seifu Government (the ancient Japanese government of centralized governance) (Imperial court) forced Emishi (northerners), who lived in present-day Tohoku area, to move to Kanto region and to the west of Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu from the 8th to the 9th century.

Ikedaya Incident (池田屋事件) - The Ikedaya Incident is the name given to an event that took place on July 8,1864 towards the end of the Edo Period in which the Shinsen-gumi, who was a peacekeeping organization under the Kyoto protectorate, attacked the imperial loyalist faction from Choshu who were hiding out at the Ikedaya Inn at Kiyamachi (Sanjou-Kobashi Bridge) on Sanjou-Street in Kyoto.

Iken junikajo (意見十二箇条) - Iken junikajo (twelve opinions) was the written statement on politics that Kiyoyuki MIYOSHI, a scholar of Chinese classics in the mid Heian period, submitted to Emperor Daigo in 914.

Ikenfuji Sankajo (意見封事三箇条) - Ikenfuji Sankajo was fuji (written opinion presented to the Emperor) submitted to the Emperor Murakami on January 24, 958 by Jugoi no jo (Junior Fifth Rank, Upper Grade) Ushoben (Minor controller of the Right) SUGAWARA no Fumitoki.

Ikezuki (the fine horse given by MINAMOTO no Yoritomo) (生食) - Ikezuki (生食) was the name of fine horses which did remarkable work in the end of Heian period.

Ikki (Uprising) (一揆) - The term "ikki" refers to an attempt made by a community in Japan to achieve an objective when members of the community that share the same sentiment work closely together for a certain reason.

Ikko Ikki (一向一揆) - Ikko ikki (literally, "Ikko-sect riot") is a general term for riots during Japan's Sengoku period (period of warring states) (Japan) caused by followers of the Hongan-ji Temple branch within the Jodo Shinshu sect (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism), which was also called the "Ikko" or "only one direction (to heaven)" sect.

Ikkoku Heikinyaku (一国平均役) - Ikkoku heikinyaku refers to land taxes and assignments evenly imposed on shoen (manor) and kokugaryo (territories governed by a provincial government office) of a particular province during the Middle Ages in Japan.

Ikkunbanmin-ron (一君万民論) - Ikkunbanmin-ron is a theory in which constitutional authority is given to only one ruler, and under this sovereignty any discrimination and distinction from social status shold not be allowed among all other people.

Ikuno Bugyo (Ikuno Magistrate) (生野奉行) - Ikuno Bugyo was administered under Nobunaga ODA, Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI as well as the Tokugawa Shogunate, and it controlled the area of Ikuno Ginzan Silver Mine.

Ikuno Incident (生野の変) - The Ikuno Incident was an incident that occurred when the Sonno Joi ha (supporters of the doctrine of restoring the emperor and expelling the barbarians) raised an army in Ikuno, Tajima Province (Ikuno City, Hyogo Prefecture) in the latter Edo period in October 1863.

Ikuno Prefecture (生野県) - Ikuno Prefecture was a prefecture that was established in 1869.

Imiki (忌寸) - Imiki was one of the kabane (hereditary titles) established by Yakusa no Kabane (the eight hereditary titles) in 684, and it was placed as the fourth rank.

Imo Incident (壬午事変) - The Imo incident, (also known as the Jingo incident) was a massive soldiers' revolt that occurred under the incitement of Daewongun on July 23, 1882, in Seoul special city during the Joseon Dynasty (same as the later Seoul Special City), during which many people such as high-ranking government officials of Queen Min's, a Japanese military advisor, and Japanese diplomat were killed, and the Japanese legation was attacked.

Imperial Court (朝廷) - The Imperial Court was a place where an emperor performs political affairs and tasks.

Imperial decree of the practice of assigning one era name to the reign of each Emperor. (一世一元の詔) - The imperial decree of the practice of assigning one era name to the reign of each Emperor is an imperial decree established on October 23, 1868 (the Gregorian calendar) at the same time of changing Keio year 4 to Meiji gannen (Year of 1868) and it is a system for assigning one era name for each Emperor's reign.

Imperial Defense Policy (帝国国防方針) - Imperial Defense Policy was the basic guidelines for military strategy in the Empire of Japan.

Imperial Property (皇室財産) - "Imperial property" refers to the property of the Imperial family.

Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors (軍人勅諭) - The Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors was Shochoku (imperial edict) that Emperor Meiji issued to soldiers of the army and the navy on January 4.

Imperial sovereignty (天皇主権) - Imperial sovereignty is the sovereignty held by the Emperor under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan.

Imperialism (尊王論) - Imperialism (sonnoron) is the idea of valuing the emperor above all else.

In no Cho (院庁) - In no cho was the direct political institution of Daijo Tenno (the Retired Emperor) who took the reins of Insei (a cloister government) or the institution that handled shomusata (trial dealing with land-related issues) and zatsumusata (trial dealing with civil affairs) of Nyoin (woman bestowed with the title "in") in Japanese ancient and medieval period.

In no cho kudashibumi (院庁下文) - In no cho kudashibumi were the documents issued by Incho (Retired Emperor's Office) during the Insei (government by cloistered emperor) during the Heian period.

In no Kinshin (the retired Emperor's courtier) (院近臣) - In no Kinshin refers to the close associates or the group of close associates of Chiten no kimi (the retired emperor in power) who carried out Insei (rule by the retired emperor.)

In-no-hyojo (院評定) - In-no-hyojo was an agreement presided by the retired emperor or cloistered emperor during his post-retirement government.

Ina Clan (伊奈氏) - The Ina clan was one of the Japanese shizoku (clans, or samurai families).

Ina no Agata (猪名県) - Ina no Agata was one of the early form of the local bureaucratic system in ancient Japan (Agata), which was placed in Hokusetsu (northern Settsu Province, the area covering now Suita City through Amagasaki City) during the Kofun period (tumulus period), the era of Yamato sovereignty.

Inaba Sodo (Inaba Riot) (稲葉騒動) - The Inaba Riot was a large scale uprising of peasants which broke out in the Nishiowari region (133 villages of Inazawa, Bisai, Ichinomiya and Tsushima [today's Aichi Prefecture in Japan]) in January 1870.

Incident of Ashikaga-sandai mokuzo kyoshu (足利三代木像梟首事件) - In the incident of Ashikaga-sandai mokuzo kyoshu, heads of the wooden images and the mortuary tablets of the first Seii taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians") of Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) Takauji ASHIKAGA, the second Seii taishogun Yoshiakira ASHIKAGA, and the third Seii taishogun Yoshimitsu ASHIKAGA were taken away from Kyoto Jito-in Temple on April 9, 1863 in the late Edo period, and were cast to the riverbed of Kamo-gawa river.

Incident of Honkoku-ji Temple (本圀寺の変) - The Incident of Honkoku-ji Temple, on January 31, 1569, was an attack of Miyoshi sanninshu (three chief retainers of the Miyoshi clan) on Yoshiaki ASHIKAGA, seii taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians") of the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun), who was in his temporary residence (Rokujo Palace) in Kyoto Honkoku-ji Temple (it was called 'Honkoku-ji' then).

Independent Party or Mushozoku-dan (無所属団) - Independent Party (Mushozoku-dan) refers to a faction within the Diet of the House of Peers under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan.

Industry Association Act (産業組合法) - Industry Association Act was the Japanese law which existed before.

Ingu kyu (院宮給) - Ingu kyu is a nenkan (a right granted as a stipend to members of the Imperial family (including the emperor), consorts of the emperor, some Court nobles, and so forth in order to nominate a person for a certain government post conferred on occasion of an annual installation as a government official) and a nenshaku (a right granted as a stipend to a retired emperor, the mother of the Emperor Dowager, the Empress Dowager, the Empress, and so forth in order to nominate a person for a certain rank on occasions of annual conferments of ranks) given to Daijo tenno (the Retired Emperor) and Sannomiya (empress).

Ingubunkokusei (院宮分国制) - Ingubunkokusei was a system of granting the right to recommend a provincial governor to a specific province to retired emperors, nyoin (women bestowed with the title "in" (usually the empress, imperial princesses, etc.)), second consorts to the emperor, and imperial princesses serving at the Ise Shrine at the time of their appointment, and in return they would receive the financial profits of the provinces in place of a salary.

Innochocho (orders issued by innocho) (院庁牒) - Innochocho is an order document in a form of cho (a kind of document formats) issued by In no cho of Daijo Tenno (the Retired Emperor) to officials and Sogo (Office of Monastic Affairs) that were not under its jurisdiction.

Inokuma Incident (猪熊事件) - The Inokuma Incident was a big scandal involving high-ranking officers of the Imperial Court in 1609 the early Edo period.

Inpu (compilation of seal marks) (印譜) - An inpu is a kind of books on tenkoku (engraving letters on the material of a seal), that mainly introduces mainly inei (impressions of seals) and inkan (names of authors) for the purpose of appreciation and study.

Inscriptions of Iron Swords and Iron Blades (鉄剣・鉄刀銘文) - Inscriptions of iron swords and iron blades are letters or sentences inscribed on the iron swords or iron blades.

Insei (院政) - Insei refers to a form of government in which the retired Emperor (Joko), who is the direct ancestor of the current Emperor, directly conducts the affairs of state.

Insei period culture (院政期文化) - Insei period culture (culture during the period of the government by the Retired Emperor) or the culture of the end of the Heian period refers to Japanese culture from the end of Heian period, the latter half of the 11th century to the period when the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) was founded, the end of the 12th century.

Instantaneous Discharge Matchlock (瞬発式火縄銃) - Instantaneous discharge matchlock is an ignition system for matchlock guns, which are represented by Japanese hinawa-ju (literally, fire rope gun).

Introduction of Firearms into Japan (鉄砲伝来) - The term "Teppo Denrai" (introduction of firearms) generally refers to the introduction of matchlock guns from Europe into East Asia in the 15th century, and in a more limited sense it means the introduction of matchlock guns into Tanegashima Island, Japan.

Inyo Gogyo Shiso (Yin-Yang Wu-Xing Thought) (陰陽五行思想) - Inyo (also pronounced Onmyo) Gogyo Shiso (Yin-Yang Wu-Xing Thought) is the idea that linked together the principles of Yin-Yang (positive and negative, light and shade) and Gogyo Shiso (Five Elements Theory) during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period in China.

Inyoka (the Yin and Yang School of Philosophy) (陰陽家) - Inyoka is a philosophy group regarded as one of Shoshi hyakka (the Various Masters of the 100 Schools: Thinkers of Ancient China), and one of the six major schools.

Inzen (a decree from the retired Emperor) (院宣) - "Inzen" is a document which an Inshi (official of the In no cho, or Retired Emperor's Office) issues in a format of hosho (a document informing a decision of the upper ranked personages such as an emperor or shogun) upon direct orders from Daijo Tenno (the Retired Emperor).

Iro (old retainers) in the Kansei era (寛政の遺老) - Iro (old retainers) in the Kansei era refers to politicians who led the bakufu such as Nobuaki MATSUDAIRA (the lord of the Mikawa-Yoshida domain), who were chosen by Sadanobu MATSUDAIRA after his downfall.

Irtysh surrender incident (イルティッシュ号投降事件) - The Irtysh surrender incident is the incident in which the crew of a special service vessel of the Russian Baltic Fleet called the Irtysh, which had been damaged in the Battle of Tsushima and stalled at sea, surrendered in Waki district, Tsuno village, Naka County (present-day Waki town, Gotsu City), Shimane Prefecture at about 2:00 pm on May 28, 1905.

Ise shonin (伊勢商人) - Ise shonin (Ise merchants) were counted among the three major Japanese merchants along with Osaka shonin (Osaka merchants) and Omi shonin (Omi merchants).

Ishi-bocho (a ground stone tools excavated from remains in the Jomon and Yayoi periods in Japan) (石包丁) - The term ishi-bocho (stone implement) refers to a ground stone tool excavated from remains in the Jomon period or Yayoi period in Japan (in Yangshao culture and Longshan culture in China).

Ishi-gassen (a stone-throwing fight) (石合戦) - Ishi-gassen is a stone-throwing fight, in which people are divided into two groups and throw stones at each other, imitating a battle in the Sengoku period.

Ishida Sanyaku (Ishida medicinal powder) (石田散薬) - Ishida Sanyaku was medical powder made and sold by the home of the parents of Toshizo HIJIKATA, a vice chief of the Shinsengumi (a paramilitary group of pro-shogunate ronin formed in Kyoto).

Ishikawa Clan (石川氏) - The Ishikawa clan was a family that assumed the family name of Ishikawa.

Ishikiden (一色田) - Isshikiden is a rice field that is required to pay only one type (Isshiki) of tax.

Ishin no Sanketsu (The Three contributors of the Meiji Restoration) (維新の三傑) - Ishin no Sanketsu are Takayoshi KIDO, Takamori SAIGO, and Toshimichi OKUBO who made efforts to overthrow the Shogunate and contributed to the Meiji Restoration.

Ishinbo (医心方) - Ishinbo was compiled by TANBA no Yasuyori, who was a court physician and acupuncturist in the Heian period.

Ishisaji (stone spoon) (石匙) - Ishisaji is a kind of chipped stone tool made of obsidian, shale, chert, etc.

Ishiyama War (石山合戦) - The Ishiyama War took place from October 21, 1570 to September 20, 1580 between the Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land sect of Buddhism) Hongan-ji Temple force (or Ikko Ikki [Ikko sect's revolt]) and Nobunaga ODA.

Ishiyari (stone spear) (石槍) - Ishiyari is a kind of chipped stone tool used as the spearhead.

Isse ichigen no sei (system of one era per Emperor) (一世一元の制) - Isse ichigen no sei (system of one era per Emperor) refers to the system where an era name will not be changed during the reign of a monarch (Emperor or king).

Isshi Incident (乙巳の変) - The Isshi Incident was a coup which occurred during Asuka period when Emperor Tenchi and FUJIWARA no Kamatari assassinated SOGA no Iruka inside the Imperial Court, which led to the fall of the Soga clan (head family of the Soga clan).

Isshinkai (一進会) - Isshinkai(イルチンフェ) was a biggest political association of the times which was active in the Korean Empire from 1904 to 1910.

Isshukin (a kind of gold coin circulated during the Edo period) (一朱金) - Isshukin refers to a kind of gold coin circulated during the Edo period.

Itowappu (糸割符) - Itowappu is a system of importing raw silk threads in Japan during the Edo period.

Itsukaichi Constitution (五日市憲法) - The Itsukaichi Constitution is one of the constitution drafts which were made at the beginning of the Meiji period.

Iwakura Mission (岩倉使節団) - Iwakura Mission was a delegation which was dispatched to the United States of America and European countries from Japan between December 23, 1871 and September 13, 1873.

Iyo Shinno no Hen (伊予親王の変) - Iyo Shinno no Hen was a political change which occurred in 807.

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Jako no ma shiko (麝香間祗候) - Jako no ma shiko was one of the licenses of the Imperial Court defined by the Constitution of the Empire of Japan, in order to treat the peerages and government officials for their contributions, and the person who rendered a distinguished service for the Meiji Restoration.

Japan Post Office in Korea (在朝鮮日本郵便局) - Japan Post Office was post offices in Korea, which were placed in Korean Peninsula by Japan in Meiji Period.

Japan Socialist Party (1906, Nihon Shakaito) (日本社会党 (1906年)) - The Nihon Shakaito is a political party in the Meiji Period.

Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty of 1907 (第三次日韓協約) - The Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty was a treaty concluded on July 24, 1907.

Japan-Korea Protocol of 1904 (日韓議定書) - The Japan and Korea Protocol was the treaty which was signed between Japan and the Korean Empire during the Russo-Japan War in 1904.

Japan-Mexico Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation (日墨修好通商条約) - Japan-Mexico Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation is a treaty concluded between Japan and Mexico on November 30, 1888.

Japan-Ming trade (日明貿易) - The Japan-Ming trade indicates the trade carried on between Japan and the Ming Dynasty in China in the Muromachi period.

Japan-Qing Treaty of Friendship (日清修好条規) - The Japan-Qing Treaty of Friendship was a treaty concluded between Japan and Qing on September 13, 1871.

Japanese Americans (日系アメリカ人) - Japanese Americans are U.S. citizens who have roots in Japan.

Japanese Cedar Pollinosis (スギ花粉症) - Japanese cedar pollinosis is a form of hay fever caused by pollen of the Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar) tree.

Japanese education history (日本教育史) - Japanese education history deals with the state and history of Japanese education from ancient times to the modern age; additionally, it deals with the transition of educational philosophy, teaching materials and systems.

Japanese Envoys to Tamna (Korean kingdom which ruled Jeju Island in ancient times) (遣耽羅使) - Japanese Envoys to Tamna was dispatched to Tamna from Japan (Wakoku).

Japanese History (日本の歴史) - Nihon-no-rekisi (literally, Japanese history) or Nihonshi (literally, Japan history) is used for indicating history of Japan or that of the Japanese archipelago.

Japanese military history (日本の軍事史) - Japanese military history is characterized by the long feudal battles inside the nation and the overseas expedition during the age of imperialism.

Japanese missions to Tang China (遣唐使) - Japanese missions to Tang China were diplomatic missions sent to Tang China by Japan, as described in the "Old Book of Tang" and the "New Book of Tang."

Japanese Pigments (日本の絵の具) - Japanese pigments are materials used in Japanese traditional painting.

Japanese Race (日本民族) - The term "Japanese race" expresses a notion of a political community (nation) which embodies all cultural groups (ethnic groups) that possess a Japanese nationality and/or roots in the Japanese archipelago.

Japanese tenkoku (seal-engraving) history (日本の篆刻史) - It is the history of the tenkoku and insho (seals) in Japan.

Japanese-Korean Treaty of Amity (日朝修好条規) - The Japanese-Korean Treaty of Amity refers to the treaty between Japan and the Joseon Dynasty concluded in 1876 and all agreements subsidiary to it.

Japanization Education (皇民化教育) - Japanization education is defined as an edification policy in territories under the governance of the Empire of Japan, requesting fealty toward the Empire of Japan led by its ruler, the Emperor.

Ji-zamurai (地侍) - Ji-zamurai is a rank of samurai seen from Muromachi period to Azuchi Momoyama period.

Jibu-sho (治部省) - Jibu-sho (Ministry of Civil Administration) was a government-regulated organization in Japan under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo codes).

Jibugyo (地奉行) - Jibugyo was bugyo (magistrate) appointed by the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) and the Muromachi bakufu.

Jichi to (Autonomy Party) (自治党) - Jichi To was the idea of new political party formed by local renown men such as mayors of towns and villages promoted by Kaoru INOUE from 1888 to 1889 but failed in the end.

Jiden fields (寺田) - Jiden (also called terada) fields indicate, in Japan, rice fields whereby output was used for operating Buddhist temples.

Jidoku (imperial tutor) (侍読) - A Jidoku/Jito was a scholar who was an academic tutor for the emperor.

Jifuku (Clothes of the Season) (時服) - "Jifuku" means the clothes, or allocations of these clothes, bestowed by the Imperial Court to the Emperor's family members and their retainers in spring and autumn or in summer and winter, every year.

Jigatachigyo (地方知行) - Jigatachigyo was the administrative form during Edo period that Seii Taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians") or a lord of domain gave chigyo (enfeoffment, or the right to direct control of a certain asset) in the form of shoryo (territory) including the peasants living there to their vassals as a stipend and made them control it.

Jige Kaden (地下家伝) - The Jige Kaden, a work of history written during the Tenpo era in the late Edo period, is a collection of the genealogical records of families of Jigenin (low-ranking court officials who were not allowed into the Emperor's living quarters in the imperial palace, usually ranked at the sixth rank or lower except for Kurodo).

Jigeuke (地下請) - Jigeuke was a system in which village communities of medieval Japan undertook the task of feudal lords to collect nengu (land tax) to be paid to shoen (manor in medieval Japan) or Kokugaryo (territories governed by provincial government office).

Jikendan (自検断) - Jikendan (voluntary ruling and judging) refers to rural communities in medieval Japan such as soson (a community consisting of peasants' self-governing association) and goson (autonomous village) that conduct a kendan (trial) by themselves.

Jikimu (直務) - Jikimu refers to immediate dominance of shoen (manor in medieval Japan) by the lord of the manor (honjo [the administrative headquarters of a shoen] and ryoke [virtual proprietor of manor]), executing Shomuken (the authority of the jurisdiction and the administration of Shoen).

Jimoku (ceremony for appointing officials) (除目) - Jimoku (aka Jomoku) refers to a ceremony to appoint officials of kyokan (an official of the Capital) and gekan (a provincial official) after the mid Heian period.

Jin (position) (陣) - "Jin" was a place where military officers of Rokuefu (six guard divisions) lined up in the Imperial Court.

Jin no Sadame (陣定) - The Jin no Sadame was a type of privy council in use by regency governments during the Heian period.

Jinaicho (寺内町) - Jinaicho (also called Jinaimachi) refers to self-governing communities formed during the Muromachi period, which centered on the Buddhist temples of the Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) and training seminaries (gobo).

Jingisho (The Ministry of Divinities) (神祇省) - Jingisho (the Ministry of Divinities) was a government organization which replaced the old jingikan (Department of Divinities) that had existed since the first days of the ritsuryo system, as the agency ruling the religious services and public administration of jingi (Divinities); it was established on September 22, 1871 and lasted until April 21, 1872.

Jinka (suspected arson) (神火) - Jinka refers to suspicious fires which often happened from the late 8th century to 10th century, mainly centering on kanga (government office) in Togoku (the eastern part of Japan, particularly Kanto region).

Jinruikan Incident (Humankind Pavilion Incident) (人類館事件) - Jinruikan Incident, also known as 'Gakujutsu-Jinruikan Incident' or Osaka Exhibition Incident,' occurred at 'Gakujutsu-Jinruikan' in the fifth National Industrial Exhibition held in 1903 at Tennoji, Osaka, at the exhibition, living people dressed in their ethnic costumes and their ethnic houses were exhibited, those people were from Okinawa, Korea, India, Malaysia, Java and Africa as well as the Ainu tribe and the Takasago tribe of Taiwan.

Jinseigata (仁政方) - Jinseigata was one of the institutions established during the early Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Jinshin War (壬申の乱) - The Jinshin War was the biggest domestic war in ancient Japan and broke out in 672 and Emperor Tenchi's younger brother, Prince Oama (later Emperor Tenmu) launched a revolt taking powerful local clans on his side against Prince Otomo (given the name Emperor Kobun later in 1870) who was a son of Emperor Tenchi.

Jinshin Yakujo (壬申約条) - Jinshin Yakujo were rules for immigration that were issued by Yi Dynasty Korea against So clan in Tsushima Province in 1512.

Jinshin-koseki (family registries in Jinshin) (壬申戸籍) - Jinshin-koseki is the family register compiled in 1872 based on the Family Registration Law of 1871.

Jinyamachi (town around feudal lord's residence) (陣屋町) - Jinyamachi was one of the former Japanese city forms.

Jisha honjoryo (lands of temples and nobles) (寺社本所領) - Jisha Honjoryo was shoen (private estate) and shoryo (individual holding, domain) specifically meaning kugeryo (estate of the nobility) and jisharyo (estate of local temples and shrines) separately from bukeryo (estate of samurai family.)

Jisha honjoryo no koto (寺社本所領事) - "Jisha honjoryo no koto" was a law enforced by the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) on July 10, 1368.

Jisha kogyoho (Shrine restoration policy) (寺社興行法) - Jisha kogyoho was a series of ordinances that imperial court authority and bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) authority enforced to repair the main shrine buildings and the Buddhist temples of the religious institutions and to promote the strict observance of Shinto rituals and Buddhist memorial services.

Jisha seiryoku (寺社勢力) - Jisha seiryoku is a term describing the military, governmental, economical and cultural power of temples and shrines (at that time considered equivalent because of syncretism of Shinto and Buddhism), which shared power with the military government and Imperial Court during the Japanese middle ages.

Jisharyo (Lands of local temples and shrines) (寺社領) - Jisharyo was a classification of fief that once existed in Japan.

Jishazoeiryotosen (寺社造営料唐船) - Jishazoeiryotosen is a group of traveling vessels that were dispatched to the Yuan Dynasty under authorization of the bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) for the purpose of making profits to cover the costs of repair and construction of major temples and shrines in the first half of the 14th century (from the late Kamakura period through the period of the Northern and Southern Courts -Japan).

Jishi (地子) - Jishi, also called chishi, (land taxes under the Ritsuryo system) referred to the land rent which feudal lords imposed on rice fields, fields (for fruits, vegetables, etc.), mountains and forest, salt fields, or residential areas from ancient and medieval periods to the early-modern times.

Jishi Koeki (地子交易) - Jishi Koeki refers to the exchange (buying and selling) of rice as a land tax that was collected from koden (fields administered directly by a ruler) by a provincial governor under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code); rice was exchanged for light commodities that were easier to carry and submit to the central government.

Jishi Menkyo (The Exemption From The Tax That Was Imposed On The land Of The Town's Residential Area During The Early Modern Ages Of Japan) (地子免許) - "Jishi menkyo" refers to the exemption from "jishi" (the tax imposed on the land of the town's residential area during the early modern ages of Japan) permitted by a feudal lord, and jishi corresponded to "nengu" (the tax imposed on the land of farming villages).

Jishinban (security office, security officer) (自身番) - Jishinban is a bansho (an ancient form of security office) installed in downtown areas in Edo and Osaka during the Edo period.

Jisho Sannen no Seihen (Coup of the Third Year of Jisho) (治承三年の政変) - The Jisho Sannen no Seihen was an incident where TAIRA no Kiyomori led an army to conquer Kyoto and stalled the government by Cloistered Emperor Goshirakawa in December (November in old lunar calendar) 1179.

Jisho-guso (常照愚草) - Jisho-guso is a Yusoku kojitsu (court and samurai rules of ceremony and etiquette) written by Sadamichi ISE, the military governor of Yamashiro Province in the early Sengoku Period (the Period of Warring States) in Japan.

Jisho/Juei Rebellion (治承・寿永の乱) - The Jisho/Juei Rebellion was a large-scale internal rebellion that lasted for 6 years from 1180 to 1185 during the later Heian Period.

Jitsugokyo (実語教) - Jitsugokyo was a textbook used for elementary education from the end of the Heian Period to the early Meiji period in which precepts for ordinary people were mainly compiled.

Jiyu Minken Undo (Freedom and popular rights movement) (自由民権運動) - The Jiyu Minken Undo (Freedom and popular rights movement) was a political and social movement that took place in Meiji-period Japan.

Jo (丈; a unit of length by old Japanese system of weights and measures) or Take (丈; height of people and objects.) (丈) - Jo (丈)

Jobosei (a city plan where streets were laidout in a grid pattern) (条坊制) - Jobosei was the city plan seen in cities that contained the Emperor's palace in countries such as China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan; furthermore, the Suzaku-oji Street was placed in the center of the city running from east to west.

Jodai (上代) - Jodai is one of the periodizations in the history of Japan.

Joden (定田) - Joden (定田) refers to rice fields which were designated, as a result of a kenchu (land survey) on territories belonging to shoen (manors) and koryo (public lands), as taxable lands in regard to the payment of kanmotsu (tribute goods paid as taxes or tithes), shoto (tax on rice fields), nengu (annual tribute, land tax), and kuji (public duties).

Jofu (定府) - Jofu is a person in the Edo period who lived permanently in Edo and served seii taishogun (literally, "great general who subdued the barbarians") without performing Sankinkotai (a system under which feudal lords in the Edo period were required to spend every other year in residence in Edo).

Jogan Gishiki (貞観儀式) - Jogan gishiki is a book of ceremonies that is believed to have been compiled during the Jogan era (Japan) during the early Heian period (book) (book of ceremony).

Jogan no chi (Glorious Jogan rule) (貞観の治) - Jogan no chi (Glorious Jogan rule) indicates the politics performed during the Jogan era (Tang, 627 - 649) and the reign of the second Emperor Taiso (Tang tai zong) in the Tang Dynasty (618 - 907) in China.

Jogan-kyaku Code (貞観格) - Also, changes were made by deleting the laws of which some parts were not used and the specific phrases which modified the laws.

Jogan-shiki Code (貞観式) - Jogan-shiki Code was a Kyakushiki code (amendments and enforcement regulations of the Ritsuryo Code) that was compiled and enforced in the early Heian period.

Jogen no Honan (承元の法難) - Jogen no Honan was an incident where monks following Senju-Nenbutsu (intently praying to Buddha) led by Honen were suppressed and Honen, Shinran and other monks with central roles were exiled throughout the country.

Jogo (成功 (任官)) - Jogo was a system by which those aspiring to a government post would either pay directly to gain an appointment, or pay for expenses that would otherwise have had to be paid from the coffers of the Imperial Court, such as those incurred in carrying out public functions or events for the Imperial Court, building or repairing the palace, or repairing the buildings and pagodas of shrines and temples.

Johei and Tengyo Wars (承平天慶の乱) - The Johei and Tengyo Wars' is the generic name given to the two wars that occurred almost at the same time during the mid-Heian period in Kanto and the Seto Inland Sea: TAIRA no Masakado's War and FUJIWARA no Sumitomo's War.

Johyobun (memorial to the Emperor) (上表文) - Johyobun indicates the act of presenting a written document to a monarch or the document itself.

Joji Hen (The Joji Incident) (貞治の変) - Joji Incident, which occurred in 1366 during the late Northern and Southern Courts Period (Japan) (the early Muromachi period), was an incident by which Yoshimasa SHIBA, shitsuji (steward, later renamed kanrei) of the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun), and his father Takatsune SHIBA, an influential shugodaimyo (territorial lord as provincial constables) and a close aid of seii taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians") Yoshiakira ASHIKAGA, fell from power.

Jokamachi (城下町) - Jokamachi (castle towns) were cities that were established with the lord's castle in the center.

Jokoku (上国) - "Jokoku" (second-biggest provinces next to Taikoku) is one of grade classifications of provinces governed in accordance with the Ritsuryo codes.

Jokyu Rebellion (承久の乱) - The Jokyu Rebellion (jokyu no ran) occurred in the third year of the Jokyu era (A.D. 1221) during the Kamakura period; in this armed conflict, Emperor Gotoba raised troops to attack the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) but was defeated.

Jomai (城米) - Jomai originally means the annual rice tax from Edo bakufu directly controlled land (so-called 'tenryo'), but later, it means the rice stocked by the bakufu or fudai daimyo domain (a domain of a daimyo in hereditary vassal to the Tokugawa family) as provisions of rice for the army.

Jomen ho (定免法) - Jomen ho is one of the methods of land tax collection in the Edo period.

Jomon Period (縄文時代) - The Jomon period is approximately from 16,500 to 3,000 years ago (the tenth century B.C.) in terms of date, developed from the end of the Pleistocene epoch to the Holocene epoch in the Japanese archipelago in terms of geological age, and is comparable to the Mesolithic period or the Neolithic period in terms of the world history.

Jori sei (system of land subdivision in ancient Japan) (条里制) - Jori sei is a system of land subdivision (management) in Japan from ancient period until the late mediaeval period.

Josaku (official defense site) (城柵) - Josaku is a historical term for a government office with defending facilities that was located to govern the north part of present-day Niigata Prefecture and the Tohoku region under the ritsuryo system during the ancient Japan.

Joshu Daimyo (governors of castles) (城主大名) - Joshu daimyo (daimyo who is allowed to live in a castle) is a social status in the early-modern times of the Edo period, and refers to a daimyo, who was allowed to have a castle as his residence in his kunimoto (hometown), among Daimyo families (feudal lord families) classified according to their resident provinces and resident castles into five ranks: kokushu (landed daimyos), jun (associate) kokushu, joshu (lord of a castle), joshukaku (joshu class), mujo (without a castle) (jinya [regional government office]).

Jowa Incident (承和の変) - The Jowa Incident is believed to be the first incident to expulse other clans from the Imperial Court plotted by the Fujiwara clan in the early Heian period.

Juei-ninen Jugatsu no Senji (the imperial decree issued to MINAMOTO no Yoritomo) (寿永二年十月宣旨) - Juei-ninen Jugatsu no Senji is the imperial decree promulgated by the Imperial Court against MINAMOTO no Yoritomo in October (by the old calendar), 1183.

Juen-koka (10-yen coin) (十円硬貨) - Juen-koka (10-yen coin) is a subsidiary coin issued by the Japanese government.

Jugon hakase (呪禁博士) - The jugon hakase (Master Sorcerer) was an official for the Bureau of Medicine under the Ritsuryo system.

Jugonshi (呪禁師) - Jugonshi (sorcerers) were a type of official who worked in the Bureau of Medicine under the Ritsuryo system.

Jun fudai daimyo (quasi fudai daimyo) (準譜代大名) - A quasi fudai daimyo refers to some tozama daimyo (outsider to the ruler) clans, who became treated as fudai daimyo clans (relative or very close to the ruler), mainly in regards to the blood relations to the ruling family of the Edo period in Japan, mainly because of their the clans' achievement over the time.

Jungido (遵義堂) - "Jungido" is a hanko (school for the descendants of feudal lords) founded by the Zeze clan in 1808.

Junigessho (十二月将) - Junigessho (Twelve gessho) refers to the marker that indicates the position of the sun on the ecliptic, and its signs correspond to those of the Western astrology one to one.

Junshaku (巡爵) - Junshaku is a customary practice of conferring a Court rank on kurodo (chamberlain), which developed in the early Heian period.

Junshi (Self-immolation) (殉死) - Junshi is applied to the death of a close relative or a follower of a king, an emperor, a chief, or a priest, resulted from suicide to follow his or her master in death.

Jushichijo Kenpo (The 17-Article Constitution; a code consisting of 17 articles in ancient Japan) (十七条憲法) - Jushichijo Kenpo was a code consisting of 17 articles, which was described under the article of May 9, 604 of "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan) and "Sendai Kujihongi" (Ancient Japanese History) as follows: 'In summer on May 9, the Crown Prince himself wrote 17 articles of constitution.'

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Kabane (hereditary title) (カバネ) - Kabane refers to the titles given by Okimi (great king) (Yamato sovereignty) to powerful clans which showed ones' relationships to the sovereignty as well as ones' ranks in the Yamato sovereignty of ancient Japan.

Kabunakama (株仲間) - Kabunakama was a type of guild formed as a cartel by warehouse merchants.

Kachi (徒士) - The term Kachi means lower class warriors who fought on foot.

Kaechi (替地) - Kaechi is a term used for the switching or transfer of control over any two or more plots of land.

Kagaku (家学) - Kagaku' means handing down their academic skills within the family or the clan.

Kagami no Shuku (Inn of Mirrors) (鏡の宿) - Kagami no Shuku was an inn on the Tosan-do Road, north of Mount Kagami, in Gamo Country of the Omi Province (present day Gagami, Oaza, Ryuo-cho, Gamo-gun, Shiga Prefecture) that has existed since the Heian Period.

Kagemusha (影武者) - "Kagemusha" (the body double) is a person, during the Sengoku period (the period of warring states), employed by a busho (a Japanese military commander) as his straw man dressed in the identical clothes as his.

Kagen War (嘉元の乱) - Kagen War is a disturbance that occurred in 1305 (in the Kagen era) within the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Kagetoki KAJIWARA incident (梶原景時の変) - The Kagetoki KAJIWARA incident is a political incident caused in the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) in the early Kamakura period from November 15, 1199 to February 6, 1200.

Kaginawa (鉤縄) - Kaginawa is a tool that is believed to have been used by ninja.

Kaieki (改易) - In the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code), the term kaieki referred to removing someone from their current post and appointing someone new to that position.

Kaihatsu-Ryoshu (開発領主) - Kaihatsu-ryoshu (also pronounced as Kaihotsu-ryoshu) were those who owned the lands they developed as their territories in Shoen koryo sei (The System of Public Lands and Private Estates) in Japan.

Kaiho Rei (Emancipation Edict) (解放令) - Kaiho Rei (Emancipation Edict) is the edict of Dajokan (The Grand Council of State) that mainly announced the abolition of the social status system like Eta (a status of group who were the lowest rank of Japan's Edo-period caste system and usually involved in handling human bodies or animal carcasses) and Hinin (a status of group who were the lowest rank of Japan's Edo-period caste system and often ex-convicts or vagrants) made by the Meiji Government on October 12, 1871.

Kaiho Rei (Emancipation Edict) opposition uprisings (解放令反対一揆) - Kaiho Rei (Emancipation Edict) opposition uprisings were incidents of riots and raids which broke out against Kaiho Rei in various places of Japan during early Meiji period.

Kaiseigakari (System reformation department) (改正掛) - Kaiseigakari is a department set in Minbusho (Ministry of Popular Affairs) on December 20, 1869.

Kaishin no Mikotonori (the Imperial Reform Edict) (改新の詔) - "Kaishin no Mikotonori" is an edict which was announced to show the new administrative policy in the Taika no Kaishin (the Great Reformation of the Taika Era) which occurred in the mid-Asuka Period.

Kaisho (meeting place) (Medieval Era) (会所 (中世)) - Kaisho, interpreted literally, was some sort of place where a meeting, exhibition, Yoriai (debate), or association was held, but developed in the medieval era in Japan where certain divisions, or even independent buildings were named 'kaisho.'

Kaisho (the early-modern times) (会所 (近世)) - Kaisho literally means a place where a kind of reunion, party, event, assembly or meeting was held.

Kaitai Shinsho (New Book of Anatomy) (解体新書) - "Kaitai Shinsho" is a Japanese translation of "Ontleedkundige Tafelen" which was a Dutch book of medical science translated from Anatomische Tabellen written by a German doctor Kulmus.

Kaito Shokoku-ki (海東諸国紀) - "Kaito Shokoku-ki" (lit. Record of the Eastern Nations) is a historic book about Japan and the Ryukyu Kingdom written in classical Chinese by Joseon Dynasty minister Suk-ju SHIN.

Kajishi (加地子) - The term Kajishi (加地子) means rice (sakutokumai) delivered as a tax to a resident land-owner like myoshu (owner of rice fields) in the Japanese medieval period on top of nengu (customs)/jishi (land tax) for the lord of shoen (manor)/kokuga (provincial government officials) (kokushi (provincial governor)).

Kakitsu Treaty (嘉吉条約) - Kakitsu Treaty was a trade agreement concluded between Korean Dynasties and Sadamori SO of Tsushima Province in 1443, the Muromachi period in Japan.

Kakitsu War (嘉吉の乱) - Kakitsu War is referred to as a series of disturbances occurred in 1441, from when Mitsusuke AKAMATSU, a shugo (provincial constable) of the Harima Province, the Bizen Province, and the Mimasaka Province, assassinated Yoshinori ASHIKAGA, the 6th seii taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians") to when he was defeated and killed by the punitive force of bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) in his own territory, Harima.

Kamakura Bakufu (鎌倉幕府) - The Kamakura Bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) was a samurai government (bakufu) established in Kamakura (currently, Kanagawa City, Kamakura Prefecture) by MINAMOTO no Yoritomo.

Kamakura Mochiuji ki (鎌倉持氏記) - Kamakura Mochiuji ki is a military diary depicting the Eikyo Rebellion and Yuki Battle during the Muromachi period.

Kamakura Period (鎌倉時代) - The Kamakura period (1185-1333, called "Kamakura jidai" in Japanese) describes one distinct period in Japanese history in which the bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) was located in the city of Kamakura.

Kamakurafu (鎌倉府) - The Kamakurafu was a government office which the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) established in the Northern and Southern courts period and the Muromachi period for the purpose of ruling the Kanto region.

Kamigata (上方) - Kamigata is a name used in the Edo period referring to Kinai including Osaka and Kyoto.

Kamiyain (紙屋院) - As an affiliate department of Zushoryo (the Bureau of Drawings and Books) under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code), Kamiyain manufactured paper used in the Imperial Court.

Kamon (family) (家門) - Family, clan

Kan (An Unit of Weight and Currency) (貫) - Kan is a weight unit in the traditional Japanese system of weights and measures, and it was also a Japanese currency unit for the silver coin used as the currency by weight before the Edo period.

Kanbun-inchi (寛文印知) - Kanbun-inchi was a law established through a series of documents, namely ryochi-hanmono (a shogunal letter of authorization for the possesion of and ruling over a fief), shuinjo (shogunal letters with a red seal) and ryochi-mokuroku (a document supplementing ryoci-hanmono indicating the details of a fief) which were simaltaneously issued by the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) to daimyo (Japanese feudal lord) throughout the country on April 5, fourth year of the Kanbun era in the old calendar (April 30, 1664).

Kanbunden (漢文伝) - Kanbunden is a style of biography written in classical Chinese, influenced by Kidentai (an East Asian historical writing style) of Chinese authentic history and Kokushitai (Japanese historical writing style) of Japanese authentic history.

Kandaka Sei (system of measuring the amount of rice production based on land size) (貫高制) - The Japanese term "Kandaka sei" refers to the land system, tax system, and military system which used the currency unit "kan" to calculate the yield of rice for a given piece of land.

Kanden (imperial estates) (官田) - The usage of the term, Kanden, in Japan is different from that in China.

Kanei Mohan Kojou (Government-run model factories) (官営模範工場) - Government-run model factories were set up by the Meiji Government for the promotion of new industries.

Kanei-tsuho (寛永通宝) - Kanei-tsuho refers to coins that were in wide use throughout the entire Edo period in Japan.

Kangakukigen (漢学紀源) - Kangakukigen is a history book of the study of the Chinese classics written by Sueyasu IJICHI of Satsuma domain in the late Edo Period.

Kangofu (勘合符) - Kangofu was a tally or trading license issued by the Ming dynasty and used in trade, such as the Ming-Japanese trade, to confirm authorized tribute and trade ships between the Ming dynasty and a tributary state.

Kani Official Rank System of Ancient Japan (官位) - Kani means Ikai (Court rank).

Kani Sotosei (官位相当制) - Kani Sotosei was the bureaucrats hierarchy system that set the constant suitability relationship between Ikai (Court rank) and government post given to a government official on the Japanese Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Kanin (official seal) (官印) - A Kanin is an official seal given to government officials and offices to prove their social and public status in China and Japan.

Kanin-ryu (a linage of court noble of a branch one of the Fujiwara clique) (閑院流) - Kanin-ryu was a linage of kuge (court noble) of a branch of the Northern House of the Fujiwara clan including the Sanjo Family, the Saionji Family, or the Tokudaiji family.

Kanji of the Year (今年の漢字) - Kanji of the Year is a Chinese character representing the social conditions in Japan or World of the year which is announced once a year by the Japan Kanji Aptitude Testing Foundation on the "Kanji's day", December 12.

Kanjocho (Account Books) (勘定帳) - Kanjosho is a kind of account book prepared for settlement of balances on rice, soy beans, gold, silver and others.

Kanjosho (勘定所) - Kanjosho is the name of an office or a governing organization established for finance and civil administration in the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun), in each domain and at each hatamoto (direct retainers of the Edo bakufu).

Kanko (官戸) - Kanko ('guanhu' in Chinese) was the name of a social status that existed in premodern China and in Japan under the ritsuryo system.

Kanmon (勘文) - The term Kanmon means written reports (Kanshin) for various information such as origins/precedents that were submitted by scholars, etc. at the request of the Imperial court.

Kanmotsu (官物) - Kanmotsu are the tithes that were collected by the imperial court and Ryoseikoku (province) as tax such as Soyocho under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Kannen (官年) - In modern samurai society, kannen was the official age of a person reported to the authorities such as the bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) or the family of lord of the domain.

Kanno (勧農) - Kanno is a general term in the history of Japan for the overall acts by which the rulers typically promoted and encouraged agriculture.

Kanno Disturbance (観応の擾乱) - The Kanno Disturbance was a power struggle within the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) that reached its height during the Kanno era from 1350 to 1352 of the Northern and Southern Court period.

Kannonji family feud (観音寺騒動) - The Kannonji family feud is the family trouble that broke out in the family of Rokkaku clan that was a warring load of Minami Omi Province in 1563 during the Sengoku period (the Warring State Period of Japan).

Kannonji-jo Castle (観音寺城) - Honmaru (the keep of a castle), Ninomaru (second bailey), Kuruwa (a space reserved for various purposes), dorui (earthen walls for fortification), Stonewalls, Moats, Monzeki (temples in which the chief priests are either members of the imperial family or nobilities), etc.

Kanpaku Soron (関白相論) - Kanpaku soron was a dispute over the position of Kanpaku (chief advisor to the Emperor) that happened between Akizane NIJO and Nobusuke KONOE in 1585.

Kanpyo gyoki (寛平御記) - Kanpyo gyoki is the Emperor Uda's diary.

Kanpyo no chi (Glorious rule in Kanpyo era) (寛平の治) - Kanpyo no chi is the name of the rule by Emperor Uda in the mid-Heian Period (late 9th century) which was largely regarded as ideal.

Kanpyo no goyuikai (寛平御遺誡) - Kanpyo no goyuikai was the note that Emperor Uda left for the 13-year-old new emperor when he abdicated the throne in favor of Emperor Daigo on August 8, 897.

Kanpyo-Engi Togoku War (寛平・延喜東国の乱) - The Kanpyo-Engi Togoku War was a war raised by bandits in the Kanto region in the middle era of the Heian period.

Kansei Igaku no Kin (the Kansei Prohibition of Heterodox Studies) (寛政異学の禁) - Kansei Igaku no Kin was an academic control performed during the Kansei Reforms in 1790, by a roju (senior councilor) of the Edo Shogunate, Sadanobu MATSUDAIRA.

Kansenji (官宣旨) - Kansenji, also called "Benkankudashibumi," are oral decrees (called Kuzen) of a high-ranking court noble (called Shokei) of a Dajokan that officials of the Dajokan (called benkan) during the Heian period sent to Ritsuryo koku and temples.

Kanshi (government official) (官司) - Kanshi is an authority or a government official in ancient Japan.

Kanshoku Hisho (官職秘抄) - The Kanshoku Hisho was a reference book concerning the yusoku kojitsu (court and samurai rules of ceremony and etiquette) written by TAIRA no Motochika in 1200 in the early Kamakura period.

Kanto Gobunkoku (関東御分国) - Kanto Gobunkoku was the group of provinces ruled and administered by Shogun families (Kamakuradono) during the Kamakura period.

Kanzaki no Sho (Kanzaki Manor) (神崎荘) - Kanzaki no Sho (Kanzaki Manor) was a manor located in Hizen Province from the Heian period to the Muromachi period.

Kao no Goso (嘉応の強訴) - Kao no goso refers a direct petition by Enryaku-ji Temple's daishu (residing monks) demanding the proprietor of the Owari Province FUJIWARA no Narichika into exile on January 18, 1170.

Karafuto-Cho (Karafuto Agency) (樺太庁) - Karafuto Agency (Karafuto-Cho) was a regional administrative agency, which controlled Karafuto under Japanese possession.

Karita-rozeki (刈田狼藉) - Karita-rozeki or Katta-rozeki (刈田狼藉) means to harvest rice crops illegally in order to claim chigyo (tenure) to land# in medieval Japan.

Karo (chief retainer) (家老) - Karo was the highest post available for the retainers of a samurai family, and more than one person occupied the post to consult with and assist the master with political and economical affairs.

Karyaku no Sodo (a rebellion in the Karyaku era) (嘉暦の騒動) - "Karyaku no sodo" (Karyaku rebellion) refers to a conflict in 1326, towards the end of the Kamakura period, between Nagasaki Takasuke, a minister to the Tokuso family and the Adachi clan, whose head was a maternal relative of the Tokuso family over inheriting the head post of the Tokuso family within the Hojo clan, which was regent to the Kamakura bakufu shogunate.

Karyo (non-penal fine) (過料) - Karyo (non-penal fine) is the one of sanctions in the collection of money (fines) in Japan.

Kashindan (家臣団) - The term Kashindan refers to the group of vassals serving samurai families, such as the family of the Seii Taishogun (literally, a general who subsides barbarians) or a daimyo (Japanese territorial lord).

Kasho (passport) (過所) - Kasho refers to a passport used from the age of the Han dynasty to around the period of Tang Dynasty in China.

Kashoku (家職) - Kashoku was a hereditary job or position or official post (and progression pass).

Kaso (physiognomy of the house) (家相) - Kaso refers to the study of fortune telling which is similar to Feng Shui, Kigaku (fortune telling based on Chinese 12 year cycle) and etc.

Kasuga No Shinboku (The Sacred Tree Of Kasuga-Taisha Shrine) (春日神木) - "Kasuga no Shinboku" refers to "Shinboku" (the sacred tree) of Kasuga-taisha Shrine located in the present Nara Prefecture.

Katada Domain (堅田藩) - The Katada Domain refers to a domain which existed in Shiga County and Takashima County, Omi Province (present-day Katata, Otsu City, Shiga Prefecture).

Katagihara haiji ato (the ruins of deserted Katagihara Temple) (樫原廃寺跡) - Located in Katagihara in Saikyo Ward of Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture, Katagihara haiji ato are the ruins of an ancient temple, which are designated as a National Historic Site.

Katakamuna civilization (カタカムナ文明) - Katakamuna civilization is a super ancient civilization that is said to have existed in Japan.

Katakiuchi (Revenge) (敵討) - Katakiuchi is the practice of taking out one's revenge, by taking the law into his own hands, against someone who has killed a direct ancestor of the avenging party.

Katanagari (sword hunt) (刀狩) - Katanagari (written as 刀狩 or 刀狩り) was a policy of heinobunri (separating warriors and peasants) which deprived those in the peasant class of their privilege of wearing swords, which highlighted the policy enacted by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI through the katanagari edict (at the same time, pirate ship interdiction) issued on August 29, 1588 in the Azuchi-Momoyama period (The first person who executed katanagari was Katsuie SHIBATA.

Katanashi (結政) - Katanashi (Kessei) was one of the governmental affairs conducted at the Imperial Court during the Heian period.

Katatagae (The Practice of Changing a Direction to Avoid a Tabooed Direction) (方違え) - Katatagae or Katachigae is one of the customs based on Onmyodo (way of Yin and Yang; occult divination system based on the Taoist theory of the five elements) performed from the Heian period (794-1185).

Kawachi Juningiri (Ten killings in Kawachi area) (河内十人斬り) - "Kawachi juningiri" was a murder case occurred in Akasakasuibun Village at the foot of Mt. Kongo in the southwest of Osaka Prefecture.

Kawachi-Genji (河内源氏) - Kawachi-Genji is a school of Seiwa-Genji based in Kawachi province

Kawakatsu Clan (川勝氏) - The Kawakatsu clan (Kawakatsu-shi or Kawakatsu-uji) was a Japanese clan.

Kawamata Incident (川俣事件) - The Kawamata Incident was a struggle that took place on February 13, 1900 in Kawamata, Sanuki Village, Oura County, Gunma Prefecture (the present Meiwa Town, Gunma Prefecture) between police and peasants who were marching to Tokyo to protest to the Meiji government against the Ashio Copper Mine Mineral Pollution Incident.

Kawaramono (discriminated position) (河原者) - Kawaramono is also referred to as Kawarabito, and they were a type of people which were discriminated against in medieval Japan.

Kawase-mai-rei Law (Rice-purchase Law) (買米令) - In 1730, the Kawase-mai-rei Law was enforced as part of the Kyoho Reforms (the reforms made in the Kyoho era of the Edo period).

Kawazarae Myogakin (川浚冥加金) - Kawazarae Myogakin is votive offering tax imposed by the government for dredging rivers in Osaka in the Edo period.

Kayakugata Ninsokuyoseba (加役方人足寄場) - Ninsokuyoseba, Hitsuke Tozoku Aratame-kata Ninsokuyoseba by formal name, was a self-support facility set up by the Edo Shogunate for minor offenders and those who are likely to commit crimes.

Kazanin (花山院) - Kazanin was a residence that was located in Sancho, Shibo, Ichijo, Sakyo (present Kyoto Gyoen) in Heian-kyo City.

Kazoku-rei (Peerage Law) (華族令) - The Kazoku-rei was a Japanese act.

Kazuraki no Kuni no Miyatsuko (葛城国造) - Kazuraki no Kuni no Miyatsuko (also called 'Kazuraki Kokuzo', 'Katsuragi no Kuni no Miyatsuko', or 'Katsuragi Kokuzo') was a Kuni no Miyatsuko (the head of a local government) who ruled over the southern-west of Yamato Province.

Ke (or Ka) (holiday) (假) - A ke (or ka) was a holiday given to nobles and government officials under the ritsuryo system.

Kei (a unit of area) (頃) - "Kei"or qing is a unit of area used in the Chinese traditional system of measurement (unit system).

Kei-En era (Katsura-Saionji era) (桂園時代) - Kei-En era (or Kei-On era) was the 8-year period from 1905 to 1912 during which Taro KATSURA, who belonged to the faction led by Aritomo YAMAGATA of the Imperial Japanese Army, and Kinmochi SAIONJI, who assumed the position of president of Rikken seiyukai (a political party) as a successor of Hirobumi ITO, gained power alternately.

Keicho Koban (oval coin) (慶長小判) - Keicho Koban had been issued since 1601, during the early period of the Edo period,and was currency by table having one Ryo value per one Koban.

Keicho Oban (慶長大判) - Keicho Oban is a large-sized old Japanese gold coin issued in the early Edo period, from 1601 more specifically, and this can be classified into several varieties according to writings in ink, karat (gold measurement), timing of issuance, and so on.

Keicho Tsuho coin (慶長通宝) - The Keicho Tsuho was a copper coin issued by the Edo Shognate in 1606. (different theories exist.)

Keicho- chogin (Silver oval coin) (慶長丁銀) - Keicho-chogin is a kind chogin (collective term of silver) which started to be minted in July 1601, the beginning of Edo period, and it is a silver coin by weight standard as well.

Keishi (household superintendent) (家司) - Keishi (also called Ie no tsukasa) refers to personnel who are in charge of household management placed in a household of the Imperial Prince and Princess, or a Court noble or a samurai family of Jusanmi (Junior Third Rank) or higher as Shikiji (another term for a royal secretary, kurodo, especially one who is concurrently posted as a controller).

Keishitsu (Second wife) (継室) - Keishitsu means second wife.

Keiun no kaikaku (Political reform in the Keiun era) (慶雲の改革) - Keiun no kaikaku is a political reform of Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on Ritsuryo Code) at the imperial court under the reign of Emperor Monmu, which was carried out since 706 at the end of the Asuka period.

Keizu Sanyo (Edo Period Pedigree Charts) (系図纂要) - Keizu sanyo (Edo period pedigree charts) is a collection of pedigree charts compiled in the late Edo Period.

Ken (間; the unit of length by old Japanese system of weights and measures) (間) - 間 (ken, ma, or aida)

Kenbokkaishi (遣渤海使) - Kenbokkaishi refers to an envoy sent to Bokkai (Balhae, a kingdom in Manchuria and North Korea, established after the fall of Goguryeo).

Kenchi (検地) - The term "Kenchi" refers to the surveys of field size and size of yield (harvest) conducted during medieval and early modern Japan.

Kenchi-Cho (The Land Survey Register) (検地帳) - "Kenchi-cho" refers to the register compiled per village, in which the result of "kenchi" (land survey) was added up.

Kenchucho (検注帳) - Kenchucho refers to ledgers for recording the results of kenchu (land surveys) in shoen (manors) during ancient and medieval times in Japan.

Kendan-sata (criminal cases) (検断沙汰) - "Kendan-sata" is a term used in medieval Japan, referring to lawsuits and trials relating to criminal cases.

Kenden (検田) - Kenden was a survey of farmland, recording area, cultivator, soil and so forth.

Kenin (家人) - Kenin refers to a vassal, a servant, etc. of high-ranked people in Japanese history.

Kenka Ryoseibai (喧嘩両成敗) - Kenka Ryoseibai was one of the principles of law (jurisprudence) in Medieval Japan.

Kenkyukai (in the House of Peers) (研究会 (貴族院)) - Kenkyukai (a study group) was a faction within the House of Peers under the Constitution of the Great Empire of Japan.

Kenminsen (遣明船) - Kenminsen means ships dispatched seventeen times to Ming China in the Muromachi period (the total number of ships was eighty-four) during the period of one and a half centuries from 1404 to 1547 for the purpose of Nichi-Ming trade (trade between Japan and the Ming Dynasty, China) (Kango trade).

Kenmu Irai Tsuika (建武以来追加) - Kenmu Irai Tsuika refers to the supplementary law code established by Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Kenmu Restoration (建武の新政) - The Kenmu Restoration (kenmu no shinsei) refers to the period of direct Imperial rule (where the Emperor personally controls the government) initiated by Emperor Godaigo in the sixth month of 1333, as the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) collapsed; it can also refer to the administrative unit of Imperial rule.

Kenzuishi (Japanese Envoy to Sui Dynasty China) (遣隋使) - The term "Kenzuishi" refers to Japanese tributary envoys dispatched to the Sui rulers in China during the reign of Empress Suiko.

Keryo (家領) - Keryo were such holdings as shoryo (individual estates) and shoen (manor in medieval Japan) inherited by kenmon (an influential family) for generations in Medieval Japan.

Kibi no Otodo Nitto Emaki (吉備大臣入唐絵巻) - Kibi no Otodo Nitto Emaki is the name of a Japanese picture scroll.

Kida Clan (木田氏) - The Kida clan was one of the Japanese shizoku families (clan, samurai family).

Kidendo (紀伝道) - Kidendo is a subject in the daigakuryo (Bureau of Education under the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code)) in Japan under the Ritsuryo system in which history (mainly Chinese history) was taught.

Kidentai (historiographical format) (紀伝体) - Kiden-tai is a type of format of history books in East Asia.

Kiheitai Army (奇兵隊) - Kiheitai Army

Kikokusenkin (貴穀賤金) - Kikokusenkin refers to one of the economic thoughts during the Edo period, which respected rice and abhorred money.

Kimigayo (Reign of Your Majesty) (君が代) - Kimigayo is Japan's National Anthem.

Kimitezuri (君手摩) - Kimitezuri is commonly regarded as a guardian god of the Ryukyu Kingdom that rules the sea and the sun.

Kimu Rokujo (Six articles about very important affairs of State) (機務六条) - Kimu Rokujo is the agreement between the Emperor Meiji and Hirobumi ITO (Prime Minister and Minister of the Imperial Households), who represented the cabinet (Japan) in September 7, 1886.

Kin (a unit of weight in the East Asia system of weights and measures) (斤) - Kin (Catty) is a weight unit in the East Asian system of weights and measures.

Kin-za (金座) - Kin-za was a place or an organization in charge of casting or appraising and approving of gold coins in the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Kinchu narabini kuge shohatto (Law on the emperor and the court nobles) (禁中並公家諸法度) - Kinchu narabini kuge shohatto (law on the emperor and the court nobles) was proclaimed by the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) to establish its relationships with the emperor and the court nobles.

Kindai shakaku seido (modern shrine ranking system) (近代社格制度) - Kindai shakaku seido is a shrine ranking system that was newly established after the Meiji Restoration, being modeled after the system stipulated in the Engishiki (an ancient book for codes and procedures on national rites and prayers) under the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

King of Japan (Nihon Kokuo) (日本国王) - The king of Japan was a title of the ruler of Japan, which was used mainly by the head of the military government internationally during the medieval and early-modern times.

Kingyokushochusho (The book of treasure in the hand) (金玉掌中抄) - Kingyokushochusho is a law book written by NAKAHARA no Norizumi (Norizumi NAKAHARA) in the end of the Kamakura Period.

Kinkei no ma shiko (錦鶏間祗候) - Kinkei no ma shiko is one of the licenses of the Imperial Court defined under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan.

Kinketsu Incident (禁闕の変) - The Kinketsu Incident was an attack on Emperor Gohanazono's Inner Court in Kyoto that occurred in September 1443 (Muromachi period).

Kinomidokyo (reading of the Great Perfection of Insight Sutra in spring and autumn) (季御読経) - Kinomidokyo was a court function performed during the Heian period.

Kinri Goshuei Sotoku (post to guard Kinri Palace) (禁裏御守衛総督) - Kinri Goshuei Sotoku is the post set up to protect the kinri gosho (Kyoto Imperial Palace) under the understanding of bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) in the end of Edo Period.

Kinroku Kosai (金禄公債) - Kinroku Kosai was the public bond issued for people in the class below aristocrats in compensation for the abolition of the Roku-rewarding system after the Meiji Restoration.

Kinshi kunsho (The Order of the Golden Kite) (金鵄勲章) - Kinshi kunsho (the Order of the Golden Kite) is one of Japan's decorative orders.

Kioizaka Incident (紀尾井坂の変) - The "Kioizaka Incident" (Kioizaka no Hen: May 14, 1878) was the incident when Genkun (oligarch with merits) of Meiji, Toshimichi OKUBO, was assassinated by six shizoku (family or person with samurai ancestors) on the Kiyomizu-zaka Slope at Kioi-cho, Tokyo.

Kirisute gomen (a privilege granted to samurai warriors) (切捨御免) - Kirisute gomen, as well as the rights to bear a surname and to wear a sword, is one of a warrior's privileges in the Edo period.

Kiseijinushisei (The parasitic landlord system) (寄生地主制) - The parasitic landlord system was the system that allowed a parasitic landlord, who owned farmlands such as rice fields, vegetable fields, etc., to lend a farmland to a farmer called kosakunin (a tenant farmer) (also known as kosakuno or kosaku), to have him cultivate the land, and to take away some farm products, such as rice, barley, etc., as the land rent called kosakuryo (farm rent).

Kiyosu Alliance (a military alliance formed between Nobunaga ODA and Ieyasu TOKUGAWA) (清洲同盟) - Kiyosu Alliance was a military alliance formed between Nobunaga ODA, a Sengoku daimyo (Japanese territorial lord in the Sengoku period [Period of Warring States]) of Owari Province, and Ieyasu TOKUGAWA, a sengoku daimyo of Mikawa Province.

Kiyosu conference (清洲会議) - The Kiyosu conference was held on the 27th of June (according to the old calendar) during the Azuchi-Momoyama period.

Kizokuin (Japan's House of Peers) (貴族院 (日本)) - The Kizokuin was the upper house of the Imperial Diet from 1890 to 1947 under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan.

Ko Roppa (the hard-line six parties) (硬六派) - The Ko Roppa (the hard-line six parties) was a pro-nationalistic federation of six political parties that advocated a strong foreign policy in 1890s.

Koban (小判) - Koban is a kind of gold coin that was distributed in the Edo period.

Kobe Incident (神戸事件) - Kobe Incident was an incident that occurred on February 4, 1868, in which in front of Sannomiya-jinja Shrine of Kobe (present-day Kobe City), a troop of the domain of Bizen (present-day Okayama Prefecture) injured French sailors who had crossed the array of the troop, and shot horizontally to the Minister-Counselors from Western countries who were inspecting the place which was supposed to be the settlement site (present-day Former Foreign Settlement).

Kobu Gattai (Alliance between Imperial Court and Shogunate) (公武合体) - Kobu gattai is a policy promoted in the second half of the Edo period which aimed to reassert the power of the Shogunate by bonding the traditional authority of the Imperial Court to the Shogunate.

Kobu-ochoku juhakka-jo (Eighteen articles of Imperial court and shogunate legislation made by an Imperial order) (公武法制応勅十八箇条) - Kobu-ochoku juhakka-jo was the name for eighteen articles which were said to be issued in September 1615 by Ieyasu TOKUGAWA who received an imperial order from Emperor Gomizunoo to display in Shishin den inside the Imperial palace.

Kobunin (弘文院) - Kobunin was a facility considered to be built by WAKE no Hiroyo in Heiankyo (the ancient capital of Japan in current Kyoto) at the beginning of the Heian period.

Kobunjigaku (the study of archaic words and phrases) (古文辞学) - Kobunjigaku is a school of Confucianism founded by Sorai OGYU in the Edo period.

Kochi Komin sei (system of complete state ownership of land and citizens) (公地公民制) - "Kochi Komin sei" is a system believed to have been instituted in the process of development of the Ritsuryo system from the Asuka Period to the Nara period, and under the system of Kochi Komin sei, it was provided for that all land and citizens should belong to the public, in other words, to the emperor.

Kodai Sanjo (ancient castles built on the top of mountains) (古代山城) - Kodai Sanjo generally refers to ancient mountain castles built in the historical period from Asuka to Nara, which were influenced by the Korean Peninsula.

Kodaireki (a chronicle) (皇代暦) - Kodaireki is a chronicle written between the Period of Northern and Southern Courts and the Muromachi period.

Koden (荒田) - Koden (run-down field) is the term indicating fields that had been cultivated but have been abandoned for some reason during the ancient times and middle ages.

Koden kanmotsu ritsuho (公田官物率法) - Koden kanmotsu ritsuho was the law (ritsuho) fixing the tax rate of kanmotsu (tribute) of Koden (fields administered directly by a ruler) in the middle of the Heian period.

Koden, rice fields granted by the state (功田) - Koden is rice fields granted to those who did meritorious deeds for the state under the Japanese Ritsuryo system.

Kodencho (校田帳) - A kodencho was an account book made to report to the central government on the results of koden (research of public paddy fields in a ryoseikoku [province]) by a kodenshi (koden researcher) or a kokushi (provincial governor) sent by the central government under the ritsuryo system in ancient Japan.

Koetsu mura (Koetsu Village) (光悦村) - Koetsu mura was a village that flourished in arts and crafts, and managed by Koetsu HONAMI during the early Edo Period.

Kofun (tumulus) (古墳) - A kofun generally refers to old grave which has a tumulus.

Kofun period (tumulus period) (古墳時代) - In general, the 'Kofun period' (tumulus period) refers to the period ranging from the middle of the third century to the later part of the seventh century, approximately 400 years.

Koga Nijuikke (甲賀二十一家) - Koga Nijuikke (Twenty-one Families of Koga) refers to the most trusted twenty-one families of all the fifty-three families of Koga, which received letters of commendation from the ROKKAKU clan and later played a central role in the Ninjutsu (Ninja Art) of the Koga-ryu School.

Koga-ryu school (甲賀流) - Koga-ryu (or Koka-ryu) is the most famous school of ninjutsu (ninja technique) along with Iga-ryu, but it is the name that refers to collectively the schools originating from the Koka region in Omi Province and the school named "Koga-ryu" did not exist.

Kogaku (Classical Studies) (古学) - Kogaku

Kogi (公儀) - Kogi (also referred to as Kugi) is the term used for "official authority" in the middle and early modern ages.

Kogisho (Lower House) (公議所) - The Kogisho (Lower House) was the legislative body that was established in the beginning of Meiji era.

Kogo Jihen (庚午事変) - Kogo Jihen was an incident in which vassals of the Hachisuka clan, who lived in Sumoto City, attacked the second residence of chief retainer Kunitane Inada and a place of study and other places near the Sumoto-jo Castle on Awaji-shima Island, Tokushima domain of that time in 1870.

Kogosho Conference (the meeting held in the presence of the Emperor in the Kogosho Conference Room of Kyoto Imperial Palace at the night of January 3, 1868, when the Decree for the Restoration of Imperial Rule was issued) (小御所会議) - Kogosho Conference is a meeting on national politics held at Kyoto Palace in Kyoto on January 3, 1868 in the end of Edo Period.

Koizumi Domain (小泉藩) - Koizumi Domain was a domain which existed in Yamato Province (current Koizumi-cho, Yamatokoriyama City, Nara Prefecture).

Kojichi (高質) - During the Middle Ages in Japan, a kojichi was the act of privately seizing the assets of a debtor whose credit had fallen into default.

Kojin-bashi Incident (荒神橋事件) - The Kojin-bashi Incident is an incident that occurred on November 11, 1953, where a group of Kyoto University student demonstrators who had been marching up to the large-scale meeting at the Hirokoji campus of Ritsumeikan University, had a collision with the police on Kojin-bashi Bridge (Kyoto City).

Kojiruien (Dictionary of Historical Terms) (古事類苑) - Kojiruien is a kind of encyclopedia compiled and edited in the Meiji period of Japan, providing many references published by the Meiji period that started in 1868, to each and every term in it.

Koka fifty-three families (甲賀五十三家) - Koka fifty-three families refers to jizamurai (local samurai) fifty-three families in Koka, who stood by Rokkaku clan's side in 'Siege of Magari,' who later became the center families of Koga-ryu school ninjutsu (ninja techniques).

Kokaho (估価法) - Kokaho (price regulation law) is a law that stipulated the official prices and the conversion rates for goods at the market from ancient times to medieval periods under the Court, kokuga (provincial government offices) and the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Kokkagakkai (Society for the Science of the Nation) (国家学会) - Kokkagakkai is a study group at law school of the University of Tokyo (the predecessor of the Faculty of Law at the University of Tokyo) founded in February 1887.

Koku (a unit of volume in old Japanese system of weights and measures originated in China) (石 (単位)) - Koku is a physical unit of old Japanese system of weights and measures represents volume.

Kokudaka (The Figure Of Land Productivity) (石高) - Kokudaka refers to the figure of land productivity shown with koku (a unit), which was used in the early modern ages of Japan.

Kokufu-bunka (国風文化) - Kokufu-bunka is one of the Japanese historical cultures.

Kokuga (provincial government office compounds) (国衙) - Kokuga is a term for describing the section in which a government office, a Kokushi (provincial governor) executed the local government functions of the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in Japan, used to be located.

Kokuga forces system (国衙軍制) - The kokuga forces system indicates a historical concept of a national military system established in the period from around the end of ancient times to the early medieval period of Japan (the 10th century to the 12th century).

Kokugaku (Educational institutes under the Ritsuryo system) (国学 (律令制の教育機関)) - The term Kokugaku means educational institutes established, with the aim of nurturing officials, at each province under the Ritsuryo system (the system of centralized government based on the Riysuryo code).

Kokugaryo (国衙領) - Kokugaryo is a historical term referring to koryo (an Imperial demesne) after around the mid-Heian period, differentiated from shoen (manor in medieval Japan).

Kokujin-ryoshu sei (国人領主制) - Kokujin-ryoshu sei was a thesis concerning the structure of Japan during the late medieval period (the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan), the Muromachi period, and the Sengoku period - period of warring states) -- accordingly, the structure should be comprehended through research of movement of kokujin-ryoshu (local samurai lords) who directly ruled the farmers.

Kokumen no sho (国免荘) - Kokumen no sho (also referred to as Kokumensho) was a kind of shoen (manor in medieval Japan) during the late Heian period which was exempt from miscellaneous taxes by kokushi (provincial governor).

Kokumin Domeikai (People's Alliance Society) (国民同盟会) - Kokumin Domeikai is the political society organized in the Meiji period, in September, 1900.

Kokumori (石盛) - Kokumori refers to the estimated production output (To-dai; one To was about 18 liters) per tan (an old land area unit; 991.7 square meters) of rice in rice paddies, fields and residential areas in a land survey.

Kokuritsu Ginko Shihei (National paper currency) (国立銀行紙幣) - Kokuritsu Ginko Shihei was paper currency issued by the National Bank in the early Meiji Period.

Kokushi Kasei Joso (国司苛政上訴) - Kokushi kasei joso refers to acts and phenomena of appeals and armed struggles by Gunji (local magistrates), Tato (cultivators), Fumyo (tiller of the public rice field), and the farmer class in order to complain to the central government Daijokan (Grand Council of State) about tyrannies and illegal behaviors of Kokushi (or Zuryo) (provincial governors), Chihokan (local officials) during the Heian period in Japan.

Kokuyaku Kenpo (国約憲法) - Kokuyaku Constitution defined laws that were formulated by representatives of the people and approved by the ruler (in Japan's case it would be the Emperor) and this procedure served as a sort of promise between the ruler and his people.

Kokuzekomoku (break a national policy down and analyze it both generally and in detail) (国是綱目) - Kokuzekomoku was a petition that Hirobumi ITO who was a governor of Hyogo Prefecture submitted it with three executives of Prefecture (Nobuyuki NAKAJIMA, Mitsuaki TANAKA, Noriyuki GA) and Finance officer/ judge, Munemitsu MUTSU who was in Osaka.

Kokyu (empress's residence) (後宮) - Kokyu palace was where the empress of the king or emperor lived.

Kokyu Junishi (後宮十二司) - The Kokyu junishi is an organization of 宮人(kunin/kyujin or court ladies, later called nyokan) prescribed in the Japanese ritsuryo system.

Komatsubara Honan (Komatsubara Persecution) (小松原法難) - Komatsubara Honan is an incident that Nichiren was assaulted and injured in Komatsubara (present-day Kamogawa City, Chiba Prefecture).

Komyojimura joko shoshi jiken (光明寺村女工焼死事件) - Komyojimura joko shoshi jiken ("the incident in Komyoji-mura Village in which female factory workers perished by fire") refers to the fire that broke out in 1900 in a textile factory in the village of Komyoji-mura (the present-day city of Ichinomiya) in Haguri-gun County of Aichi Prefecture and killed 31 female factory workers.

Kondei (regular soldiers guarding the Kokubu (ancient provincial offices) or Sekisho (checking station)) (健児) - "Kondei" means well-equipped cohorts, which were organized as local military forces from the Nara period through the Heian period.

Konden (New rice field) (墾田) - Konden means a newly developed rice field in the Ritsuryo period of Japan.

Konden Einen Shizai no Ho (the law allowing permanent ownership of newly cultivated land) (墾田永年私財法) - "Konden Einen Shizai no Ho" was a law which was proclaimed as "choku or mikotonori" (an order under the name of Emperor) on June 27, 743, during the reign of Emperor Shomu in the middle of the Nara Period that allowed permanent ownership of "konden" (land that farmers newly cultivated).

Konida (小荷駄) - Konida refers to dachin umakasegi (a job of carrying by daba, packhorse or cow) or vehicles that carry army provisions, ammunition, set-up tools for encampment and so on needed for wars from the medieval period to modern times in Japan, or a troop that directed the above things, also referred to as konidatai.

Konin Gishiki (弘仁儀式) - Konin Gishiki was one of Gishiki (Court rules and customs Books) considered to be compiled during the Konin era at the beginning of the Heian period.

Konin-Jogan Culture (弘仁・貞観文化) - Konin-Jogan culture is considered in Japanese history to be the culture that flourished in Japan during the Konin and Jogan era of the early Heian period (about the ninth century).

Konin-Kyaku (弘仁格) - The Konin-Kyaku was a compilation of kyakushiki (penal and administrative law and their amendments) that was compiled and enforced towards the beginning of the Heian Period.

Konin-shiki (Supplementary laws) (弘仁式) - The Konin-shiki was a compilation of laws that were compiled and enforced from the early Heian Period.

Konpira (金毘羅) - Konpira (金毘羅) is a water god and demon god of Mt. Ryojusen in India, and is the head of the Juni Shinsho (the twelve protective deities) of Yakushi Nyorai (the Healing Buddha).

Konwa-kai (懇話会) - Konwa-kai refers to a faction within the Diet of the House of Peers under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan.

Koriwasen (興利倭船) - Koriwasen meant a merchant ship that operated a service from Japan to Korea only for the purpose of trade during the Muromachi period.

Korokan (鴻臚館) - Korokan was a facility established in the Heian period for diplomacy and overseas trade.

Koryaku Coup (康暦の政変) - The Koryaku Coup was a coup d'etat that occurred in 1379 (the fifth year of Tenju (Southern)/first year of Koryaku (Northern)) during the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan), in which the Kanrei, or deputy (de facto leader) of the Muromachi Shogunate, Yoriyuki HOSOKAWA, was overthrown and lost his position.

Kosa (黄砂) - Kosa indicates the following weather phenomenon: Dust in inland deserts or dry zones in eastern Asia centered around People's Republic of China, is flung up into the air, for example, by a sandstorm, and is carried and falls over a wide area of eastern Asia centered around spring.

Kosatsu (street bulletin board in important streets and crossings) (高札) - Kosatsu is the method of public notification by setting up a street bulletin board with written laws and ordinances (general law/the fundamental law) on a board, commonly utilized in Japan since ancient periods until early Meiji Period.

Koshibagaki Zoshi (小柴垣草紙) - Koshibagaki Zoshi (The Tale of the Brushwood Fence) is a picture scroll.

Koshogumi (page corps) (小姓組) - Koshogumi (page corps) was an organization in the Edo bakufu and one of the bankata which took charge in the military affairs.

Kotaishiki (交替式) - Kotaishiki indicates the laws concerns the replacement of a government officer with a new officer under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in Japan, matters necessary for continuing the duties of the office and how they should be handed over to the successor.

Kozai Kikai Zushiki (Scheme of devices for judicial hanging) (絞罪器械図式) - Kozai Kikai Zushiki, the edict of Dajokan (Grand Council of State) No.65 of 1873, is an act which stipulates the scheme of devices to be used for judicial hanging in Japan.

Kubizuka (tomb of heads) (首塚) - Kubizuka (tomb of heads) is a tomb for the repose of those souls whose heads (kubi; literally means neck in Japanese) were severed because they were killed in battles and the likes, or captured, or punished by beheadings.

Kubomi-ishi (Hollow Stones) (凹石) - Kubomi-ishi (hollow stones) refers to the stone tools that have a shallow hollow almost in the center of fist-sized round gravel and elliptic gravel.

Kubunden (a term related to fields) (口分田) - Kubunden indicates a field supplied uniformly to common people in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Kueiden (公営田) - Kueiden, in a broad sense, is a term used in Japanese history and means lands directly managed by the government while Shieiden (Private land) was managed by private citizens.

Kugen (legal certificate) (公験) - Kugen refers to a kind of certificate issued in the Japanese nation under the ritsuryo codes to give a privilege to specific persons.

Kugoden (rice fields for cultivation of rice for emperor's meal) (供御田) - Kugoden refers to rice fields to cultivate rice (Kugomai) for emperor's meals (Kugo).

Kugoin (Division of rice for the Emperor) (供御院) - Kugoin (Division of rice for the Emperor) refers to an auxiliary organization of Oiryo (Bureau of Palace Kitchens under the Ministry of the Imperial Household).

Kugonin (供御人) - Kugonin was a group, during the medieval period in Japan, that belonged to the Imperial court who presented food such as special products from the mountains and the sea, and various handicraft products to the Emperor and the Imperial Family.

Kugutsu (傀儡子) - Kugutsu were groups of people who traveled around the country and made a living in the performing arts, appearing on the records from around the ninth century.

Kugyo-bunin (公卿補任) - Kugyo-bunin is a historical material of Japan and the directory of successive personnel in the Imperial Court.

Kuichigai Incident (喰違の変) - Kuichigai Incident was an assassination attempt on Tomomi IWAKURA, the Minister of Right, which occurred in Kuichigaizaka, Akasaka, Tokyo (now Minato Ward, Tokyo) on January 14, 1874.

Kuikaeshi (悔返) - Kuikaeshi is an act in which, after a property's ownership was shifted to someone else by compromise or donation, its previous owner or his descendants recover the ownership by disaffirming the previous decision.

Kuji (公事) - Kuji (Oyakegoto) is one of terms in Japanese history and used in the following meanings.

Kuji Kongen (公事根源) - Kuji Kongen was a book on ancient practices and precedents of the imperial court written by Kaneyoshi ICHIJO during the Muromachi period.

Kujigata-osadamegaki (the law of the Edo bakufu) (公事方御定書) - Kujigata-osadamegaki were the fundamental codes in the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Kujira Domain (櫛羅藩) - Kujira Domain was a feudal domain that was located in Yamato Province (present-day Kujira, Gose City, Nara Prefecture)

Kujisen (公事銭) - Kujisen was money paid in place of taxes in kind (including labor) as daisenno (paying dues in cash instead of in kind; commutation) for kuji (public duties) during Medieval Japan.

Kujishi (公事師) - Kujishi is a Japanese term used to refer to persons who would stand in for the relevant parties involved in a lawsuit in the Edo period.

Kujo-ryu school (the descendants of the Northern House of the Fujiwara clan and a school of Yusoku kojitsu) (九条流) - The Kujo-ryu school refers to the descendants of the Northern House of the Fujiwara clan, especially, FUJIWARA no Morosuke and to the school of Yusoku kojitsu (court and samurai rules of ceremony and etiquette) handed down the FUJIWARA no Morosuke family.

Kumano Sanzan Kengyo (the Overseer of the Three Kumano Shrines) (熊野三山検校) - Kumano Sanzan Kengyo was a post to govern Kumano Sanzan (three major shrines, Kumano-Hongu-Taisha, Kumano-Hayatama-Taisha and Kumano-Nachi-Taisha) and was established above Kumano betto (the title of an official who administered the shrines at Kumano) at the beginning of the the 11th century.

KUME The Incident of Kunitake (久米邦武筆禍事件) - The Incident of Kunitake KUME was the incident in which a thesis, 'Shinto wa saiten no kozoku' (Shinto Is a Remnant of the Ancient Custom of Worshiping Heaven) was reprinted in 1892, in "Shikai" (Ocean of History) which Ukichi TAGUCHI edited, which caused a problem, and Kume lost his position as professor at the Imperial University.

Kumihama Prefecture (久美浜県) - Kumihama Prefecture was a prefecture established in 1868.

Kumon (official document) (公文) - Kumon was originally a general term for official documents in the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code), and derived from it, it also meant the government official who dealt with such documents.

Kunai (くない) - Kunai is a small tool used by ninja.

Kuni ikki (provincial uprising) (国一揆) - Kuni ikki refers to an alliance (uprising) made up of feudal lords with the aim of securing their rule in the period of Northern and Southern courts and Muromachi.

Kunikyo (恭仁京) - Kunikyo (also called Kuni no miya) was a place in Soraku District, Yamashiro Province that was designated as a capital for a period of time during the Nara period.

Kunitomo (国友) - The word "Kunitomo" referred to Kunitomo Village in Sakata County, Omi Province (present-day Kunitomo-cho, Nagahama City, Shiga Prefecture), which was renowned for its production of firearms along with Sakai City during the Warring States period through to the end of the Edo period, and also to gunsmiths who worked in Kunitomo Village (called "Kunitomo Kaji" in Japanese).

Kura-bugyo (storehouse administrator) (蔵奉行) - Kura-bugyo was an administrator who controlled the government rice storehouses located in major cities in the Edo period, including one in Asakusa, Edo (Asakusa Okura).

Kuragaki no Sho (倉垣荘) - Kuragaki no Sho was a manor in Imizu-gun, Ecchu Province that existed from the late Heian period to the Sengoku period (period of warring states).

Kurahoshi (蔵法師) - Kurahoshi means manager of doso (pawnbrokers and moneylenders) in the Medieval Period of Kyoto.

Kuramae nyuyo (蔵前入用) - Kuramae nyuyo was one of the three major taxes called Takagakari Sanyaku that were imposed on the direct control territories of the Edo bakufu (Shogunal demesne) during Edo period.

Kuramaichigyo (蔵米知行) - Kuramaichichigyo, also known as Kuramaikyuyo, was a system in which the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) and domains provided kuramai (written as 蔵米 or in the case of the bakufu as 廩米 - rice preserved in a depository) to their vassals as horoku (salary) instead of chigyo-chi (territory).

Kuraryo (内蔵寮) - The Kuraryo is an institution affiliated with the Ministry of Central Affairs of the Ritsuryo system during the Ritsuryo system period of Japan.

Kuroda Cabinet (黒田内閣) - In this section mentioned are achievemens of Kuroda Cabinet as well as the background of Sanjo Provisional Cabinet lead by Sanetomi SANJO, Minister of the Interior, that existed for two months after Kuroda's stepping down from his position as Prime Minister.

Kurofune (the Black Ships) (黒船) - Kurofune is a term used to refer to large, Western-style sea vessels, used before the Edo Period until the modern age.

Kurokuwa (a construction worker) (黒鍬) - Kurokuwa (黒鍬) (a construction worker) refers to people engaged in civil engineering in the Sengoku period (period of warring states) and Edo period.

Kusarigama (a chain and a sickle) (鎖鎌) - Kusarigama (a chain and a sickle) is a weapon that has a form like a kama (a sickle) for cutting grass attached to a chain weight and it was developed as a weapon from a farming tool.

Kusarigama jutsu (art of Japanese chain and sickle) (鎖鎌術) - The term 'Kusarigama jutsu' refers to a martial art in which a fighter, holding a sickle on a chain in one hand and the chain with a iron weight in the other, and swinging the weight in a circular motion, could throw the iron weight to the opponent's body or use the chain to entangle the weapon to retrieve and then kill him with the sickle.

Kushiki-ryo (the law concerning documentary forms of state affairs, contained in the Yoro Code) (a part of the Ritsuryo law system) (公式令 (律令法)) - "Kushiki-ryo" was one of compilations of ryo (administrative laws in the Ritsuryo law system).

Kusuko Incident (薬子の変) - The Kusuko Incident is an incident that occurred in the early Heian period.

Kutsuki Domain (朽木藩) - The Kutsuki clan was a clan located in Takashima County, Omi Province (current Kutsuki, Takashima City, Shiga Prefecture).

Kuzen (口宣) - Kuzen was an informal form of official document that came into use from the mid Heian period -- which was used by shikiji (administrative assistant) at kurodo dokoro (the Office of Imperial Household Logistics) (shikiji kurodo, kurodo no to - Head Chamberlain) or goi no kurodo (Chamberlain of the Fifth Rank) in transcribing the verbally received emperor's edict for conveying it to shokei (high-ranking court noble) at Daijokan (Grand Council of State).

Kyo-masu (京枡) - The kyo-masu is a type of masu (measure) which was designated as the official masu from the late medieval period to the postwar period.

Kyobusho (Ministry of Religion) (教部省) - Kyobusho (Ministry of Religion) is the central governmental organ founded for the purpose of national edification by controlling religion under Dajokan System (the system of Great Council of State) established in the early Meiji period.

Kyodai-Tenno incident (京大天皇事件) - The Kyodai-Tenno incident was an incident in which disorder arose between the Emperor Showa who visited Kyoto University on November 12, 1951 and many students who gathered at the campus on that day, and Dogakukai, the student self-governing association of Kyoto University, was ordered to dissolve later.

Kyodo Unyu Kaisha (共同運輸会社) - Kyodo Unyu Kaisha (literary, a joint transportation company) was established in July 1882, with the merger of three transportation companies, Tokyo Fuhansen Kaisha, Hokkaido Unyu Kaisha and Echu Fuhansen Kaisha, and also with the investment from anti-Mitsubishi Zaibatsu powers such as Mitsui-zaibatsu.

Kyogaku Seishi (教学聖旨) - Kyogaku Seishi is an education policy presented to Sangi (Councilors) Hirobumi ITO and Munenori TERASHIMA (also the Mombukyo [chief of the Ministry of Education]) by the Meiji Emperor in 1879.

Kyogoku Soran (京極騒乱) - Kyogoku Soran was one of Kyogoku clan's family battles over the succession to (the headship of) the house in the Omi Province which took place during the time from the Muromachi Period to the Sengoku period (period of warring states) in Japan.

Kyohachiryu School (京八流) - Kyohachiryu is a legendary school of swordsmanship.

Kyoho-chogin (Chogin is a collective term of silver) (Kyoho is the era in Edo period.) (享保丁銀) - Kyoho-chogin is a silver coin by weight standard as well as a kind of chogin that was issued in September 1714, and it was called by "Shotoku-chogin"as well.

Kyoho-Oban (享保大判) - Kyoho-Oban refers to a large-sized gold coin released in July 1725.

Kyoikurei (the 1879 Education Order) (教育令) - Kyoikurei is an order about education promulgated in September 1879 to replace the educational system (the 214th edict of Dajokan [Grand Council of State] of 1872) promulgated in 1872.

Kyokubumasei-sekifu (edge-ground stone axe) (局部磨製石斧) - Kyokubumasei-sekifu is a edge-ground stone axe which appeared in the early upper Paleolithic period about 30 thousand years ago.

Kyoroku-Tenbun Rebellion (享禄・天文の乱) - The Kyoroku-Tenbun Rebellion is the general term for the internal conflict within the Hongan-ji Temple sect of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) over the sectarian reform in the early Sengoku Period and the external war provoked by the conflict.

Kyoryuchi Keisatsu (居留地警察) - Kyoryuchi Keisatsu (the Foreign Settlement Police) refers to the police force placed in the foreign settlements throughout the Empire of Japan prior to treaty revision.

Kyoshiki (the Capital Bureau) (京職) - Kyoshiki refers to a capital administrative agency in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Kyoto Asahigaoka Junior High School Affair (京都旭丘中学事件) - The Kyoto Asahigaoka Junior High School affair is a conflict that lasted from April 29, 1953 to June 1, 1954, between conservative and progressive parents/teachers over the education policy of Kyoto Municipal Asahigaoka Junior High school.

Kyoto Dento (京都電燈) - Kyoto Dento was a Japanese electric power company founded in 1888.

Kyoto Gakuren Jiken (京都学連事件) - Kyoto Gakuren Jiken (Kyoto Affair of the Student Federation) was a suppression incident occurring on and after December 1925 against the left wing student movement in the Kyoto Imperial University and so forth.

Kyoto Horse Racing Club (京都競馬倶楽部) - The Kyoto Horse Racing Club was an organization which used to hold horse races.

Kyoto mimawarigumi (京都見廻組) - Kyoto mimawarigumi was an organization for maintaining public order in Kyoto, which was formed by the shogun's retainers at the end of the Edo Period (end of Edo period).

Kyoto Old Capital Preservation Cooperation Tax (古都保存協力税) - The Kyoto Old Capital Preservation Cooperation Tax was one of the local taxes, which was once levied in accordance with a tax ordinance enacted by Kyoto city.

Kyoto Protocol (京都議定書) - Kyoto Protocol refers to a protocol adopted at the 3rd Session of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Kyoto Conference on Climate Change, COP3) held at Kyoto International Conference Center on December 11, 1997, according to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Kyoto Province Kamo-gawa River Act (京都府鴨川条例) - The Kyoto Province Kamo-gawa River Act is an act by Kyoto Province.

Kyoto Red Flag Incident (京都赤旗事件) - The Kyoto Red Flag Incident was a crackdown on socialists that occurred on November 30, 1920.

Kyoto Rekishi Kairo Kyogikai (京都歴史回廊協議会) - Kyoto Rekishi Kairo Kyogikai (Kyoto "Historic Corridor" Conference) is a Kyoto civil activity.

Kyoto school (京都学派) - The Kyoto school is a school of philosophy formed by Kitaro NISHIDA, Hajime TANABE, and philosophers learned from these two, while a group featured interdisciplinary research centered on Institute for Research in Humanities, Kyoto University, is called New Kyoto school to distinguish it from the Kyoto school or school of philosophy.

Kyoto Shugoshoku (京都守護職) - The Kyoto Shugoshoku (literally, "office of the protector of Kyoto") was an important post in the Edo bakufu that was newly created at the end of the Edo period; it was one of the three key posts in the bakufu, the others being the Seiji-Sosaishoku (literally, "political governor") and the Shogun-Kokenshoku (literally, "guardian of the Shogun").

Kyoto stock exchange (京都証券取引所) - The Kyoto stock exchange was abolished on March 1st, 2001.

Kyoto Town Magistrate (京都町奉行) - The Kyoto Town Magistrate was one of the ongoku-bugyo (magistrates placed at important areas) that was set up in Kyoto by the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Kyoto-shugo (military governor of Kyoto) (京都守護) - Kyoto-shugo is one of the occupational categories of the Kamakura bakufu.

Kyotoshi (筥陶司) - Kyotoshi (Vessels Office) was one of the institutions belonging to Kunaisho (Ministry of the Sovereign's Household) in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Kyuden (給田) - Kyuden, Kyuhaku and Kyudenpaku were rice paddies and fields that were granted to shokan (an officer governing shoen manor), jito (estate steward), nengu (land tax) couriers and handicraftsmen by shoen holders and the Kokuga (provincial government offices) during the middle ages in Japan.

Kyujin (給人) - Kyujin (upper class retainers)

Kyukei (castration penalty) (宮刑) - Kyukei (Castration penalty) is a kind of penalty to castrate criminals.

Kyushu ocho setsu (theory of Kyushu dynasty) (九州王朝説) - Kyushu ocho setsu is a theory that a dynasty existed in Kyushu until the end of the seventh century and Dazai-fu was the capital of the dynasty, advocated by Takehiko FURUTA.

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Land-tax reform. (地租改正) - Land-tax reform refers to the tax system reform conducted by the Meiji Government in 1873.

Law for Transporting Five Articles through Edo (五品江戸廻送令) - The Law for Transporting Five Articles through Edo was a law for trading control over raw silk thread, cereals, hair oil, wax and draperies issued by the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) in 1860.

Law Prohibiting Cruelty to Animals (Ordinances of Animal Protection) (生類憐れみの令) - The Law Prohibiting Cruelty to Animals refers to a large number of proclamations and ordinances issued during the Genroku era in Edo Period.

List of buildings and structures in Kyoto Prefecture which have been designated as important cultural properties (京都府にある建造物の重要文化財一覧) - The list of buildings and structures in Kyoto Prefecture which have been designated as important cultural properties lists those existing in Kyoto Prefecture from all the buildings and structures designated as important cultural property in Japan.

List of Material Concerning the Muromachi Period (室町時代資料の一覧) - A list of historical material concerning the Muromachi period of Japan

List of the shoen (manors in medieval Japan) (日本の荘園の一覧) - Here, shoen (manors), scattered across Japan, except Hokkaido, from ancient times to medieval times are listed.

Local Administrative Assemblies (地方官会議) - Local Administrative Assemblies was the assembly of prefectural governors summoned and established by the Meiji government in 1874.

Local Bureaucratic System of Ancient Japan (古代日本の地方官制) - The local bureaucratic system was formed into a three-tier administrative organization of kuni (provinces), gun/kori (districts) and ri/sato (villages) under the Taiho Ritsuryo (Taiho Code) enacted in the year 701.

Local tax regulations (地方税規則) - The local tax regulations were defined as tax items (items of taxation) prefectures can collect and expense items paid by the tax revenue during Japanese Meiji and Taisho periods.

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Machi-koji Street (町小路) - Machi-koji Street was a street that was central to the townspeople of Kyoto in the middle ages, and was lined with doso (underground warehouses).

Machi-shu (町衆) - Machi-shu (also known as Cho-shu) was a class consisting of wealthy commercial and industrial men, including doso (pawnbrokers and moneylenders), in Kyoto from the Muromachi period to the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States) in Japan.

Machiyakunin (Municipal Official) (町役人) - "Machiyakunin," also pronounced as "choyakunin," refers to an administrative organization in urban areas which existed during the Edo period.

Mahito (真人) - Shinjin (真人) is the ideal of human in the thought of Laozi and Zhuangzi and Taoism.

Maizuru Chinjufu (Maizuru Naval District) (舞鶴鎮守府) - Maizuru Chinjufu was Chinjufu (navy base) of Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) located in Maizuru City, Kyoto.

Maizuru Prefecture (舞鶴県) - Maizuru Prefecture is a prefecture established in 1871 based on the policy of Haihan-chiken (abolition of feudal domains and establishment of prefectures).

Makibishi (撒菱) - Makibishi is a tool which is scattered on the ground to escape from pursuers when running away.

Makishi Incident (牧氏事件) - The Makishi Incident refers to a coup that took place in the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) in August, 1205 in the early Kamakura period.

Mameitagin (an Edo-period type of coin) (豆板銀) - Mameitagin is a name for silver coins circulated in the Edo Period.

Manchuria Corrective Treaty (also known as the Peking Treaty of 1905) (満州善後条約) - The Manchuria Corrective Treaty, a treaty between Japan and the Qing dynasty, was concluded on December 22, 1905, in Beijing.

Manen Oban (Large-Sized Gold Coin of the Manen Era) (万延大判) - Manen Oban is a large-sized old Japanese gold coin issued in intercalary April of 1860; it is also called Shin Oban.

Mannyaku-yama incident (万役山事件) - The Mannyaku-yama incident was the incident in which a dispute concerning a pine tree in the Kume-mura village in Suo Province caused a territory boundary-related dispute, further developing to the abolishment of the Tokuyama clan in 1715.

Mansen Shukai/Bansen Shukai (万川集海) - Mansen Shukai (also called Bansen Shukai; "万川集海" is officially written as "萬川集海" in Chinese characters) is the ninjutsu (ninja art) strategy book including 22 volumes with an additional one volume attached to it written by Samuji Yasutake FUJIBAYASHI, who was a descendant of goshi (country samurai) Nagatonokami FUJIBAYASHI, in Iga Province in 1676.

Maria Luz Incident (マリア・ルス号事件) - The Maria Luz Incident is an incident in which the Japanese government freed the Qing laborers the Peruvian ship "Maria Luz" harbored in Yokohama Port in 1872, on the ground that they were treated as slaves.

Maruko Clan (丸子氏) - Maruko (or Mariko) clan is one of the clans of the ancient Japan.

Mashita Domain (味舌藩) - Mashita Domain was located in Mashita, Shimashimo County, Settsu Province (present Mishima, Settsu City, Osaka Prefecture).

Matsugo Yoshi (末期養子) - The term "Matsugo yoshi" refers to a son who was adopted on his adoptive father's deathbed.

Medals for Merit (勲等) - Medals for merit were conferred on persons according to the persons' distinguished services.

Meiji juyonen no seihen (the failed Meiji-14 coup of 1881) (明治十四年の政変) - Meiji juyonen no seihen (the failed Meiji-14 coup of 1881) is a politically-motivated incident, which occurred during movement of the Freedom and People's Rights and dispute regarding creation of a constitution in government, especially between Hirobumi ITO, who recommended Bismarck's constitution, which preserves the royal prerogative and Shigenobu OKUMA, who recommended constitution from England, which has parliamentary system of government, as a result of the incident in which Shigenobu OKUMA was banned from government.

Meiji Noho (Meiji agricultural methods) (明治農法) - Meiji Noho is the general term of accumulation and systemization of the conventional agricultural techniques represented by records on agriculture, as opposed to modern agriculture.

Meiji Restoration (Meiji-ishin) (明治維新) - The Meiji Restoration was the historic change from the feudal system of the Edo Shogunate to the system of direct Imperial rule by the Meiji government through the overthrow of the Shogunate, and the accompanying series of wars (the Boshin War) and reforms.

Meiji roku-nen no Seihen (Coups of 1873) (明治六年政変) - Meiji roku-nen no Seihen (Coups of 1873) is a major political change in the early Meiji era caused by Seikanron (debate on subjugation of Korea).

Meiji Tsuho (明治通宝) - Meiji Tsuho are governmental bills (non-convertible paper money) issued at the beginning of the Meiji period.

Meio Incident (明応の政変) - The Meio Incident involved the enthronement and dethronement of the Ashikaga seii taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians") and occurred in the Muromachi period in 1493.

Meiroku Zasshi (明六雑誌) - Meiroku Zasshi is a bulletin of the Meirokusha (a publishing company).

Meirokusha (明六社) - Meirokusha, which was established in the early Meiji period, was the first Japanese modern academic society for enlightenment.

Meitoku War (明徳の乱) - The Meitoku War was a war against the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) that was started by the Yamana clan members, such as Ujikiyo YAMANA and Mitsuyuki YAMANA, in 1391 during the Muromachi period.

Men (免) - Men or Menai means the rate of Koso (an annual tax) to the Kokudaka (the annual yield of a land) in the Edo period.

Menden (免田) - Menden were rice fields that were exempt from the tax determined by the government during the late ancient times to the middle ages of Japan.

Meryo (Bureau of Horses) (馬寮) - Meryo (or Uma no tsukasa) refers to one of the government officials in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Meshikome (召籠) - Meshikome was one of the punishments given out to courtiers in the Heian Period.

Meyasubako (complaints box) (目安箱) - Meyasubako was a box which was set up to collect letters of proposal by the common people for the purpose of collecting opinions about administrative policies and information about the society, or the system thereof.

Mibu Roshi (壬生浪士) - Mibu Roshi, or Seichu Roshi, is a predecessor of the Shinsengumi (a group who guarded Kyoto during the end of Tokugawa Shogunate).

Mido-ryu (御堂流) - Mido-ryu was the name of a style of Yusoku-kojitsu (knowledge of court rules, ceremony, decorum and records of the past) and manners for the descendants of FUJIWARA no Michinaga (Sessho [Regent] and Daijo-daijin [Grand Minister]) of Kujo line of Fujiwara-Hokke (the Northern House of the Fujiwara Clan) and the groups who assumed Michinaga as their ancestors.

Migyosho (御教書) - A Migyosho (or Mikyosho) was a form of ancient document issued by a Keishi (household superintendant) with a court rank of Jusanmi (Junior Third Rank) or higher used for conveying the intentions of their masters from the late Heian period to the Muromachi period.

Miho Naval Air Corps (美保海軍航空隊) - Miho Naval Air Corps was one of the troops and educational institutions of the Imerpial Japanese Navy.

Mikami Domain (三上藩) - The Mikami Domain was in Mikami, Yasu-cho, Yasu City, Shiga Prefecture.

Mikka Heishi War (Three days rebellion of the Taira clan in the Kamakura Period) (三日平氏の乱 (鎌倉時代)) - Mikka Heishi War (Three-days rebellion of the Taira clan) is a rebellion caused by the remnants of the Taira clan in Ise and Iga Provinces at the beginning of the Kamakura period.

Military Aristocracy (軍事貴族) - The military aristocracy consisted of aristocrats specialized in military affairs who emerged in history in the late ancient period through the early medieval period.

Military Government (武家政権) - The military government was an administration under the control of samurai.

Mimaki Domain (御牧藩) - Mimaki Domain is a domain which was in Mimaki, Kuse County, Yamashiro Province (present-day Kumiyama-cho, Kuse-gun, Kyoto Prefecture).

Mimana Nihon-fu (Japanese government in Mimana) (任那日本府) - Mimana Nihon-fu or Yamato no Mikotomochi is the governing institution of Wakoku (Japan) which is said to have been located in Mimana in the southern area of the Korean Peninsula in ancient times.

Minakuchi Domain (水口藩) - The Minakuchi Domain was a han (a basic unit of provincial government during the Edo period) that governed around Minakuchi-cho, Koga City, Shiga Prefecture.

Minakuchi Okayama-jo Castle (水口岡山城) - Minakuchi Okayama-jo Castle is located in Minakuchi, Minakuchi-cho, Koka-shi City, Shiga Prefecture.

Minakuchi-jo Castle (水口城) - Minakuchi-jo Castle is located in Minakuchi, Minakuchi-cho, Koka City, Shiga Prefecture.

Minbu-sho (民部省) - Minbu-sho (Ministry of Popular Affairs) was a government-regulated organization under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo codes).

Minbusho-satsu (民部省札) - Minbusho-satsu is a bank note issued by the Minbusho (Ministry of Popular Affairs) of the Meiji government from November 15, 1869 to the next year.

Mineyama domain (峰山藩) - The Mineyama domain was a domain existing in Tango province.

Mineyama Naval Air Squadron (峰山海軍航空隊) - The Mineyama Naval Air Squadron was one of the squadrons of the Imperial Japanese Navy.

Mineyama Prefecture (峰山県) - Mineyama Prefecture was established in 1871 through Haihan-chiken (abolition of feudal domains and establishment of prefectures).

MINGEI (National Art) Movement (民芸運動) - MINGEI (National Art) Movement is a movement started by the first issue of "Prospectus for establishment of the Japanese Folk Crafts Museum" in 1926.

Minpoten Ronso (Disputes over the Civil Code) (民法典論争) - Minpoten Ronso (disputes over the legal code provided for basic stipulation related to Civil Code) was the disputes whether to postpone or carry out the effectuation of the Old Civil Code (Act No.28, No.29 of 1890) in Japan from 1889 to 1892).

Minryoku-Kyuyou and Seihi-Setsugen (Rest for Financial Resources of People and Reduction of Government Expenses) (民力休養・政費節減) - Minryoku-Kyuyou and Seihi-Setsugen referred to the policy pledge of Minto (general term of the political parties such as the Liberal Party and Progressive Party that conflicted with a han-dominated government when the Imperial Diet was inaugurated) in early the Imperial Diet of the Meiji Period.

Minsen Giin Setsuritsu Kenpaku Sho (The Petition to Establish an Elected Assembly) (民撰議院設立建白書) - Minsen Giin Setsuritsu Kenpaku Sho' was the first petition requesting the government to establish a parliament with democratically-elected representatives supported by people including former Sangi councilors Taisuke ITAGAKI and Shojiro GOTO on January 17, 1874.

Minto (literally, the people's party) (民党) - Minto is the general term of the political parties such as the Liberal Party (in the Meiji period) and the Constitutional Progressive Party and so on which promoted the Movement for Democratic Rights in the Meiji Period.

Minyu-sha (民友社) - Minyu-sha was an opinion group and publishing house established by Soho TOKUTOMI.

Misawa clan (三沢氏) - Misawa clan (which is read Misawa-shi or Misawa-uji) was a clan acting as estate steward in Iijima District, Shinano Province, which were the descendants of Shinano-Genji (Minamoto clan).

Mitoya Clan (三刀屋氏) - The Mitoya clan was one of Japanese clans.

Miuchibito (Private Vassals of the Tokuso Family) (御内人) - The term "Miuchibito" or "Miuchinin" refers to warriors who served regent, the Hojo clan during the Kamakura period (1185-1333).

Miya Sodo (Palace Disturbance) (宮騒動) - Miya sodo (palace disturbance) is the incident in which Mitsutoki HOJO attempted a rebellion, and the former Seii taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians"), FUJIWARA no Yoritsune, was banished from Kamakura, and returned to Kyoto in 1246 in the Kamakura period.

Miya-ichi (the market in the Imperial court) (宮市) - Miya-ichi was a market provided in the Imperial court in the ancient Japan that imitated the Chinese system.

Miyake (屯倉) - Miyake is one of Yamato regime's ruling systems.

Miyake odoi (三宅御土居) - Miyake odoi was a castle that existed in Miyake-Cho, Masuda City, Shimane Prefecture.

Miyazu Prefecture (宮津県) - Miyazu Prefecture is a prefecture established in 1871 based on the policy of Haihan-chiken (abolition of feudal domains and establishment of prefectures).

Miyohajime (御代始) - Miyohajime refers to a series of measures and the policies that are performed as part of the rule of the new reign of the new monarch at the beginning of his assumption after the death or retirement of the previous monarch.

Miyoshi Truimvirate (Miyoshi Sanninshu, three chief retainers of the Miyoshi clan) (三好三人衆) - The Miyoshi Triumvirate consists of Nagayuki MIYOSHI, Masayasu MIYOSHI and Tomomichi IWANARI who stood out in the history of Japan's warring period for their activities in the Kinai region.

Miyoshi's government (三好政権) - Miyoshi's government refers to a Japanese military government that existed from 1549 through 1568.

Mizugumo (water spider, a water-crossing device used by ninja) (水蜘蛛) - Mizugumo (literally, water spider) was one of the tools used by Ninja for crossing waters, such as moat or river.

Mizukae nisoku (水替人足) - The term "mizukae nisoku (drainage laborers)" refers to those mining laborers engaged in removing the water that collects in mines and pumping it outside the mine.

Mizunomi Byakusho (水呑百姓) - Mizunomi Byakusho (water drinking peasant) refer to those who did not have their own harvesting lands, although they were in the census register, since the Edo period.

Moat settlement (環濠集落) - A moat settlement is a village surrounded by a moat.

Mochigumi (持組) - Mochigumi was an organization in the Edo bakufu.

Mochizuki-jo Castle (Omi Province) (望月城 (近江国)) - Mochizuki-jo Castle was a Japanese castle which was situated in Koga City, Shiga Prefecture.

Mokkan (Confiscation) (没官) - Mokkan (also read as Bokkan) is one of supplementary punishments in the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code), and it refers to the confiscation of corpus or property by the authority.

Mokkotsu ho (没骨法) - Mokkotsu ho is one of the techniques in Oriental painting.

Moko Shurai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞) - "Moko Shurai Ekotoba" is a pair of picture scrolls by an unknown author.

Mokudai (目代) - Mokudai was a deputy, such as a retainer, sent to the post in behalf of an appointed provincial governor who remained at his place from mid Heian period to Kamakura period.

Mokuroku (目録) - Mokuroku are documents that are made for the purpose of either clarifying the place where something is kept or showing the name, content and the number of articles that are to be assigned or donated.

Mokuryo (Bureau of Carpentry) (木工寮) - Mokuryo refers to an institution that belonged to Kunaisho (Imperial Household Ministry) in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) of Japan adopting the Ritsuryo system.

Mokuyo-kai (Thursday Association) (木曜会) - Mokuyo-kai refers to a faction within the Diet of House of Lords (Japan) in the Meiji Period (July 28, 1897 - January 26, 1913, in addition it was established as a group having a legislative bargaining position in the Diet on March 10, 1898).

MOMOCHI Tanba (百地丹波) - In the attack on Iga in 1579, Tanba managed to repulse the Oda's army partly because the command of Nobuo, who was an imbecile Busho (Japanese military commander), was poor.

Monchujo (問注所) - The Monchujo was a government body of the Kamakura and Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun), which was responsible for judicial affairs.

Money Changer (両替商) - A money changer is a store or merchant who mainly deals with changing money and finance.

Monjoin (文章院) - Monjoin was a University Jikiso (facilities) (such as a lecture room and student dormitory) for Kidendo (the study of the histories) of Daigaku-ryo (Bureau of Education under the ritsuryo system).

Monme (A Weight Unit in The Japanese Traditional System of Weights And Measures) (匁) - Monme is a weight unit in the Japanese traditional system of weights and measures.

Monoawase (物合) - Monoawase ("mono" meaning things and "awase" meaning comparison) was a game that became most popular in the Heian period.

Mononobe clan (物部氏) - It is said that the Mononobe clan's ancestor is Nigihayahimikoto, who is believed to have descended to earth in Koho, Kawachi Province (presumably, present-day Katano City, Osaka Prefecture) before the time of the Imperial family.

Monopolization (専売制) - Monopolization is a system that a government places under its complete control the production, distribution, and sales of specific goods and monopolizes the profits gained from them in order to increase the national income.

Monouri (物売り) - Monouri is a street vendor who sells foods or goods, serves as a repairman, buys old things or wastes, or exchanges these things for some goods, traveling by attracting people with musical instruments and distinctive calls.

Monyo (blood line, lineage, connected by blood) (門葉) - The term "monyo" generally referred to families that were related by blood.

Movement to create Aimi Prefecture. (会見県設置運動) - The movement to create Aimi Prefecture was a movement that people requested to create a new prefecture, and the movement was centered in Yonago City, Tottori Prefecture from 1890 to 1891.

Movement to Improve Rural Areas (地方改良運動) - Movement to Improve Rural Areas was government-regulated movement which aimed to improve and reconstruct regional societies, cities, towns and villages which had been devastated after the Russo-Japanese War.

Movement to unite for a common purpose (大同団結運動) - The movement to unite for a common purpose refers to a unification movement took place between 1887 and 1889 among factions of the Freedom and People's Rights Movement to prepare for the establishment of the Imperial Diet.

Muhon (rebellion) (謀反) - The word "muhon" can be written either as "謀反" or "謀叛" in kanji, Chinese characters used in Japanese writing.

Muhon (rebellious acts) (謀叛) - In today's Japanese, muhon means a rebellion raised by a vassal against his lord.

Mujin (無尽) - Mujin is one type of Japanese financing.

Multi-capital system (複都制) - The multi-capital system is a system which places plural capitals in one nation.

Mumon-ginsen Coin (無文銀銭) - Mumon-ginsen coin is the Japan's oldest private silver coin.

Muraji (連) - Muraji refers to one of kabane (hereditary title to denote rank and political standing) used in the Yamato sovereignty (the ancient Japan sovereignty) and also denoted one of the highest ranked titles among retainers.

Muromachi Bakufu (室町幕府) - Muromachi Bakufu was a samurai government established by Takauji ASHIKAGA.

Muromachi Period (室町時代) - The Muromachi period (1336-1573) is a period of Japanese history spanning the length of time the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) was in existence.

Mushuku (homeless wanderer) (無宿) - Mushuku means people in the Edo period whose names were excluded from Shumon-Ninbetsu-Aratame-Cho (The Village People Register of Religious Faith and Relationship) which is the equivalent of today's family register.

Mutsu diplomacy (陸奥外交) - Mutsu diplomacy means a foreign policy of a Minister of Foreign Affairs Munemitsu MUTSU under the Second Ito cabinet in the Middle Meiji Period.

Mutsu Ishikawa clan (陸奥石川氏) - Ishikawa clan was a samurai family from the mid-Heian period to the Warring States period (Japan).

Mutsu no Kami (陸奥守) - Mutsu no kami was the governor of Mutsu Province.

Myobo kanmon (明法勘文) - Myobo kanmon is kanmon (report) prepared by scholars (Myobo-ke) of Myobodo (study of Codes) including Myobo hakase to respond to consultation.

Myobo Kanyosho (明法肝要鈔) - The Myobo Kanyosho is a law book written in the late Heian period.

Myoden (名田) - The term 'myoden' (rice field lot manage by a nominal holder) refers to a basic unit of the governance and (tax) collection in the shoen-koryo system (the system of public lands and private estates), and this existed from the mid-Heian period, throughout the Middle Ages in Japan.

Myoga (冥加) - Myoga means a kind of tax in the Edo period that was paid to the Edo bakufu or domains in consideration for the use of mountains/fields/rivers/seas or to grant a business license

Myogyodo (明経道) - Myogyodo was a department that studied and instructed on Confucianism as part the Daigakuryo, an educational institution under the Ritsuryo system (the system of centralized administration established by the ritsuryo legal codes) of Japan.

Myohodo (明法道) - Myohodo is a department of Daigakuryo, an educational institution under the system of centralized administration established under the ritsuryo legal codes in ancient Japan, where the ritsuryo legal codes (the study of law) was taught.

Myojitaito (苗字帯刀) - Myojitaito is a term indicating the social status of samurai during the Edo period.

Myomokusho (名目鈔) - Myomokusho was a book on the study of ancient courtly traditions and etiquette written by Sadaijin (minister of the left) Sanehiro TOIN during the mid Muromachi period.

Myoshu (名主) - Myoshu (village headmen) were a class of people who were commissioned to manage the cultivation of farmland called myoden by lords of Kokugaryo (territories governed by provincial government office) and manors during the late Ancient period and the Middle Ages in Japan.

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Nagahama sandoshiyori (Three influential families in Nagahama) (長浜三年寄) - Nagahama sandoshiyori refers to most influential three families among Nagahama juninshu (10 influential families in Nagahama), 10 representative families of machi-doshiyori (ward head) in townspeople who built the Nagahama-jo Castle town (49 towns and 10 wards) under the order of Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI.

Nagahama-jo Castle (Omi Prefecture) (長浜城 (近江国)) - Nagahama-jo Castle is a castle built by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI in Koen-cho, Nagahama City, Shiga Prefecture.

Naganuma affair (長沼事件) - Naganuma affair is a case of Naganuma disposal over concession of Naganuma which occurred in Naganuma village, Inba Prefecture (present-day Naganuma, Narita City, Chiba Prefecture).

Naginata Jutsu (naginata technique) (薙刀術) - The naginata jutsu is a Japanese martial art using a long-handled sword called naginata which originated in Heian period.

Naii (内位) - Naii were the ranks that formed the core of the Ikai (court ranks) of the Ritsuryo Code in Japan.

Naikaku-kansei (Cabinet organization order) (内閣官制) - The term Naikaku-kansei refers in the broadest sense to the set of regulations for the Cabinet of Japan that govern its establishment, abolition, naming, organization, authority and so on, while more narrowly the term refers specifically to Imperial edict no. 135, a law passed in 1889.

Naikaku-shokken (Official Powers of the Cabinet) (内閣職権) - Naikaku-shokken (Official Powers of the Cabinet) is a rule that stipulated duties of the Prime Minister and management of the cabinet in Japan.

Nairaishi (内礼司) - Nairaishi (Palace Etiquette Office) was one of the institutions belonging to Nakatsukasasho (Ministry of Central Affairs) in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in Japan.

Naisenshi (Palace Dyeing Office) (内染司) - Naisenshi was an institution belonging to Kunaisho (Ministry of the Sovereign's Household) in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Naisogata (内奏方) - Naisogata was one of the legal institutions set up in the early stage of the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Naiyakushi (内薬司) - Naiyakushi was one of the agencies that belonged to Nakatsukasasho (Ministry of Central Affairs) under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Naizenshi (Imperial Table Office) (内膳司) - Naizenshi was an institution belonging to Kunaisho (Ministry of the Sovereign's Household) in Japanese government-regulated organization or facility, etc.

Nakasendai War (中先代の乱) - The Nakasendai War was a rebellion that occurred in July 1335 in which Tokiyuki HOJO, a bereaved son of Takatoki HOJO (the 14th shikken [shogunal regent] of the Kamakura bakufu [Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun]), raised an army, with the support of Yorishige SUWA (the period of Northern and Southern Courts) of Shinano Province, with the aim to restore the Kamakura bakufu.

Nakatsukasa-sho (中務省) - Nakatsukasa-sho (Ministry of Central Affairs, "中務省" in the Chinese characters) was a government-regulated organization under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo codes).

Nanakuchi No Seki (Seven Entrance Checkpoints) (七口の関) - "Nanakuchi no seki" refers to the checkpoints which were set on the seven roads leading to Kyoto from outlying regions (Kyoto nanakuchi, Kyoto's seven entrances) during medieval times.

Nanbanboeki (南蛮貿易) - Nanbanboeki indicates trade that was carried on between merchants in Japan and those in Spain or Portugal during the era from around the middle of sixteenth century to the early seventeenth century.

Nanbokucho Period (南北朝時代 (日本)) - The Nanbokucho era (the period of the Northern and Southern Courts) in Japan refers to one subsection of medieval Japanese history.

Nanbokucho-Seijun-ron (南北朝正閏論) - The Nanbokucho-Seijun-ron is a debate on which of the Imperial Courts, Southern or Northern, was the legitimate dynasty during the Nanbokucho period in Japan ("jun" is the same as "uruu" and means "not legitimate but also not fake").

Naniwa-kyo Capital (a capital established in Osaka City of ancient Japan) (難波京) - Naniwa-kyo Capital was a capital established in Osaka City of ancient Japan.

Nanori (名乗り) - Kanji character readings used in Japanese people's names which differ from the standard on-yomi (Sino-Japanese reading) and kun-yomi (native Japanese reading).

Nanryo Nishu Gin (Silver Coins) (南鐐二朱銀) - Nanryo Nishu Gin was a type of silver coin circulated in the Edo period and was high-quality Nishu (1/8 of 1 Ryo) gin issued in the early Edo period.

Nanshinron (Southward Advance Theory) (南進論) - The Nanshinron (southward advance) theory was one of Japan's foreign policies before World War II, advocating that the country should advance into Southeast Asia and the South Pacific islands.

Nanto Yakiuchi (the Incident of the Taira clan's army setting fire to the temples in Nanto) (南都焼討) - Nanto Yakiuchi is the incident that the Taira clan army led by TAIRA no Shigehira set fire to Buddhist temples in Nara (Nanto) such as Todai-ji Temple and Kofuku-ji Temple by the order of TAIRA no Kiyomori on January 15, 1181.

Naoejo (Naoe Letter) (直江状) - The Naoejo is a letter written in 1600, sent from Kanetsugu NAOE, a senior retainer of the Uesugi family, to Saisho Jotai who negotiated with the Uesugi family ordered by Ieyasu TOKUGAWA.

Nara Naval Air Corps (奈良海軍航空隊) - Nara Naval Air Corps and its predecessor, Nara Detachment of Mie Naval Air Corps, were one of the troops and educational institutions of the Imperial Japanese Navy.

Nara Period (奈良時代) - The Nara period was a period in Japan's history which, broadly speaking, lasted 84 years from 710 when the Empress Genmei transferred the capital to Heijokyo to 794 when the Emperor Kanmu transferred the capital to Heiankyo.

National Anthem of Japan (日本の国歌) - Japan's national anthem is called 'Kimigayo.'

National Bank (Meiji Period) (国立銀行 (明治)) - The National Bank (Kokuritsu Ginko) is a financial institution which was established based on the National Bank Act issued in 1872.

National Isolation (鎖国) - National Isolation ("Sakoku" in Japanese) refers to the policy of seclusion by which the Edo Bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) prohibited Japanese citizens from going abroad, while imposing restrictions on diplomatic exchanges and trade with foreign countries.

National Treasures (of Japan) (国宝) - The term "national treasures" ("kokuho" in Japanese) refers to those buildings, artworks or other items, among the larger group designated tangible cultural assets (important cultural properties) by Japan's Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties (according to the second item listed under article 27 of the law), that possess great cultural worth from the viewpoint of world culture, as well as those buildings, artworks or other items, considered peerless treasures by Japan's citizens, that are designated as such by the state (specifically, by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology).

Natori-dan (army corps in Natori County) (名取団) - Natori-dan refers to Gundan (army corps in ancient Japan) deployed in Natori County, Mutsu Province (later Rikuzen Province), Japan from the early 8th century to the 10th century.

Nengu (Land Tax) (年貢) - Nengu is a Japanese historical terminology referring to a type of taxation.

Nenjugyoji Utaawase (年中行事歌合) - Nenjugyoji Utaawase means Gojuban Utaawase hosted by Yoshimoto NIJO, Kanpaku (a chief adviser to the Emperor) of the Northern court (Japan), on February 7, 1350.

Nenkan (年官) - The term Nenkan means the right to recommend a person to an official post that was granted to Imperial families and court nobles in the ancient/early medieval period in Japan.

Nenki-uri (年期売) - Nenki-uri (whose "ki" can be written with three different characters 年期売, 年季売 or 年紀売, all of which relate to time or duration) was a kind of contract of sale (usually of land) used during Japan's medieval period.

Nenkiho (a legal principle for the statute of limitations) (年紀法) - Nenkiho (also referred to as Nenki no ho) is a legal principle for the statute of limitations developed under the Medieval samurai law.

Nenryo bekko zomotsu (年料別貢雑物) - Nenryo bekko zomotsu was the system where a designated amount of Zomotsu such as paper, brushes, horse skin and herbal plants were directly tithed to the central government by Ritsuryo provinces.

Nenryo betsuno sokoku (年料別納租穀) - Nenryo betsuno sokoku was rice kept as seed at the local level, separate from that of So collected in the Shoso (warehouse) of Ritsuryo provinces as Fudokoku (staples for an emergency), and was given to kyokan (an official of the Capital) as Iroku, Kiroku and Ifukuryo based on the Daijokanpu (official documents issued by Daijokan, Grand Council of State) when the central government did not have sufficient funds.

Nenryo Kyubun (年料給分) - Nenryo kyubun is one of the horoku (stipend, pay, salary) systems in the Heian period.

Nenryo Zakki (年料雑器) - Nenryo zakki was earthenware from Owari Province and Nagato Province appointed by the central government as payments of tribute under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Nenryoshomai (年料舂米) - Nenryoshomai was the term for the shomai itself or the system under the Ritsuryo system which required a designated amount of white rice from the provinces to be tithed to the central government every year.

Nenryososhomai (tax payment in milled rice) (年料租舂米) - Nenryososhomai was the term for the shomai (milled rice) itself or the system determined by Daijokanpu (official documents issued by Daijokan, Grand Council of State) during the Heian period which required the raw grain collected as So in the provinces to be tithed to the central government as refined white rice

Nenshaku (年爵) - The term Nenshaku means the right to confer a court rank on a person that was granted to chiten no kimi (the Retired Emperor in power) and sangu (the Three Empresses : Great Empress Dowager, Empress Dowager and Empress) in Japan's ancient/early medieval period.

New art movements in the Taisho period (大正期新興美術運動) - New art movements in the Taisho period refers to avant-garde art movements under strong influence of overseas art trends (particularly Mirai-ha [Futurism] and Dada) in the Taisho period (from the late 1910s to the early 1920s, but mainly in the early 1920s).

New Currency Regulation (新貨条例) - Established on June 17, 1871, the New Currency Regulation was Japan's first coinage act of modern times.

Nibukin (二分金) - Nibukin is a kind of gold coins that was distributed in the Edo period.

Nichisei Kankeishi (日西関係史) - Nichisei Kankeishi (or Nissei Kankeishi) refers to the history of relations between Spain and Japan.

Nigatsu-sodo (February Rebellion) (二月騒動) - The Nigatsu-sodo refers to the incident that took place in March, 1272 (February, 1272 in old lunar calendar) in the Kamakura period.

Nihon Bijutsu-Shi (Japanese Art History) (日本美術史) - "Nihon bijutsu-shi" refers to the chronological explanation - or the academic field - of Japanese art history, such as the trend of Japanese art, the transition of its style, the research of the representative works and artists in each period, their mutual influence, and the historical background of the works and artists - that is, the works' and artists' relation with Japanese politics, economy, religion, customs, society, literature and others.

Nihon Gaishi (historical book on Japan) (日本外史) - Nihon Gaishi is a historical book on Japan, written by Sanyo RAI in the Edo period.

Nihon Sandai Jitsuroku (日本三代実録) - Nihon Sandai Jitsuroku (The True History of Three Reigns of Japan) is a Japanese history text compiled during the Heian period and completed in the year 901.

Nihon Seito Osyoku Jiken (Corruption Scandal of Dai-Nippon Sugar Co., Ltd.) (日本製糖汚職事件) - Nihon Seito Oshoku Jiken refers to a bribery scandal in the Meiji Period in which the board members of Nihon Seito in Taiwan conspired to bribe members of the House of Representatives with the aim of extending an effective period of a law.

Nihongi Koen (日本紀講筵) - Nihongi Koen was a court function that gave lectures and did research on the national history of Japan or "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan) during the early Heian period.

Nihongi Ryaku (日本紀略) - Nihongi Ryaku (Summary of Japanese Chronologies) is a Japanese history text compiled during the Heian period which contains excerpts from Rikkokushi (the Six National Histories) and details of the history from the completion of Rikkokushi until the reign of Emperor Goichijo.

Nijugozanmaie (二十五三昧会) - Nijugozanmaie was a Nenbutsu (Buddhist invocation) association established in the Heian Period.

Nikyo Jiken (Dual incidents triggered by two court nobles) (二卿事件) - The Nikyo Jiken was an abortive coup d'etat in which Michiteru OTAGI and Mitsusuke TOYAMA, nobles in joi-ha (supporters of expulsion of the foreigners), attempted to overthrow the Meiji Government in 1871.

Ningbo War (寧波の乱) - The Ningbo War (also referred as Neiha War) was an incident caused by Japanese nationals in Ningbo in Ming Dynasty China in 1523.

Ninja hachimon (忍者八門) - Ninja hachimon is considered the eight kinds of compulsory subjects which are essential to become a Ninjya in the all sects of Ninjutsu (ninja art).

Ninjindai Oko Chogin (人参代往古丁銀) - Ninjindai Oko Chogin refers to silver coins minted from 1710 for exclusive use for trade of Korean ginseng, and it was a silver-by-weight standard.

Ninki (忍器) - Ninki is a general term for tools that were supposedly used by the Ninja (a secret agent in feudal Japan highly skilled in stealth and secrecy).

Nishi-Rosen Kyotei (Nishi-Rosen Agreement) (西・ローゼン協定) - The Nishi-Rosen Kyotei was the agreement to settle the dispute over the Republic of Korea (the Korean Empire) signed between Empires of Japan and Russia on April 25, 1898.

Nishiki no mihata (The Imperial Standard) (錦の御旗) - The Imperial standard is the banner of the Imperial court army.

Nishoji Domain (仁正寺藩) - The Nishoji Domain refers to a domain which existed in Nishoji, Gamo County, Omi Province (present-day Hino-cho, Gamo County, Shiga Prefecture).

Nishu gin (二朱銀) - Nishu gin silver is a kind of silver coin circulated in Japan in the end of Edo period.

Nishukin (二朱金) - Nishukin is a kind of gold coin distributed in the Edo period.

Nisso Boeki (Japan-Sung Trade) (日宋貿易) - Nisso boeki was the trade done between Japan and the Sung Dynasty (Southern Sung Dynasty) in China.

Nittoboeki (trade between Japan and Tang dynasty China) (日唐貿易) - Nittoboeki (日唐貿易) is the trade that was carried on between Japan and Tang dynasty China.

Nobutane-Kyo-Ki (宣胤卿記) - Nobutane-kyo-ki is a diary written by a court noble, Nobutane NAKANOMIKADO, who lived in the Sengoku period (period of warring states).

Nori (能吏) - Nori means a person with high political or administrative skill.

Normal school order (師範学校令) - The normal school order was an imperial edict promulgated on April 10, 1886.

Normanton Incident (ノルマントン号事件) - The Normanton Incident refers to an event that occurred when the Normanton, a cargo ship of British registry, ran aground and sank off the coast of Kii Province(Cape Shiono-misaki, Kushimoto Town, Higashimuro County, Wakayama Prefecture) on October 24, 1886.

Northern Court (北朝) - The term "Northern Court" (hokucho in Japanese) describes the Japanese Imperial Court, dynasty, and government that broke off from the Southern Court and was located geographically north of its southern rival at Yoshino.

Northern Court (Japan) (北朝 (日本)) - Hokucho (Northern Court) was the Imperial Court of the Jimyo-in line supported by many samurai led by the Ashikaga clan during the period of the Northern and Southern Courts.

Northern Tango Earthquake (北丹後地震) - The earthquake in the northern Tango Province occurred at 6:27:39 pm on March 7, 1927.

Northern Trade (北方貿易) - Northern Trade was the trade between China (Northern Song Dynasty) and the Oshu-Fujiwara clan or the Abe clan (Oshu) and the Dewa Kiyohara clan who dominated Ou before then.

Nose clan (能勢氏) - The Nose clan was a taishin ryoshu (noble land owner) in Settsu Province (Hokusetsu region).

Nuhi (slave) (奴婢) - Nuhi refers to one of the positions of Senmin (unfree people) against Ryomin (free people) under the ritsuryo system (the system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code), and was equivalent to a servile class.

Nuidonoryo (縫殿寮) - Nuidonoryo (Bureau of the Wardrobe and Court Ladies) was the office which belonged to Nakatsukasasho (Ministry of Central affairs) and was in charge of personnel affairs of nyokan (court ladies) as well as the supervision of sewing under the Japanese Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the Ritsuryo code).

Nuinotsukasa (Sewing Office) (縫司) - Nuinotsukasa was one of 12 offices in the Ladies Quarters, and responsible for sewing garments, braiding plaited cords, and also managed the court ladies' serving and entering the Imperial Court.

NUKATA no Kunimiyatsuko (額田国造) - NUKATA no Kunimiyatsuko (aka. Kokuzo NUKATA) was the leading local family that ruled the western part of Mino Province (or the eastern part of Omi Province) in ancient Japan.

Nyobona (女房名) - Nyobona was a name that a nyobo (a court lady) called herself in attendance.

O

O-oku (大奥) - O-oku was a residential place in Edo-jo castle where the Tokugawa Shogun family's children, lawful wife and oku jochu (maids working in the domestic quarters of a shogun or feudal lords) (also called goten jochu [palace maids]) resided.

Oban (椀飯) - Oban was a type of menu for entertaining guests.

Oban (the great guards) (大番) - Oban (the great guards) was one of the organizations of the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Ochimusha (落武者) - An ochimusha is a samurai of a defeated army who survives and flees from the war.

Ocho Period (王朝時代) - The Ocho period (Dynastic period) is a Japanese historical period.

Ochudo (落人) - Ochudo (or ochiudo) indicates persons who were defeated in a fight and escaped to and lived in a remote rural area or the person's descendants.

Oda government (織田政権) - The Oda government is a samurai government which existed in Japan from 1573 (virtually 1568) to 1582.

Odachijoko shosatsusho (大舘常興書札抄) - Odachijoko shosatsusho is a book of shosatsurei (model sentences for official letters) written by Hisauji ODACHI, a vassal of the Muromachi bakufu from the late Muromachi period to the Sengoku period (Japan) (the book is also called 'Odachi' and Joko was the priest name of the author).

Oei Invasion (応永の外寇) - The Oei Invasion (known in Korea as the Gihae Eastern Expedition, with Gihae being a reference to the year 1419) refers to a raid on the Japanese island of Tsushima by Joseon Korean forces that occurred in 1419 (the 26th year of the Oei era, from which the Japanese name is taken), meaning that it took place during the Muromachi period according to the standard classification of Japanese history.

Oei Rebellion (応永の乱) - The Oei rebellion, which broke out in the sixth year of the Oei era (1399) during the Muromachi period, was a revolt against the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) led by the shugo daimyo (feudal lord) Yoshihiro OUCHI, in which he occupied the city of Sakai (modern-day Osaka) which was eventually brought to ruin.

Offense and Defense in Omi Province (近江攻防) - The offense and defense in Omi Province were a series of battles between Omi-Genji (the Minamoto clan) and Onjo-ji Temple's armed priests versus Heike (the Taira family) during the Jisho-Juei War.

Ofuregaki Shusei (The collection of laws and regulations compiled by the shogunate) (御触書集成) - Ofuregaki shusei indicates a collection of laws and regulations issued by the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Oguni clan (小国氏) - The Oguni clan is a Japanese clan.

Ogura Incident (小倉事件) - The Ogura Incident was a dispute over succession of the imperial throne in which Emperor Reigen forced Ichinomiya (later Cloistered Imperial Prince Saishin), his oldest son, to become a Buddhist priest in 1681, and purged the greater imperial household of the Ogura family, Ichinomiya's maternal relatives.

Ogurihangan (小栗判官) - Ogurihangan is a legendary figure and also refers to tales of this person as a protagonist that have been handed down since the Japanese medieval period.

Ohama Riot (大浜騒動) - Ohama Riot was the riot in Washizuka, Aomi County, Mikawa Province (currently Hekinan City, Aichi Prefecture) in 1871, although it was one of the protest movements against Haibutsu-kishaku (a movement to abolish Buddhism), it was an undesigned and incidental riot.

Oie-sodo (family feuds) (お家騒動) - Oie-sodo is a term denoting family squabble within feudal lord households in the Edo Period.

OIKAWA Clan (及川氏) - The OIKAWA clan was a Japanese clan.

Oiryo (大炊寮) - Oiryo (Bureau of Palace Kitchens) is a bureau of Kunaisho (the Ministry of the Imperial Household) under the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in Japan.

Okappiki (岡っ引) - Okappiki refer to unofficial collaborators who played a marginal role in police functions such as town magistrate's offices and Hitsuke tozoku aratame-kata (literally, "investigative division for arson and organized robbery") in the Edo period.

Okidome Domain (興留藩) - Okidome Domain was a feudal domain located in Yamato Province (present-day Okidome, Ikaruga-cho, Ikoma-gun, Nara Prefecture)

Okimi (great king) (Yamato sovereignty) (大王 (ヤマト王権)) - Okimi is a historical term which generally refers to the chief of the Yamato sovereignty (Japan) from the latter half of the third century to the end of the seventh century which is from the Kofun (tumulus) period to the Asuka period.

Okimi no Tsukasa (Imperial Family Office) (正親司) - Okimi no tsukasa was one of the institutions belonging to Imperial Household Agency in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in ancient Japan.

Okochi Clan (大河内氏) - The Okochi clan is part of the Seiwa-Genji (Minamoto clan) and Settsu-Genji (Minamoto clan), and is said to have been established when Akitsuna, the grandson of MINAMOTO no Yorimasa, moved to Okochi-go, Nukata County in Mikawa Province (which some have asserted to be the present-day Aza-Okochi, Ohira-cho, Okazaki City, Aichi Prefecture) and called himself Okochi.

Okuma Finance (大隈財政) - Okuma finance refers to the financial policy promoted by Shigenobu OKUMA, the Minister of the Treasury (concurrently filled a post of Councilor) in early Meiji Period.

Old Provincial Names (Kyukokumei) (旧国名) - Old provincial names are the names of the ryoseikoku (province) that were used up to the early Meiji period.

Omagaki (a list of candidates) (大間書) - Omagaki refers to Myobo (identification) listing names of vacant government posts subject to appointment and candidates for such government posts at the time of appointment in Jimoku (ceremony for appointing officials) regularly held in Spring and Autumn.

Omi (臣) - Shin (臣) refers to a retainer who served his lord.

Omi Komuro Domain (近江小室藩) - The Omi Komuro Domain was a domain which existed in Komuro, Azai County, Omi Province (Present: Komuro-cho, Nagahama City, Shiga Prefecture [Previous: Azai-cho, Higashiazai County]).

Omi no kuninomiyatsuko (淡海国造) - Omi no kuninomiyatsuko (Omi kokuzo) was the kuninomiyatsuko (kokuzo: the head of a local government) who governed the western part of Omi Province (the west coast of Lake Biwa).

Omi no Miya (近江宮) - Imperial Palace Omi Otsu no Miya (近江大津宮) refers to the Imperial palace where the Emperor Tenchi lived and carried out politics in the latter half of the seventh century.

Omi shonin (近江商人) - Omi shonin refers to merchants from the Omi Province (present-day Shiga Prefecture) who were active from the Kamakura period through to Edo, Meiji, Taisho and Showa periods.

Omi-Genji (Minamoto clan) (近江源氏) - The name "Omi-Genji" refers to the clan who originated from Genji (Minamoto clan) and settled in Omi Province as their home base in the Medieval period.

Omi-Miyagawa Domain (近江宮川藩) - The Omi-Miyagawa Domain existed in Miyagawa, Sakata County, Omi Province (present-day Miyashi-cho, Nagahama City, Shiga Prefecture).

Omi-no-kuni Fudoki (近江国風土記) - Omi-no-kuni Fudoki is a fudoki (Description of regional climate, culture, etc.) of the Omi Province.

Omi-Ryo (Omi Administrative Code) (近江令) - Omi-Ryo is a legal system, believed to have been enacted in the Asuka Period (during the reign of the Emperor Tenchi) in Japan.

Omi-Takashima Domain (近江高島藩) - The Omi-Takashima Domain refers to a domain which existed in Takashima County, Omi Province (present-day Takashima City, Shiga Prefecture).

Omiya (近江屋) - Omiya is a venerable soy sauce store in Kyoto.

Omiya Gosho (大宮御所) - Omiya Gosho was a residence built for Empress Teimei who became an empress dowager when Emperor Taisho had passed away on the premise of Akasaka Rikyu (The State Guest House) (present-day Akasaka Imperial property).

Omiya Incident (近江屋事件) - The Omiya Incident occurred at the end of the Edo period during the last days of the Tokugawa shogunate, on December 10, 1867 (November 15 according to the old calendar) when Ryoma SAKAMOTO and Shintaro NAKAOKA were killed at Omiya, the home of Shinsuke IGUCHI in Kawara-machi, Kyoto Prefecture.

Omizo Domain (大溝藩) - The Omizo Domain refers to a domain which existed in Takashima County, Omi Province (present-day Katsuno, Takashima City, Shiga Prefecture).

Omizo jinya (regional government office of the Omizo Domain) (大溝陣屋) - Omizo jinya was a regional government office of the Omizo Domain located in Takashimakatsuno, Takashima City, Shiga Prefecture (Takashima County, Omi Province).

Omote-daka (face value of kokudaka assessed by the feudal government) (表高) - Omotedaka refers to kokudaka (yield) on face value of shoryo (territory) that was given by seii taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians") to daimyo (feudal lords) or hatamoto (direct retainers) in the Edo period.

Ondo (音道) - Ondo is one of the subjects of Daigaku-ryo, an educational institution under the system of centralized administration established under the Ritsuryo Legal Codes in Japan, to learn the Han pronunciations of Chinese characters in order to allow the reading aloud of the scriptures of Confucianism with the original pronunciations.

One-yen coin (一円硬貨) - The one-yen coin is a subsidiary coin issued by the Japanese government.

Onin War (応仁の乱) - Onin War, fought from 1467 till 1477, was a civil war that broke out during the Muromachi period when the ruling Seii Taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians") was Yoshimasa ASHIKAGA, the eighth person to hold this position.

Oniwaban (御庭番) - The Oniwaban was a position in the Edo bakufu (the Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) created by Yoshimume TOKUGAWA, the eighth Seiitaishogun (the Shogun in charge of conquering barbarian territories) in the Edo period.

Onmyo hakase (Doctor of onmyo) (陰陽博士) - Onmyo hakase was a teaching position created at the Onmyoryo (Bureau of Divination) under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Onmyoryo (陰陽寮) - The Onmyoryo was one of the bureaus in Nakatsukasasho (Ministry of Central Affairs) under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Onna Koshu (Ffemale Head of a Family) (女戸主) - Onna Koshu was defined as a female head of a family according to the Old Civil Codes of Japan.

Ono Clan (a clan which was active from the early seventh century to the middle of the Heian period) (小野氏) - Ono clan was a clan which was active from the early seventh century to the middle of the Heian period.

Onshi (恩賜) - Onshi refers to an action of monarch who gives some goods to his subject to show his gratitude or expectation for the loyalty and contribution dedicated or to be dedicated.

Onsho (恩賞) - Onsho (reward grants) is defined as follows.

Onshu (陰首) - Under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code), onshu was the registration of a person who came forward after having been missing from the family registers or the keicho (yearly tax registers), or after having been away from the place of registry.

Ontleedkundige Tafelen (ターヘル・アナトミア) - The "Ontleedkundige Tafelen" was a book of anatomy on which a Japanese language version entitled "Kaitai Shinsho" (New Book of Anatomy) was based.

Onuki Clan (小貫氏) - Onuki clan was one of the Japanese clans.

Opening of a country to the outside world (開国) - The opening of a country to the outside world (as opposed to national isolation) means to interact and trade with foreign countries.

Oraimono (往来物) - Oraimono is a collective term for primary education text books that were compiled from the late Heian period to the early Meiji period, mainly in the form of letters.

Oranda Shogatsu (Dutch New Year Celebration in Japan) (オランダ正月) - Oranda Shogatsu was a celebration of the new year on the first day of the new Solar year (the Gregorian calendar) by the Dutch who were living on Dejima, Nagasaki and by Rangakusha (a person who studied Western sciences by means of the Dutch language) in Edo (Tokyo) in the Edo period.

Osaka Conference (大阪会議) - The Osaka Conference is a meeting which took place in Osaka Prefecture on February 11, 1875 and where the dignitaries of the Meiji government, Toshimichi OKUBO, Takayoshi KIDO and Taisuke ITAGAKI, got together to discuss the government's prospective policy (the establishment of constitutional government) and the appointment of Sangi (councillors).

Osaka no Eki (大坂の役) - Osaka no Eki (Siege of Osaka) refers collectively to Osaka Fuyu no Jin (Winter Siege of Osaka) and Osaka Natsu no Jin (Summer Siege of Osaka[ended on June 4 or May 8 in the old calendar]), battles in which the Edo bakufu destroyed the Toyotomi clan (1614 - 1615).

Osamebarai Meisaicho (Tribute Register) (納払明細帳) - The Osamebarai Meisaicho (tribute register) was a register document that was sent each year by regional magistrate offices to the settlements department of the Edo shogunate.

Osamedono (納殿) - The term "Osamedono" means a palace where gold/silver, costumes and/or furnishings were kept.

Oseifukko (Restoration of Royal Rule): (王政復古) - "Oseifukko" refers to a country once ruled by a monarch before the monarchy was abolished by coups or civil wars, but then restored its monarchy for some reason.

Oshikai or oshigai (押買) - Oshikai or oshigai describes an act of purchase by force in a market place without an agreement between the seller and the buyer.

Oshikoji Karasumadono Residence (押小路烏丸殿) - Oshikoji Karasumadono residence was one of residential palaces in Medieval Kyoto.

Oshioki Ruireishu (Judicial Precedents of Criminal Cases made by Edo bakufu [Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun]) (御仕置例類集) - Oshioki Ruireishu was a compilation of law reports dealing with criminal cases, which was created by the Edo bakufu.

Oshioki Saikyo-cho (Judicial Precedents Estimated to be Compiled by Edo Machi-bugyo [town magistrate of Edo]) (御仕置裁許帳) - Oshioki Saikyo-cho was a compilation of legal reports thought to be created by Edo machi-bugyo in Hoei era (1704 to 1710).

Ossho (負所) - The term "Ossho" means the lords of Shoen (manor in medieval Japan) were exempted from and allowed to collect Zatsueki (a kind tax under the Ritsuryo system) (sometimes inclusive of the portion of Kanmotsu (tribute goods -supposed to be paid to Kokuga (provincial government offices) as well as the land of such Shoen.

Osso (petition without legal procedures; retrial regulation) (越訴) - An osso referred to a suit asking for retrial and so on without taking regular judicial proceedings.

Ossokata (越訴方) - The ossokata refers a lawsuit body of the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) and the Muromachi bakufu.

Ote club (大手倶楽部) - Ote club was a political association during the mid-Meiji Period (October 20, 1894 - February 24, 1896).

Otenmon no Hen (The Otenmon Gate Incident) (応天門の変) - The "Otenmon no Hen" (the Otenmon gate incident) was a political incident which happened in 866, in the early Heian period.

Otomo Clan (大伴氏) - The Otomo clan was one of the dominant clans in ancient Japan.

Otoneriryo (Bureau of Imperial Attendants) (大舎人寮) - Otoneriryo was one of the institutions belonging to Nakatsukasasho (Ministry of Central Affairs) in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Otsu Domain (大津藩) - The Otsu Domain refers to a domain which existed in Omi Province (present-day Otsu City, Shiga Prefecture).

Otsu Incident (大津事件) - The Otsu Incident was a failed assassination attempt occurred on May 11, 1891, that the Crown Prince of the Russian Empire, Nicholas (later Tsar Nicholas II) was attacked in Otsu City, Shiga Prefecture, by a patrol officer, Sanzo TSUDA, who guarded Nicholas during his visit to Japan.

Otsu-jo Castle (大津城) - Otsu-jo Castle was located in Otsu, Shiga County, Omi Province in the Azuchi-Momoyama period.

Our Enemy is in the Honno-ji Temple (敵は本能寺にあり) - "Our Enemy is in the Honno-ji Temple" is allegedly the phrase uttered by Mitsuhide AKECHI, busho (Japanese military commander) in the Warring States period, during the Honnoji Incident.

Owada no tomari (Owada port) (大輪田泊) - Owada no tomari refers to the port which existed in Hyogo ward, Kobe city, Hyogo Prefecture and corresponds to a part of current Kobe port west side.

Oyatoi-gaikokujin (foreigners in Japan hired to teach new techniques) (お雇い外国人) - The term "oyatoi-gaikokujin" refers to the practice, common from the late Edo period into the early Meiji period, of hiring Europeans and Americans to foster the importation into Japan of the advanced technologies, scholarship and systems of Europe and the United States under the banner of 'Shokusan-kogyo' (encouragement of production and industry).

P

Party Cabinet (政党内閣) - A party cabinet is a cabinet organized on the basis of political parties with seats in the parliament.

Peasant revolts against the land-tax reform (地租改正反対一揆) - Peasant revolts against the land-tax reform refer to the uprisings by peasants to oppose to the land-tax reform that had been promoted by the Meiji Government since 1873 (we should note that many of the revolts were legal conflicts, as recent studies show).

Peasants' Uprising of the Shocho Era (正長の土一揆) - The peasants' uprising of the Shocho era was an uprising that occurred between August and September, 1428 in the Muromachi period.

Pebble tools (礫石器) - Pebble tools are the stone tools made of rude ore that have not been processed.

Peddler (行商) - Peddling (Gyosho) is one of retailing industry(service business) where peddlers sell products by moving from customer to customer without having their specific stores.

Peking Protocol (北京議定書) - The Peking Protocol is a final protocol signed in Beijing City on September 7, 1901, concerning the follow-ups of battles between the powerful countries (Great Powers) and Qing/Boxers in the Boxers Uprising.

People Discriminated Against in the Medieval Japan (中世日本の被差別民) - In this section, people who were discriminated against in the medieval Japan are described.

Period of Japanese rule (Taiwan) (日本統治時代 (台湾)) - The period of Japanese rule of Taiwan refers to approximately fifty years during which time Taiwan was governed by Japan as colony from April 17, 1895 when the Qing dynasty ceded Taiwan to Imperial Japan due to the defeat of the Sino-Japanese War to October 25, 1945 when Taiwan was put under the rule of the Republic of China.

Pilgrimage (巡礼) - A pilgrimage is a religious act of traveling to holy places.

Plan to conquest Silla (新羅征討計画) - The plan to conquest Silla was a plan for military action in the Korean Peninsula during the Asuka period.

Plot of Usa Hachiman-gu Oracle (宇佐八幡宮神託事件) - A plot of Usa Hachiman-gu Oracle is an incident in which Dokyo is assumed to try to ascend the throne based on an oracle that says 'Dokyo should ascend the throne'; this oracle was given to Empress Shotoku (Empress Koken) from Usa Hachiman-gu Shrine (present-day Usa City, Oita Prefecture) in 769.

Point (Sentoki) (尖頭器) - Point ('sentoki' in Japanese) is a sharp-pointed chipped stone tool.

Political Merchants (政商) - Seisho (Political Merchants) refers to businessmen and companies who obtain exclusive economic benefits and guide certain policies to serve their own interests by taking advantage of their connections with politicians and high-ranking government officials.

Poorly-fed Children (欠食児童) - Poorly-fed children are children to whom meal is not given enough due to the economic poverty of the family.

Prince Mochihito's Uprising (以仁王の挙兵) - Prince Mochihito's uprising was an incident that occurred in 1180 (Jisho 4), when Prince Mochihito (also Prince Takakura and Prince Sanjo), with MINAMOTO no Yorimasa, planned to raise an army and overthrow the Taira clan (who were then in power); Mochihito issued a command urging the Minamoto clan warriors in all provinces together with the forces of the great temples and shrines to rise up against the Taira clan.

Prince Otomo enthronement theory (大友皇子即位説) - The Prince Otomo enthronement theory was advocated in the Edo period and it was a long-lasting dispute in the Japanese history.

Problem of heir of Shogun (将軍継嗣問題) - The problem of heir of Shogun means a political strife of selection of the next Seii Taishogun (Barbarian Subduing Generalissimo) (Shogun) of the bakufu.

Q

R

Railway Nationalization Act (鉄道国有法) - The Railway Nationalization Act (the 17th Law issued on March 31, 1906) is a Japanese law to nationalize private railways in order to unify the nation-wide networks of railways under the Tetsudoin (Railway Bureau) in the Cabinet.

Railway opening in Japan (日本の鉄道開業) - Here, in "Railway opening in Japan," the background to the official opening of Japan's first railway line between Shiodome Station (Japanese National Railways) and Sakuragicho Station on October 14, 1872 is described.

Rakuichi-rakuza (楽市・楽座) - Rakuichi-rakuza (free markets and open guilds) was an economic policy implemented in the markets of government controlled areas such as castle towns by the Shokuho government (the government of Nobunaga ODA and Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI) and the Sengoku daimyo (Japanese territorial lord in the Sengoku period) during the early modern period (16th century to 18th century) in Japan.

Rakuin (an illegitimate child) (落胤) - Rakuin is an illegitimate child who is not recognized by his or her father as his child.

Ramrod (槊杖) - Karuka, sakujo, komeya were the Japanese names for the ramrod used for loading muzzle loading guns.

Ranbodori (乱妨取り) - Ranbodori was an warrior's act of looting things and robbing people after war from the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States) through the Azuchi-Momoyama period.

Rangaku (the study of Western sciences) (蘭学) - Rangaku is a general term for European art and science, culture and skills imported into Japan through the Netherlands in the Edo period.

Ranpeki (people who devoted themselves to Dutch or Western learning) (蘭癖) - Ranpeki refers to people who devoted themselves to Western learning, or yearned and copied Dutch (or Western) manners and customs in the Edo period.

Ranpoigaku (school of Dutch medicine) (蘭方医学) - Ranpoigaku (school of Dutch medicine) refers to medical science introduced to Japan during the Edo period mainly through medical officers (doctors) in Dutch Trading Post in Dejima, Nagasaki.

Rebel army (賊軍) - Rebel army is a term opposed to a term "Imperial Army" which was made to deny legitimacy of some armies which appeared in the history of Japan.

Rebellion by MINAMOTO no Yoshichika (源義親の乱) - The rebellion by MINAMOTO no Yoshichika was a rebellion which took place in the middle of the Heian period.

Rebellion of FUJIWARA no Hirotsugu (藤原広嗣の乱) - The rebellion of FUJIWARA no Hirotsugu was a domestic conflict in the Nara period.

Rebellion of FUJIWARA no Nakamaro (藤原仲麻呂の乱) - The Rebellion of FUJIWARA no Nakamaro is a domestic conflict which occurred in the Nara period.

Rebellion of TACHIBANA no Naramaro (橘奈良麻呂の乱) - The Rebellion of TACHIBANA no Naramaro was a coup that occurred during the Nara period.

Reformation Of The Shogunate Government (幕政改革) - Reformation of the shogunate government refers to the reforms of the financial, political, and other systems implemented under the Edo "bakufu" (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Regency (摂関政治) - The regency is a form of government during the Heian period where actual power was long monopolized by a deputy or adviser to the emperor from Yoshifusa's line in the Fujiwara family (the Northern House of the Fujiwara clan), who was installed as a regent, a chancellor or a nairan (private inspection) from generation to generation.

Regulation of national bank (国立銀行条例) - Regulation of national bank is a Japanese law enacted in 1872.

Reisen (礼銭) - The reisen was originally a gift money presented from Shugo Daimyo (Japanese territorial lord as provincial constable), temples and shrines in celebrations such as the appointment of Seii Taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians") at the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Reki Hakase (Chief Court Calendar-Maker) (暦博士) - The Reki Hakase was one of the government posts established under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in Japan.

Rekido (暦道) - Rekido is the ancient Japanese study of calendar-making.

Rekishimachi (Historical town) (歴史町) - Rekishimachi was one of Japanese city forms.

Rekki (Small Stone Tools) (礫器) - Rekki refers to the stone tool made of bigger pebbles.

Republican Speech Affair (共和演説事件) - The Republican Speech Affair was an event that the speech, which Education Minister Yukio OZAKI of the first Okuma Cabinet (the Wai-han Cabinet) made on August 21, 1898, caused a trouble and triggered a collapse of the Cabinet.

Restoration of Imperial Rule (Japan) (王政復古 (日本)) - The Restoration of Imperial Rule was a coup planned by the anti-Shogunate group in January 3, 1868, which began with their declaration of 'Direct rule by the emperor.'

Return of lands and people to the Emperor (版籍奉還) - The return of lands and people to the Emperor is one of the centralization enterprises undertaken by the Meiji government in Japan which was established on July 25, 1869.

Revision of treaties (条約改正) - Revision of treaties means diplomatic negotiations to revise the unequal treaties which were concluded between other foreign countries and Japan in Ansei era.

Revolt of TAIRA no Tadatsune (平忠常の乱) - The revolt of TAIRA no Tadatsune occurred in the Boso peninsula (Kazusa, Shimousa, Awa Provinces) in the Heian period.

Ri (old Japanese unit of length, approximately 3.927 km) (里) - Ri is a unit of length in old Japanese system of weights and measures.

Rice riots in 1918 (1918年米騒動) - The rice riots in 1918 were riots due to a sharp rise in rice prices in which lasted in prewar Japan from the Edo period.

Rienjo (a letter of divorce) (離縁状) - Rienjo is a document for confirming a divorce that was issued by a husband to his wife (or his wife's father or brother) during the Edo period.

Rihooki (吏部王記) - Rihooki (also referred to as Ribuoki) was the diary of Imperial Prince Shigeakira, the fourth son of Emperor Godaigo, and is regarded as an important historical document for understanding the administrative affairs and rituals of the imperial court during the mid Heian period.

Rikken Kaishin-To (Constitutional Progressive Party) (立憲改進党) - Rikken Kaishin-to or Constitutional Progressive Party (effective from April 16, 1882 to March 1, 1896) was one of the major political parties of Japan in the time of Freedom and People's Rights Movement in the Meiji period.

Rikken Kakushinto (Constitutional Renovation Party) (立憲革新党) - The Rikken Kakushinto (Constitutional Renovation Party) was a political party in the middle of the Meiji period (May 9, 1894-February 24, 1896).

Rikken seiyukai (立憲政友会) - Rikken seiyukai was one of the two major political parties along with Rikken Minsei-to political party between the end of Meiji period and the early part of Showa period in Japan (September 15, 1900 - July 16, 1940 [the orthodoxy faction, the unificationists] / July 30, 1940 [the reformists]).

Rikkenseitai no Shosho (An imperial edict for the establishment of the constitutional system of government) (立憲政体の詔書) - Rikkenseitai no Shosho was issued by the Emperor Meiji on April 14, 1875.

Rinjikyu (臨時給) - Rinjikyu was provisional payment of extra nenkan (a regular nenkan means: a right granted as a stipend to members of the Imperial Family [including the emperor], consorts of the emperor, some court nobles, and so forth to nominate a person for a certain government post conferred to them on the occasion of the annual installation of them as government officials).

Risshisha-no-Goku (Imprisonment of the Risshisha [Self-help Society]) (立志社の獄) - The imprisonment of the Risshisha is an incident in which the Yuzo HAYASHI and Taku OE, who were members of the Risshisha (the political society) were thought to form a plot in Kochi Prefecture with Munemitsu MUTSU, a councilor of the senate, to raise an army against the central government during the Satsuma Rebellion (Satswuma War) in 1877.

Rissho Ankoku-ron (Treatise for Spreading Peace Throughout the Country by Establishing the True Teaching) (立正安国論) - Rissho Ankoku-ron is a treatise written in 1260 by Nichiren, who founded the Nichiren sect of Buddhism, to be submitted to Tokiyori HOJO, a former regent to the shogunate, who was the head of the major lineage of the Hojo family.

Rito (Party of Officials) (吏党) - The Rito party was a political party that supported the Meiji government at an early Imperial Diet during the mid-Meiji period.

Ritsuryo (律令) - Luli ("律令" or "律例," pronounced as "Luli") is a common term for a legal code system seen among the Eastern Asian countries.

Ritsuryo Law (律令法) - Ritsuryo law includes statutory laws such as; codes and ethics covering conduct, and various common laws established in the Heian period based upon ritsuryo.

Ritsuryo System (律令制) - The Ritsuryo system is the Japanese term for the system of centralized government seen mainly in ancient East Asia.

Robbery and Murder on the Sanyo Railway Train (山陽鉄道列車強盗殺人事件) - The robbery and murder on the Sanyo Railway train was a robbery and murder case that occurred in the middle of the Meiji period.

Rodo Kumiai Kiseikai (the Association for the Promotion of Labor Unions) (労働組合期成会) - The Rodo Kumiai Kiseikai was an association founded in the Meiji Period for the purpose of forming labor unions.

Roju Hosho (老中奉書) - Roju Hosho was the official document issued by roju (a senior councilor of the Tokugawa shogunate) in the Edo period.

Rokkakushi Shikimoku (Bunkokuho by the Rokkaku Clan) (六角氏式目) - Rokkakushi Shikimoku was one of the bunkokuho (the law individual sengoku-daimyo enforced in their own domain) in the Sengoku period.

Rokoku Hakase (Master of Clock) (漏刻博士) - Rokoku Hakase was a post appointed by Onmyoryo (a government office that had jurisdiction over calendar preparation, astronomy, divination, etc.) under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in Japan.

Rokuhara (六波羅) - Rokuhara is a name of an area spanning from Gojo-oji Street on the east bank of Kamo-gawa River to Shichijo-oji Street in Kyoto.

Rokuyo (6 days of the Buddhist calendar). (六曜) - Rokuyo refers to one of rekichu (various information recorded in the almanac) and has the six kinds such as sakigachi (The day on which bold actions are supposed to turn out well), tomobiki (The day currently believed to pull a friend by superstition), sakimake (The day on which it is supposed to be better to avoid disputes and hurried actions), butsumetsu (Buddha's death or unlucky day), taian (The most auspicious day in the six-day Buddhist calendar) and shakko (The day of great misfortune).

Root-Takahira Agreement (高平・ルート協定) - Root-Takahira Agreement refers to an agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan signed by the United States Secretary of State Elihu Root and Japanese Ambassador to the United States Kogoro TAKAHIRA on November 30 after negotiations by those two.

Roto (郎党) - Roto (郎党; retainer) or rodo was a family member or a follower of his master's house in the samurai society of medieval Japan.

Ruiju Fusensho (類聚符宣抄) - Ruiju fusensho is a collection of official documents where Daijokanpu (official documents issued by Daijokan, Grand Council of State), imperial decrees and gebumi (reports to upper-class persons) from 737 to 1093 were classified and compiled.

Ruiju Kokushi (類聚国史) - Ruiju Kokushi, completed and established in 892, is a history book edited by SUGAWARA no Michizane, which classified and recompiled the entries of six classical Japanese history texts compiled in chronological order, following the example of Leishu ("classified books") in China.

Ruiju Myogisho (類聚名義抄) - Ruiju myogisho is a dictionary (or glossary) of Chinese characters, compiled in Japan between the late 11th century and the early 12th century.

Ruins of Shigaraki no Miya Palace (紫香楽宮跡) - The ruins of Shigaraki no Miya Palace is a national historical site located in Kinose and Maki, Shigaraki-cho, Koka City, Shiga Prefecture.

Rules of local assembly (Fuken-kai) (府県会規則) - Established in the Meiji era, the Fuken-kai rules, which set the rules of local assemblies, were the first rules in Japan which specified the establishment of Fuken-kai in prefectures in Japan.

Russo-Japanese Agreement (日露協約) - The Russo-Japanese Agreement is the agreement in which Japan and the Russian Empire agreed upon mutual interests ranging over 4 times after the Russo-Japanese War.

Russo-Japanese War (日露戦争) - The Russo-Japanese War (Русско-японская война in Russian, February 6, 1904 - September 5, 1905) was a war which broke out between the Great Empire of Japan and the Russian Empire (Although Montenegro, [Then known as the Principate of Montenegro] which was in an alliance with Russia declared war against Japan, it did not participate battle.) and was primarily fought on the Korean Peninsula and southern Manchuria (northeastern China).

Rusu-seifu (government while heads of government are away) (留守政府) - Rusu-seifu refers to the Establishment organized to protect the nation in early Meiji Period while Iwakura Mission, which consisted of leaders of the Meiji government, was visiting Europe and America (December 23, 1871 - September 13, 1873).

Ryakumyo dodai (歴名土代) - Ryakumyo dodai (also called rekimei-dodai) was the record book of Ikai-Bunin (directory of Court ranks) of Shii (Fourth Rank) and Goi (Fifth Rank) in medieval Japan.

Ryo (A Former Japanese Weight Unit, And Also A Former Japanese And Chinese Currency Unit) (両) - Ryo served as a weight unit in the traditional East Asian system of weights and measures, and also served as a currency unit in Japan and in China; in Japan, the unit of gold coins in the early modern ages, and in China, the unit of hyoryo ginka (silver coin used as currency by weight).

Ryo-no-gige (commentary on the Ryo) (令義解) - "Ryo-no-gige" is a commentary on ryo (administrative code) by the decree of the Emperor Junna, selected by 12 people such as udaijin (minister of the right) KIYOHARA no Natsuno as a head, Monjo hakase (professor of literature) SUGAWARA no Kiyokimi and so on.

Ryogoku Kahei (領国貨幣) - Ryogoku (daimyos' own territory) kahei (coins) are gold and silver coins which daimyos (Japanese feudal lords) at various places ordered to mint for circulation in their territories from the Sengoku period to the early Edo period, and are also called Ryogoku Kingin (gold and silver).

Ryoji (令旨) - Ryoji refers to a document issued under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code by princes, empresses, etc.) for conveying orders of princes and three sango (Grand Empress Dowager, Empress Dowager, and Empress).

Ryoke (領家) - Ryoke is a term used in the context of Japanese shoen (manor in medieval Japan) to represent a lord of the shoen, donated by Kaihatsu-ryoshu (local notables who actually developed the land).

Ryonoshuge (Commentaries on the Civil Statutes) (令集解) - Ryonoshuge is a commentary on the Yoro Ritsuryo Code written in the early ninth century (around 868).

Ryosei (systems based on ryo) (令制) - Ryosei is the systems based on ryo that refer to the administrative law of the Ritsuryo codes.

Ryosei province (令制国) - Ryosei-koku designates Japanese province that was established under the ritsuryo codes.

Ryoto Tetsuritsu (両統迭立) - "Ryoto tetsuritsu" refers to the situation where the family line of a country's monarchy is split into two and the monarch is alternately selected from these two family lines.

Ryuketsu (龍穴) - Ryuketsu is a place which is supposed to be flourishing in Onmyodo (way of Yin and Yang; occult divination system based on the Taoist theory of the five elements), ancient Taoism, and feng shui.

S

Saccho Domei (Satsuma-Choshu Alliance) (薩長同盟) - Saccho Domei' refers to the political and military alliance concluded on March 7, 1866 in the last days of the Edo period between the Satsuma Domain and Choshu Domain.

Sacchodo (a generic name of Satsuma Domain, Choshu Domain, and Tosa Domain) (薩長土) - Sacchodo was called 'Yuhan' (powerfull domain) in the end of Edo period, and produced many patriotic samurais, and a generic name of 'Royal three Domains,' Satsuma Domain, Choshu Domain, and Tosa Domain which were the of the Meiji Restoration, or a generic name of the patriotic Samurais from these three Domains.

Saekibe (佐伯部) - Saekibe is one of the Shinabe (technical groups) that existed in ancient Japan.

Sai (a unit of volume in old Japanese system of weights and measures) (才) - Sai is a unit of volume (capacity) in old Japanese system of weights and measures.

Saibanshiyosho (裁判至要抄) - Saibanshiyosho is a law book compiled by SAKANOUE no Akimoto on the Imperial command of the retired Emperor Gotoba in 1207, the beginning of the Kamakura period.

Saigokusuji-gundai (a magistrate of Kyushu region) (西国筋郡代) - Saigokusuji-gundai was one of the gundai set in four places in the Edo period.

Saikashu (Saika group) (雑賀衆) - Saikashu was a group (ikki) of combined local lords, powerful local clans and local samurai who resided in private estates in the center of Saikasho in the north west part of Kii Province (present day Saikazaki, Wakayama City) during the Sengoku period (Warring States period).

Saikudokoro (tooling office) (細工所) - Saikudokoro (or called Saikusho) refers to an institution or craft center for handicraft industry which was permanently or temporarily established by Kenmon (an influential family) in the medieval period.

Saikyuki (西宮記) - Saikyuki (Saiguki) was a book on Yusoku kojitsu (court and samurai rules of ceremony and etiquette) and rites, which was compiled by MINAMOTO no Takaakira during the Heian period.

Saimen no Bushi (group of warriors guarding west side of imperial palace) (西面武士) - "Saimen no Bushi" referred to a group of warriors who attended Daijo-tenno (the Retired Emperor) by guarding and serving the emperor during the Kamakura period.

Sain (Council of the Left) (左院) - The Sain was a legislative and consultative body in the early Meiji period.

Saisekki (microlith; a small chipped stone tools characterized by a cutting edge) (細石器) - Saisekki (microlith) is a kind of chipped stone tools, which is small and is characterized by a cutting edge.

Sakai Incident (堺事件) - The Sakai Incident refers to the case in which a retainers of the Tosa Domain committed seppuku (suicide by disembowelment) to accept the responsibility for the killing of French sailors in Sakai City, Izumi Province in 1868.

Sakai Prefecture (堺県) - Sakai Prefecture was a prefecture that existed during the initial years of the Meiji Restoration period.

Sakamoto-jo Castle (坂本城) - Nagahide NIWA, Nagamasa ASANO

Sakaya (酒屋) - Sakaya indicates an operator of the sake-producing/selling business that started in the Kamakura period.

Sakaya Kaigi (Council of Sake Brewers) (酒屋会議) - Sakaya Kaigi is the brewers' opposition movement against the sake-brewing tax hike, which took place throughout Japan in the early Meiji period.

Sakaya-yaku (酒屋役) - Sakaya-yaku was a tax imposed upon sake breweries in Kyoto by the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Sakekabu (an official certificate of sake brewing) (酒株) - Sakekabu is one of the licensing systems in the sake brewing industry, which was implemented by the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) of Japan as a basic policy for controlling sake brewing.

Sakhalin Development Commissioner (樺太開拓使) - Sakhalin Development Commissioner is an authority arranged for the Sakhalin reclamation from February 13, 1870 to August 7, 1871.

Sakimori (防人) - Sakimori was a military system carried out under in ancient China and in Japan under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) from the Asuka period to the Heian period.

Sakite-gumi (先手組) - Sakite-gumi was one of military systems in the Edo bakufu.

Sakumondaitai (作文大体) - Sakumondaitai was a manual of kanshi (Chinese poem) written during the Heian period.

Sakuradamongai Incident (桜田門外の変) - The Sakuradamongai Incident refers to the event of March 24, 1860, when the roshi (masterless samurai) of the Mito Domain attacked the procession including the Tairo (Chief Minister), Naosuke II, and assassinated him outside the Sakuradamon Gate of Edo-jo Castle (Chiyoda Ward, Tokyo).

Sakushazuke (作者付) - A sakushazuke is a book which lists the writers of noh plays.

Samurai (侍) - "Samurai" is the positional title for officials in Japan from the ancient to middle ages, and an alternative name for "bushi" (warrior) that was derived from the first meaning.

San-saemon Incident (三左衛門事件) - The San-saemon incident was the incident in which former retainers of the deceased father and son, Yoshiyasu ICHIJO and Takayoshi ICHIJO, were arrested for attempting to attack Michichika TSUCHIMIKADO, Gon Dainagon (provisional major counselor).

Sanbuichiginno (Payment of One Third of Land Tax in Silver) (三分一銀納) - Sanbuichiginno was the payment of one third of the agricultural land tax in silver during the Edo period.

Sanda Domain (三田藩) - Sanda Domain was the ruler of Sanda, Arima County, Settsu Province and the area around it (modern days Sanda City, Hyogo Prefecture).

Sando (算道) - Sando (the study of mathematics) was a department for the study of arithmetic and mathematics in the Daigaku-ryo (Bureau of Education) under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the Ritsuryo Code) in ancient Japan.

Sangen (three major checkpoints) (三関) - Sangen (or Sankan) is a general term for the three important sekisho (a checkpoint) out of which were established in and around Kinai (five capital provinces surrounding the ancient capitals of Nara and Kyoto) in ancient Japan.

Sanin-tei (山陰亭) - Sanin-tei was a private school kept by the Sugawara clan, that had produced Monjo hakase (professor of literature) for three generations; SUGAWARA no Kiyokimi, SUGAWARA no Koreyoshi, and SUGAWARA no Michizane, during the early Heian period.

Sanji Kentai (三事兼帯) - The term Sanji kentai means concurrently assuming the positions of Goi no kurodo (Kurodo with the fifth rank), Benkan (officials of the Dajokan - Grand Council of State)) and Kebiishi no suke (assistant official of the Police and Judicial Chief).

Sanjo-ohashi Bridge Noticeboard Incident (三条制札事件) - Sanjo-ohashi Bridge Noticeboard Incident occurred on October 20, 1866 during the the end of the Edo Period.

Sankaiki (山槐記) - Sankaiki is the name given to the diary of Tadachika NAKAYAMA.

Sankakubuchi Shinjukyo Mirror (三角縁神獣鏡) - Sankakubuchi Shinjukyo Mirror/Sankakuen Shinjukyo Mirror is a kind of bronze mirror and large mirror engraving divine beasts with a triangular-rim in its cross-section.

Sankan-seibatsu (the conquest of three countries in old Korea) (三韓征伐) - Sankan-Seibatsu (the conquest of three countries in old Korea) was written in the war affairs of the "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan), on the military expeditions against Silla (pronounced "Shiragi" in Japanese: Kingdom of ancient Korea) by the Empress Jingu who was a descendant of Prince Amenohiboko of Silla.

Sanken-Ikkyoku Jidai (period of three prefectures and one bureau) (三県一局時代) - Sanken-Ikkyoku Jidai is one of the periods within the framework of periodization in the history of Hokkaido.

Sanketsu (Three Outstanding People) (三傑) - Sanketsu means three outstanding people chosen out of those who made the greatest achievements in historical incidents or in their services to their lords.

Sankin-kotai (daimyo's alternate-year residence in Edo) (参勤交代) - Sankin-kotai is one of the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun)'s system that obligated daimyo (Japanese feudal lords) to reside in Edo periodically.

Sankokyukei (three high level bureaucrats and nine lords) (三公九卿) - Sankokyukei refers to a generic name for posts of administrative officials in the Qin and Han Dynasties of China.

Sanniryo (the office controlling Sanni, courtiers without a post) (散位寮) - Sanniryo was one of the institutions belonging to Shikibu-sho (the Ministry of Ceremonial) in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in ancient Japan.

Sanpo War (三浦の乱) - The Sanpo War was a rebellion occurred in Gyeongsang Province, Korea, in 1510, provoked by the So clan, who was the shugo (military governor) of Tsushima Province, and kokyowa (Japanese residents who settled down in Korea with keeping Japanese nationality).

Sanshi Incident (サンシー事件) - "Sanshi Incident" refers to the murder of a prefectural government official that occurred in Okinawa Prefecture in the early Meiji period.

Sanshichinobe (三七延) - Sanshichinobe was one of the ways to pay nengu (an annual tribute, or land tax) in the Edo period.

Sanshin-shichiso (三津七湊) - Sanshin-shichiso is a general term for port cities of Sanshin and Shichiso defined as Japan's ten most important ports and harbors in "Kaisen Shikimoku," --the Oldest Sea Law of Japan established in the late Muromachi period.

Sanshoku suinin mondai (the question of the three alternative positions (三職推任問題) - Sanshoku suinin mondai is a controversy in relation to the interpretation of the articles in Haretoyo KAJUJI's diary "Haretoyo-koki (summer in the 10th year of Tensho)" dated April 25 (old calendar) and May 4 (old calendar) of 1582.

Sante-gakari (三手掛) - Sante-gakari indicates criminal trials in the Edo period for a samurai, his wife or his children with the family status that had omemie ([the privilege to have] an audience [with one's lord, a dignitary, etc].)

Santei Ritsuryo Code (刪定律令) - Santei Ritsuryo Code was a ritsuryo code compiled by Minister of the Right, KIBI no Makibi, YAMATO no Nagaoka and so on in 769.

Santo (三都) - Santo (Three Cities)

Sanyo-kai (Three-day-a-week Group) (三曜会) - Sanyo-kai is a parliamentary group of the House of Peers (Japan) in the Meiji period (March 24, 1891-February 20, 1899).

Sanyojo (算用状) - Sanyojo (算用状 or 散用状) was the annual settlement of accounts for nengu (annual land tax) and kuji (miscellaneous tax) in each shoen (estate) exchanged between shoen ryoshu (the estate proprietary lord) and shokan (the estate manager) in the medieval shoen system.

Sanze-isshin Law (a law allowing farmers who cleared new lands to own them for a period of three generations) (三世一身法) - Sanze-isshin Law (sanze isshin no ho) is kyaku (amended laws of Ritsuryo codes) which was issued on May 29, 723 during the early Nara period, and the law which allowed a land cultivator to own his land privately for three generations (or only for his own generation) in order to encourage to cultivate rice fields.

Sasakiyama gimi (沙沙貴山君) - Sasakiyama gimi, or Sasakiyama no kimi (沙沙貴山君), was one of the powerful families in ancient times.

Satcho (薩長) - Satcho is an abbreviation of the Satsuma Domain and the Choshu Domain.

Satchodohi (Satsuma, Choshu, Tosa and Hizen Domains) (薩長土肥) - The Satchodohi was a generic name of 4 Domains, Satsuma, Choshu, Tosa and Hizen, which were called 'Yuhan (powerful domain)' in the late Edo Period, implemented the Meiji Restoration and supplied people for major government service in the Meiji Government.

Sawakai (茶話会) - The Sawakai (literally, the Tea Party) was an internal faction within the House of Peers in Japan's National Diet, which was formed under the Meiji Constitution.

Sawayama Domain (佐和山藩) - The Sawayama Domain was in Omi Province (now Furusawa-cho, Hikone City, Shiga Prefecture).

Sawayama-jo Castle (佐和山城) - Sawayama-jo Castle was a mountain castle (of which almost no trace remains today) and was located in Hikone City in Shiga Prefecture (what was once Inukami County of Omi Province).

Sawayanagi incident (沢柳事件) - The Sawayanagi incident was an internal conflict that occurred at Kyoto Imperial University (current Kyoto University) from 1913 to 1914 in which the president of the university confronted the faculty council.

Scandal over the sale of the property owned by the Hokkaido Development Agency (開拓使官有物払下げ事件) - The scandal over the sale of the property owned by the Hokkaido Development Agency was the incident that the decision to sell the property owned by the Agency made by Kiyotaka KURODA, the director of the Hokkaido Development Commission, was cancelled due to the heavy criticism from the public.

School Textbooks in Japan Prior to the Modern Times (近代以前の日本における教科書) - This article will explain about the history of the school textbooks in Japan until the school system was established in the Meiji period.

Se (畝; a unit of land area) or Une (畝; ridges in a field) (畝) - Se or Une (畝)

Sechi-e (節会) - The term "Sechi-e" means official events held at the Japanese Imperial Court on the day of Sekku (seasonal festivals) etc. with the attendance of the Emperor and a large number of his subjects.

Second battle of Kizugawaguchi (第二次木津川口の戦い) - The second battle of Kizugawaguchi was a naval battle between the Mori clan and the Oda clan that occurred on December 14, 1578.

Second ITO Cabinet (第2次伊藤内閣) - ITO resigned the prime minister in August 31, and Kiyotaka KURODA, the Chairman of the Privy Council (Japan) also served temporarily as the prime minister until organization of the Cabinet by Masayoshi MATSUKATA on September 18 of the same year.

Second Katsura Cabinet (第2次桂内閣) - Summary

Second MATSUKATA Cabinet (第2次松方内閣) - Summary

Second Saionji Cabinet (第2次西園寺内閣) - On July 30, 1912 during the term of this cabinet, the Meiji period ended due to the death of the Emperor Meiji and the Taisho period started from the same day.

Second Yamagata Cabinet (第2次山縣内閣) - Summary

Secretariat of Land-Tax Reform (地租改正事務局) - The Secretariat of Land-Tax Reform was a bureau established (and functioned) in the Meiji Government from March 24, 1875 to June 30, 1881.

Security Police Law (治安警察法) - The Security Police Law was the law that once existed in Japan.

Seiba ga haru Battle (勢場ヶ原の戦い) - Seiba ga haru no tatakai or Seiba ga haru kassen (Seiba ga haru Battle) was the battle fought between Daimyo (feudal lord) Yoshitaka OUCHI in the Chugoku District (western Honshu) and Daimyo Yoshiaki OTOMO in Bungo Province in May 1534 all over Mt. Omure in Bungo Province (present Yamaura, Yamaga-machi town, Kitsuki City, Oita Prefecture).

Seibyobo (the register of standing crops) (青苗簿) - Seibyobo (the register of standing crops) refers to an account book recording the actual conditions of cultivation of rice field in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Seiin (the Central State Council in the early Meiji period) (正院) - Seiin was the highest organ of Daijokan (Grand Council of State) system issued in 1871 after the Haihan-chiken (abolition of feudal domains and establishment of prefectures).

Seiji yoryaku (政事要略) - Seiji yoryaku is a written document which gives examples of the governmental management in the Heian period.

Seikanron (征韓論) - Seikanron is the insistence of the members of the "Rusu-seifu" on making Korea open to the world by military power (Rusu-seifu means the government while heads of government are away: the heads of Rusu-seifu were Takamori SAIGO, Taisuke ITAGAKI, Shinpei ETO, Shojiro GOTO, and Taneomi SOEJIMA).

Seikyo-sha (政教社) - Seikyo-sha was an opinion group and publishing house, which was established with a total of thirteen people as Dojin (coterie).

Seinan War (rebellion of samurai descendants) (西南戦争) - The Seinan War was an armed uprising of warrior class led by Takamori SAIGO occurred in present Kumamoto, Miyazaki, Oita, and Kagoshima Prefectures in 1877.

Seiryoden Thunderbolt Striking Incident (清涼殿落雷事件) - The Seiryoden thunderbolt striking incident happened when a thunderbolt struck the Seiryoden (literally, Hall of Cool and Refreshing Breezes; the emperor's private residence) in the Dairi (Imperial Palace) on July 29, 930 during the Heian period.

Seisei Nikki (西征日記) - Seisei Nikki was a camp diary written by Tenkei, a diplomat priest of Myoshin-ji Temple, who accompanied Yukinaga KONISHI's army during the Bunroku-Keicho War.

Seishi (Official Histories) (正史) - The term "seishi" refers to the following:

Seishinko-ki (清慎公記) - Seishinko-ki is the diary of FUJIWARA no Saneyori who acted as a Kanpaku (chief adviser to the emperor) in the mid Heian period.

Sekisho (Barrier Station) (関所) - Sekisho (barrier station) were facilities installed at the important points of traffic, in order to collect taxes and perform inspections.

Sekizoku (a flint arrowhead) (石鏃) - Sekizoku is a type of stone tool also called a Yajiri (arrowhead; 鏃 or 矢尻 in Chinese characters).

Sekkaku (the stone core) (石核) - Sekkaku (the stone core) refers to the ore that remains after tearing off the flakes, which usually serve as the raw materials for chipped stone tools.

Sekke shogun (摂家将軍) - Sekke shogun designates two seii taishoguns (great generals) among the shoguns in the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government), that is, the fourth FUJIWARA no Yoritsune and his legitimate son, the fifth FUJIWARA no Yoritsugu.

Sekki (stone tools) (石器) - Sekki refers to a general term for tools manufactured through processing stone materials.

Sen-ryo-bako (literally, a box to store 1000 ryo; a box to store a lot of money during the Edo period) (千両箱) - Sen-ryo-bako was a box exclusively used to store a large amount of koban (former Japanese oval gold coin) during the Edo period.

Sengoku Period (period of warring states) (Japan) (戦国時代 (日本)) - The Sengoku Period in Japan (from around 1493 (or 1467) to around 1573) is a chronological period in the history of Japan that commenced from the Coup of Meio in 1493 or the Onin Disturbance in 1467 and ended by the disappearance of the Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) with the purge of Yoshiaki ASHIKAGA by Nobunaga ODA, the fifteenth shogun, of the Muromachi bakufu, in 1573.

Senior lady-in-waiting (老女) - The senior lady-in-waiting (`Rojo`) was the most senior high ranking woman serving a samurai or a noble.

Senior Statesmen's Conference (重臣会議) - Senior statesmen's conferences, which took over the official duties of genro (retired elder Japanese statesmen), were held during the Showa period in the form of responding to the Emperor's request for advice regarding the selection of a succeeding Prime Minister and the nation's important issues.

Senji (imperial decree) (宣旨) - Senji refers to the formal name of the documents to transmit orders of the emperor and Dajokan (Grand Council of State) in Japan in and after the period of ritsuryo system (the system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Senji ryakketsu (占事略决) (the summary of judgments of divinations) (占事略决) - "Senji ryakketsu" (or "Senji ryakuketsu") is the oldest existent book of Onmyodo (way of Yin and Yang; an occult divination system based on the Taoist theory of the five elements) which is believed to have been compiled by Onmyoji (Master of Yin yang) ABE no Seimei in the Heian period.

Senmin (humble or lowly people) (賎民) - Senmin indicates a rank or a person of such rank who is placed lower than the common person.

Setsuyoshu (節用集) - Setsuyoshu is a series of Yojishu (a collection of useful characters) or Japanese-language dictionary published from the Muromachi period to the early Showa period.

Settsu-Genji (摂津源氏) - The Settsu-Genji (a branch of the Minamoto clan)

Seyaku-in (施薬院) - Seyaku-in (the pharmacy institution), which was established in the Nara period as a ryogenokan (extra statutory office), was a rescue facility for common people as well as a garden of medicinal plants.

Shakkanho (traditional system of weights and measures) (尺貫法) - Shakkanho is one of unit systems for measuring length, area, and so on.

Shaku (a unit of length defined by the traditional East Asian system of weights and measures) (尺) - Shaku (尺) is one of the units in the traditional East Asian system of weights and measures.

Shaku (a unit of volume in old Japanese system of weights and measures) (勺) - Shaku (勺) is a unit of volume in the East Asian system of weights and measures.

Shakui (借位) - Shakui is temporal bestowal of high Ikai (court rank) to officials.

Shakuzetsu-nichi Day (an unlucky day) (赤舌日) - Shakuzetsu-nichi Day is a day controlled by Rasetsu-shin God (type of evil spirit) of Onmyodo (way of Yin and Yang) (in the customs of nobles and ordinary citizens), and was considered unlucky day.

Sharitsu (law on pardon) (赦律) - Sharitsu is a law on pardon, which was enacted by the Edo Shogunate in 1862 during the last period of the Edo era in Japan.

Shi-no-ko-sho (hereditary four-status order consisting of warrior-rulers, peasants, artisans, and merchants) (士農工商) - Shi-no-ko-sho was a Confucian concept of societal ranking (government official, farmers, artisans, merchants) that accounted for the main part of the society.

Shibamura Domain (芝村藩) - Shibamura Domain was a feudal domain which was located in Shiba Village, Shikijo County, Yamato Province (present-day Shiba, Sakurai City, Nara Prefecture).

Shibocho (死亡帳) - Shibocho refers to a register which was created annually between the times of having new family registers under the ancient Ritsuryo system.

Shibun (士分) - Shibun was the term for persons with the full social rank as bushi (warrior) class among the bushi during the Edo Period.

Shichihakushi Ikensho (seven doctors' opinion) (七博士意見書) - Shichihakushi Ikensho was a written opinion submitted to the then Prime Minister Taro KATSURA, Minister of Foreign Affairs (Japan) Jutaro KOMURA and so on as of June 10 1903, just before the start of Russo-Japanese War.

Shichijo-shinchi (七条新地) - Shichijo-shinchi was once a brothel in Shimogyo Ward, Kyoto City and today it continues its business under its new name, "Gojo Rakuen."

Shichikuzan Chigogataki Fudomyoo (紫竹山稚児ヶ滝不動明王) - Shichikuzan Chigogataki Fudomyoo is a historical site located at Magura, Maizuru City, Kyoto Prefecture.

Shichikyo-ochi (Seven nobles' rustication) (七卿落ち) - "Shichikyo-ochi" was an incident where seven nobles were banished from Kyoto in the political turmoil of August 18, 1863, at the end of Edo period.

Shichitorikoi (Action of demanding compensation) (質取行為) - In the medieval Japan, Shichitorikoi was an action of a creditor, who could not receive compensation from a debtor living in a different region, to capture a third person who lived in the same region as the creditor (regardless of whether the person is acquainted with the debtor or not) or to privately confiscate the person's properties as compensation for the debt.

Shichu-hikimawashi (市中引き回し) - Shichu-hikimawashi was a kind of punishment in the Edo period, whereby a criminal was brought through the streets in public on horseback to the execution ground, together with 'sutefuda' (official notice board stating the details about the criminal and the crime).

Shichusen (私鋳銭) - Shichusen refers to privately produced counterfeit money, as differentiated from the official money coined by the government.

SHIDA Clan (志田氏) - The SHIDA clan (Shidashi, Shidauji) is a Japanese clan.

Shiden (賜田) - Shiden is the farmland given by emperors through issuing Shochoku (an imperial edict) to individuals under the rules set in the Ritsuryo Code of Japan.

Shido-shogun (Generals Dispatched to Four Circuits) (四道将軍) - The term "Shido-shogun" refers to four imperial (royal) generals who appeared in the Nihon Shoki (the Chronicle of Japan), namely Obiko no mikoto, Takenunakawa wake no mikoto, Kibitsuhiko no mikoto and tanbamichi nushi no mikoto.

Shidosen (mortuary funds) (祠堂銭) - Shidosen were funds donated to temples for memorial services for the deceased and for the management and upkeep of shido (also known as mitamaya (a place where spirits are enshrined) or jibutsu-do hall).

Shie Incident (紫衣事件) - The Shie Incident occurred in the early Edo period and was a conflict between the Shogunate and the Imperial Court that shows the oppression and control exercised by the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) on the Imperial Court.

Shigetada HATAKEYAMA Rebellion (畠山重忠の乱) - The Shigetada HATAKEYAMA Rebellion was the rebellion in which Shigetada HATAKEYAMA was killed in an attack by a large army, planned by Tokimasa HOJO and executed by Yoshitoki HOJO; it took place at the Futamata-gawa River in the Musashi Province (present-day Asahi Ward and Hodogaya Ward, Yokohama City) on July 17, 1205 in the early Kamakura period.

Shigi Kenpo (Draft Constitutions of Japan) (私擬憲法) - Shigi Kenpo are draft constitutions created by nongovernmental bodies before the issuance of the Constitution of the Empire of Japan in the Meiji period.

Shigisan Engi (信貴山縁起) - Shigisan Engi (Legends of Mt. Shigi) is a set of picture scrolls made in the late Heian period, and was designated as a national treasure in 2006.

Shihai monjo (紙背文書) - Shihai monjo refers to the monjo (ancient document) written on washi (Japanese paper) before another monjo was then written on the other side of that same piece of paper.

Shihei seiri (paper money readjustment) (紙幣整理) - Shihei seiri (paper money readjustment) was a policy of seeking to recover the public trust in the currency system and the credit system by readjusting and reducing the amount of the notes that were issued by the Meiji government and the National Bank (in the Meiji period) and first went into circulation in the early Meiji period, and by converting the notes into the convertible paper money issued by the Bank of Japan.

Shiki no Mizukakinomiya (磯城瑞籬宮) - Shiki no Mizukakinomiya was the palace of Emperor Sujin's dynasty as recorded in the Rikkokushi (Japan's six national chronicles of the seventh and eighth century).

Shiki System (職の体系) - The shiki system is the term to indicate the stratified ruling structure in medieval Japan.

Shikibu-sho (式部省) - Shikibu-sho (Ministry of Ceremonial) was one of the eight central ministries under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in Japan.

Shikibunden (rice fields granted to government officials according to their position). (職分田) - Shikibunden are rice fields that were granted to government officials under the ancient East Asian Ritsuryo system.

Shikienkyuten (史記延久点) - Shikienkyuten is kuntenbon (a book with guiding marks for rendering Chinese into Japanese) of "Shiki" (Records of the Grand Historian), a Chinese history book written by Sima Qian in the era of Former Han in China, and it was in the form of Kansubon (book in scroll style) transcribed by OE no Iekuni by adding kunten (marks and symbols beside lines of Chinese text to indicate how the text is to be read in Japanese) in 1073 during the Heian period of Japan.

Shikigami (式神) - Shikigami or Shikijin were fierce gods employed by the Onmyoji (Master of Yin yang) to judge the evil doings and well doings of the populace, and they were also called Shiki no Kami, and in some literature, Shiki or Shiki Kijin.

Shikimoku (式目) - Shikimoku was an itemized form of law code used in medieval Japan.

Shimazu no Sho (Shimazu Manor) (島津荘) - Shimazu no Sho (Shimazu Manor) was a large manor located in southern Kyushu from the Heian period to the first part of the Kamakura period.

Shimojima navy (下志万) - The Shimojima clan was an active navy based in Maizuru Bay in Kyoto Prefecture.

Shimotsuki Incident (霜月騒動) - The Simotsuki Incident was a political change in the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) that occurred in Kamakura in the latter half of the Kamakura period on December 21, 1285.

Shimpuren-no-ran War (神風連の乱) - The Shimpuren-no-ran War is a revolt by the warrior class against the Meiji Government which took place in Kumamoto City in 1876.

Shinabe (Technicians in Offices) (品部) - Shinabe (technicians in offices), or 'shinashinano tomonowo' or 'tomono miyatsuko' in the Japanese way of reading, refers to the human group or organization in ancient Japan.

Shinano Genji (Minamoto clan) (信濃源氏) - Shinano Genji is a name given to the Minamoto clan who were native to and based in Shinano Province during the medieval period.

Shinbutsu-bunri (Separation of Buddhism and Shintoism) (神仏分離) - Shinbutsu-bunri is to prohibit conventional syncretization of Shinto with Buddhism and to distinguish between Shintoism and Buddhism, Kami (Shinto) and Buddha, and shrines and temples.

Shinbutsu-shugo (神仏習合) - Shinbutsu-shugo (syncretization of Shinto with Buddhism) refers to blending of indigenous belief and Buddhistic faith to reconfigure one belief system.

Shinchogumi (新徴組) - The Shinchogumi was a security force established by the Edo bakufu (a Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) in 1862, during the late Edo period.

Shinden (神田) - A Shinden (also referred as Kanda) is a rice field whose produce is used to pay for the costs of a Shinto shrine's Saishi (religious services).

Shindenbunchi (新田分知) - Shindenbunchi is a form of samurai branch family in the Edo period.

Shindo Incident (真土事件) - The Shindo incident is a peasants' revolt that took place in Shindo Village (present-day Hiratsuka City), Osumi County, Kanagawa Prefecture in 1878.

Shinengo (私年号) - Shinengo (literally means private nengo; nengo is a name of an era) was the name of an era which was not declared by a dynasty that had a stable administrating power in South East Asia, where the name of an era was used as the method of counting years.

Shingu clan (新宮氏) - The Shingu clan is one of the clans in Japan.

Shinno-ningoku (親王任国) - The term Shinno-ningoku means provinces to which imperial princes were appointed as kokushi (provincial governor) as well as such systems.

Shinobi-monomi (忍び物見) - Shinobi-monomi is a way of patrolling during the Sengoku period where a person hides in fields and mountains and searches for the enemy's situation in the battle field.

Shinobigatana (忍刀) - Shinobigatana is a sword which is said to be used by ninja and is also called Ninjato.

Shinryo Kogyo (神領興行) - Shinryo Kogyo was a policy implemented by the Emperor and the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a Shogun nominally appointed by the Emperor) mainly in the mid-Kamakura period to promote the performance of Shinto rituals on the basis of tenjin sokan shigo (an idea of correspondence between Heaven and Man).

Shinsei (Law reconstitution) (新制) - Shinsei ('kugeshinsei') means a written code established based upon imperial order by Tenno (the Emperor) and Daijo Tenno (the Retired Emperor) from the mid Heian period to the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Shinsen Shojiroku (Newly Compiled Register of Clan Names and Titles of Nobility) (新撰姓氏録) - Shinsen Shojiroku is an ancient clan-name register or directory that was compiled by an order from Emperor Saga in the early Heian period.

Shinsen-gumi (新選組) - The site of Shinsen-gumi military post at Mibu

Shinzei (神税) - Shinzei is originally denso (rice field tax) collected from Jinko (the administrative households that was considered as belonging to deities) of specific shrines, stored and used for religious services and repair of the shrine under the ritsuryo system of ancient Japan.

SHIONOYA clan (塩谷氏) - The SHIONOYA clan is a Japanese clan.

Shirakawa Betsugyo (白河別業) - Shirakawa betsugyo was a villa used by the head of the Regents' House of the Fujiwara clan for generations from the ninth century to about the eleventh century.

Shiryokaku fort (四稜郭) - Shiryokaku fort is a fort built by the Ezo Republic (the Hakodate Government) at the time of the Hakodate War, in 1869, in the present-day Hakodate City, Hokkaido.

Shisen no Tatakai (The Battle of Shisen) (泗川の戦い) - Shisen no Tatakai was one of the Japanese battles which occurred during the Bunroku-Keicho War.

Shisetsu Jungyo (使節遵行) - Shisetsu jungyo was a on-site procedure to carry out a judgment which was handed down by the bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) on shoryo soron (litigation over real estate) in the medieval Japan.

Shishi (四至) - The term "Shishi" (also pronounced Shiishi) referred to the northern, southern, eastern, and western boundaries of a tract of territory/land in ancient and medieval times.

Shishi (Patriot) (志士) - Shishi is a historical term describing a commoner in the late Edo Period who actively contributed to the country.

Shishigatani-no-Inbo (Shishigatani Conspiracy) (鹿ケ谷の陰謀) - The Shishigatani Conspiracy was a plot to overthrow the Taira clan and occurred in Kyoto in July, 1177, during the Heian period.

Shitaji chubun (下地中分) - Shitaji chubun is a term which was used in medieval Japan and it means the division of the land implemented, under the situation where the ruling system of or rights to the land were entangled in a multi-layered way under shoen koryo sei (the system of public lands and private estates), with the aim of achieving the unified land ruling system (Ichien chigyo).

Shitokan (four classifications of bureaucrats' ranks) (四等官) - Shitokan, also known as Shitokan-sei system, is a term that refers to the fact that core officials of government offices were comprised of people of four ranks under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government under the Ritsuryo code).

Shizai (Edo Period) (死罪 (江戸時代)) - Shizai is one of the 6 types of capital punishment imposed on commoner criminals in the Edo Period, in which the criminal was beheaded and the corpse was used to test the sharpness of swords.

Shizoku no hanran (revolt by family or person with samurai ancestors) (士族反乱) - Shizoku no hanran was a series of the antigovernment movement against Meiji government, which was raised by people from former samurai hierarchy at the beginning of Meiji period.

Sho (a unit of volume in the East Asian system of weights and measures) (升) - Sho is a standard unit of volume (capacity) in the East Asian system of weights and measures.

Shoban (foreign lands) (諸蕃) - In ancient Japan, the term "Shoban" meant three countries in the Korean Peninsula called 'Sankan' as well as the clans of settlers originally from there.

Shochu Incident (正中の変) - The "Shochu Incident" occurred in 1324 (late Kamakura period), where a plan to overthrow the Kamakura bakufu by Emperor Godaigo was discovered beforehand and the main perpetrators were executed.

Shoden (the privilege of entering denjo no ma [denjo room] of the Imperial Palace) (昇殿) - Shoden referred to having/giving permission to enter a denjo no ma in the minami hisashi (southern surrounding area) of the seiryoden of dairi (Imperial Palace) to people higher than goi (Fifth Rank) in the rank and people in a position of Rokui no Kurodo (Chamberlain of Sixth Rank) in and after the Heian period.

Shodo (Daigaku-ryo) (書道 (大学寮)) - Shodo was the study of calligraphy under the Daigaku-ryo (Bureau of Education) of Japan's Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Shoen (荘園) - Shoen refers to the privately owned or managed land which was over a certain scale and not under public governance (or limiting the public governance as much as possible).

Shoen Seiri-rei (orders given to consolidate manors) (荘園整理令) - Shoen Seiri-rei is a set of acts issued during the Heian period.

Shoen-Koryo System (荘園公領制) - The Shoen-Koryo system was a multilayered land governance structure which was grounded in shoen (manors) and lands under the control of the koryo (feudal government) in medieval times in Japan.

Shoenezu (a pictorial map drawn in order to clarify the territories and solve disputes caused by the complications of such territories) (荘園絵図) - In the ancient and medieval periods of Japan, shoen (manor in medieval Japan) or feudal loads of the villages under the system of public lands and private estates, such as the great and powerful or the local jito (manager and lord of manor) set bounds on their territories (states) and insisted the justice of their domination over such territories.

Shogakko Rei (the order of primary school) (小学校令) - Shogakko Rei (the order of primary school) was the imperial edict (order) to establish the elementary education system in modern Japan.

Shoho-gocho (Statistical Book of the Shoho Era) (正保郷帳) - Shoho-gocho is a statistical book which the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) ordered daimyo (feudal lords) to prepare by ryoseikoku (province), putting together the names and muradaka (total yields) of villages.

Shoju (所従) - Shoju (followers) was a category of slave that existed in Medieval Japan.

Shokage/Seikage (vacation request form) (請假解) - Shokage/Seikage was a request form for leave in style of ''ge'' (official document), which the government officials under the ritsuryo system of ancient Japan submitted to the chief priests of Shinto shrines (Guji) they belonged to.

Shoke (庶家) - Shoke refers to a family that branched off from the head of a family or the head of a household.

Shoki Shoen (early shoen) (初期荘園) - Shoki shoen (early shoen) were shoen (manors) established through an accumulation of wasteland and a collection of reclaimed rice fields from the eighth to the ninth century.

Shokokumaki (諸国牧) - Shokokumaki is a farm developed and controlled by Hyobusho (ministry of military) in ancient Japan, which mainly provided war-horses, horses presented to nobles and ekiden (ekiba (horses for transportation of official travelers) and post horse).

Shokon no matsuri (Soul summoning rite) (招魂祭) - Shokon no matsuri is a ritual practiced by Japanese Onmyodo and Chinese Taoism.

Shokudo (penalty charges) (贖銅) - Shokudo or zokudo is a penalty charge which was paid with copper (or money) to a government official in an amount that corresponds to the crime in exchange for imprisonment.

Shokusan-kogyo (encouragement of new industries) (殖産興業) - Shokusan-kogyo is the policies in which the Meiji government accelerated modernization of the nation by encouraging industry and nurturing capitalism in order to compete with Western countries.

Shomin (荘民) - Shomin refers to the people who belonged to shoen (manors) which were differentiated from the people who lived within koryo (public lands).

Shomu (所務) - Shomu meant management of territory (trial and collection of nengu [main land tax levied on the peasants based on the estimated productivity of land] and sozei [single land tax or combined land tax].)

Shomu (荘務) - Shomu refers to the actual practice of control and administration over kanno (encouragement of agriculture), trials, and the collection of taxes within shoen (the manor); it also refers to the individuals who were authorized to practice shomu.

Shomusata (trial dealing with land-related issues) (所務沙汰) - "Shomusata" is a term used in medieval Japan referring to disputes, suits, and trials over shoryo (territory) and nengu (land tax).

Shonai Rebellion (庄内の乱) - The Shonai Rebellion occurred in 1599 in Shonai, Hyuga Province (the present-day Miyakonojo City, Miyazaki Prefecture and surroundings) between the Shimazu clan and the Ijuin clan, the chief vassal of the Shimazu clan.

Shoryoryo (the Bureau for managing imperial mausoleums) (諸陵寮) - The Shoryoryo was an organization which belonged to Jibu-sho Ministry (the Ministry of Civil Administration) under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Shoshikai (a think tank) (尚歯会) - The Shoshikai is the name of a salon or a group of intelligent people (a think tank) established by people gathered, such as a wide range of scholars or artisans, including those of Western studies or Confucianism, and government officials during the late Edo period.

Shoshiki (諸色) - Shoshiki was a term used in the Edo period to indicate the price of commodity.

Shosoin monjo (正倉院文書) - Shosoin monjo refers to document collections kept in Todai-ji Temple Shosoin, which are mainly created by the Sutra copying office at Todai-ji Temple.

Shotai Conspiracy (昌泰の変) - The Shotai Conspiracy (Shotai no hen in Japanese), which occurred in January 901, was a coup in which Emperor Daigo, acting on the false charges of FUJIWARA no Takahira, the Minister of the Left, against SUGAWARA no Michizane, the Minister of the Right, demoted Michizane and sent him into de facto exile to Dazaifu (an outpost in far off Kyushu) as Dazai Gon no Sochi (Deputy Commander of Dazaifu); also, Michizane's children as well as MINAMOTO no Yoshi, the Middle Captain of the Guardsmen of the Right, were either demoted or exiled.

Shotenroku (premium) (賞典禄) - Shotenroku was a premium which the government gave as a bonus in addition to a hereditary stipend to court nobles, Japanese feudal lords and members of the warrior class who contributed a great deal to Meiji Restoration.

Shoto (所当) - Shoto was the tax levied on paddy fields and dry fields in the Medieval period.

Shotoku no chi (political reforms) (正徳の治) - Shotoku no chi are the political reforms carried out mainly in the Shotoku era.

Shoya (village headman) (庄屋) - The Shoya (village headman) and the Nanushi (village headman) are one of village officers ("murakata-sanyaku" in Japanese; the three officers of a village), or one of the machiyakunin (municipal officials) in Edo period.

Shozei (the rice tax stored in provincial offices' warehouse) (正税) - Shozei (Taizei) refers to tokoku (rice grains plucked off the straws, with chaff on) and eito (reaped rice plants holding grains) stored in shoso (public repository) in ryoseikoku (province) under the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Shozeicho (balance sheets of tax rice) (正税帳) - Shozeicho refers to one of the account books that kokushi (provincial governor) submitted to Daijokan (Grand Council of State) in the ritsuryo system every year, a balance sheet of shozei (the rice tax stored in provincial offices warehouse) in ryoseikoku (province).

Shudenryo (Bureau of Grounds) (主殿寮) - Shudenryo, also referred to as Tonomori no Tsukasa, refers to an institution that belonged to Kunaisho (Imperial Household Ministry) in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) of Japan adopting the Ritsuryo system.

Shugai Sanjurokkasen (集外三十六歌仙) - Shugai Sanjurokkasen is a collection of poems by 36 poets from the Muromachi period to the early Edo period following the example of Sanjurokkasen (36 Master Poets).

Shugo daimyo (守護大名) - The shugo daimyo is a concept in Japanese history that refers to the shugo of the Muromachi period, who acquired not only the function of the military and law enforcement but also the economic power, and strengthened the territorial, pervasive control over a province.

Shugo-ryogoku system (守護領国制) - The shugo-ryogoku system (the system that a shugo [a provincial military governor] dominates a territory) is a historical concept indicating a comprehensive control system of a territory by the shugo-daimyo (shugo that became daimyo, Japanese feudal lords) in the Muromachi period.

Shugokushi (囚獄司) - Shugokushi (Prisons Office) was one of the agencies that belonged to Gyobusho (Ministry of Justice) in ancient Japanese system of centralized governance.

Shugoshi funyu (守護使不入) - Shugoshi funyu means that in the Kamakura period and the Muromachi period, the bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) forbade shugo (provincial constables) and their officials from entering some specific koryo (public lands), shoen (manors), and so on, which were specified by the bakufu, when pursuing criminals and collecting taxes.

Shugosho (provincial administration) (守護所) - Shogosho was the seat of the castle where Shugo (provincial constable) lived in medieval Japan.

Shugouke (守護請) - Shugouke is a system during the Muromachi period in Japan under which Shugo (provincial constable) undertook to pay the land tax on shoen (Manor in medieval Japan) and Kokugaryo (territories governed by provincial government office) (koryo (an Imperial demesne)) for the lord of the manor and chigyo-kokushu (provincial proprietor).

Shuinchi/Kokuinchi (朱印地・黒印地) - The term Shuinchi/Kokuinchi means the lands which were secured (approval/confirmation of ownership) by the bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun)/daimyo (feudal lords) in the Edo period as the property of shrines/temples.

Shuinsen (shogunate-licensed trading ship) (朱印船) - The Shuinsen was a ship that carried out foreign trade by receiving the Shuinjo (the permit to travel to foreign countries) of the Japanese ruler between the end of the sixteenth century to the early seventeenth century.

Shujikan (集治監) - Shujikan were the predecessor of modern-day prisons created in the Meiji period.

Shukeiryo (主計寮) - Shukeiryo is an organization which belonged to Minbusho (civil and administrative ministry) under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Shuki-daiban (vermilion-lacquered household goods that were the Fujiwara clan's treasures) (朱器台盤) - Shuki-daiban are vermilion-lacquered household goods succeeded as the Fujiwara clan's treasures by successive Toshi choja (head of the Fujiwara clan).

Shukuba (posting stations) (宿場) - Shukuba refers to urban areas that were established mainly during the Edo period along the Go-kaido Road (Edo Five Routes) and Wakiokan (secondary route that connected the Five Routes) to look after officers who transported luggage from one post station to another.

Shukun oshikome (detention of a lord by retainers) (主君押込) - Shukun oshikome (or simply called 'oshikome') is a practice seen in the samurai society beginning in the Kamakura period, and it especially refers to the forcible confinement of the allegedly misbehaving lord based on the decision made by Karo (chief retainers) and others after consultation.

Shunki (春記) - The Shunki is a diary written by the court noble FUJIWARA no Sukefusa in the Heian period.

Shushigaku (Neo-Confucianism) (朱子学) - Shushigaku (Neo-Confucianism) was the new learning system of Confucianism reconstructed by Hsi CHU in Southern Sung.

Shusuishi (Water Office) (主水司) - Shusuishi (moitori no tsukasa) was one of the institutions belonging to Kunaisho (Ministry of the Sovereign's Household) in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Shutosho (vaccination institute) (種痘所) - Shutosho (vaccination institute) is the name of the medical institute established for the purpose of prevention and treatment of smallpox in Japan.

Shuyoshi (主鷹司) - Shuyoshi (Falcons Office) refers to an institution that belonged to Hyobusho (Ministry of Military) in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Shuzeiryo (Bureau of Taxation) (主税寮) - Shuzeiryo refers to an institution that belonged to Minbusho (Ministry of Popular Affairs) in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Silver standard (銀本位制) - The silver standard is a system in which silver forms the basis of a monetary system of a country.

Sino-Japanese Agreement (日清協約) - The Sino-Japanese Agreement was the treaty concluded between Japan and the Qing Dynasty which ruled China.

Sino-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation (The Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between Japan and China) (日清通商航海条約) - The Sino-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation is the treaty concluded between Japan and Qing Dynasty in Beijing City on July 21, 1896.

Sino-Japanese War; Japanese-Sino War (日清戦争) - Japanese-Sino War (Kogo war in Chinese, First Sino-Japanese war in English) is a war fought between the Empire of Japan and the Quing Dynasty over Korean Dynasties from July 1894 through April 1895.

So (租) - So as well as Zei are the goods and services that the government collect to ensure public finance for the nation.

So-okite (惣掟) - So-okite was a statute defined independently by peasants within a soson (a community consisting of peasants' self-governing association) in medieval Japan.

So-Yo-Cho (租庸調) - So-Yo-Cho (a tax system, corvee) was a tax system under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) adopted in China and Japan.

Sobuji-rei (惣無事令) - Sobuji-rei was an edict that prohibited duels between daimyo (feudal lords), issued by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI.

Social Democratic Party (Japan, 1901) (Shakai minshuto) (社会民主党 (日本 1901年)) - The Shakai minshuto is the first socialist party in Japan, which was formed in 1901.

Socialism Society (社会主義協会 (1900年)) - Socialism Society was a socialism group in the Meiji Period.

Soga brothers' Revenge (曾我兄弟の仇討ち) - The Soga brothers' Revenge refers to an incident where two brothers, Sukenari SOGA and Tokimune SOGA, took vengeance on their father's enemy, Suketsune KUDO, on July 5, 1193 at the time of Fuji no Makigari (Hunting session at Mt. Fuji) conducted by MINAMOTO no Yoritomo.

Soga Clan (蘇我氏) - Soga clan (Soga no uji) was a shizoku (clan) which ruled between the Kofun (tumulus) and Asuka periods (6th - 7th centuries).

Sogishi (喪儀司) - Sogishi (Mourning and Burial Office) is a bureau within Jibusho (Ministry of Civil Administration) under the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Sohatsu (hairstyle) (総髪) - Sohatsu is a hairstyle adopted by male Shinto priests and Confucian scholars from the early part of the Edo period.

Soma Jiken (Soma Incident) (相馬事件) - Some Jiken is one of the family troubles occurred in the Meiji period in Japan.

Soma-mikuriya (private estate of Soma ranch) (相馬御厨) - Soma-mikuriya was one of the medieval shoen (manor in medieval Japan) holdings of the commendation type in areas that are today's Toride City and Moriya City, Ibaraki Prefecture, and Kashiwa City, Nagareyama City, and Abiko City, Chiba Prefecture.

Sonae (備) - Sonae is a military unit organized during the wartime between the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States) (Japan) and the Edo period.

Songo-ikken (The Honorary Title Incident) (尊号一件) - Songo-ikken was a case of dissension between the Imperial Court in Kyoto and the Edo Bakufu (Japanese feudal government, headed by a shogun) in the later Edo period of Japan.

Sonno Joi (尊王攘夷) - Sonno Joi is a philosophy of respect for the Emperor and rejection of external pressures and foreign enemies.

Soshu Hojutsu Chorenjo (gunnery practice field of Sagami Province in the Edo period) (相州炮術調練場) - Soshu Hojutsu Chorenjo refers to a gunnery practice field in the Edo period located on the seashore in Fujisawa City and Chigasaki City, an area that is now within the boundary of Kanagawa Prefecture.

Soson (a community comprising a self-governing association of peasants) (惣村) - A soson meant a community (in the form of a village) organized through autonomous, territorial connections among peasants in medieval Japan.

Southern Court (Japan) (南朝 (日本)) - The Southern Court is also called the Yoshino Court and was the court belonging to Emperor Godaigo of the Daikaku-ji Temple line established in the period of Northern and Southern Courts and based in the Yoshino (present day Yoshino Town, Yoshino County, Nara Prefecture), Ano (present day Nishiyoshino Town, Gojo City, Nara Prefecture) in the province of Yamato, south of Kyoto, Sumiyoshi-angu (Sumiyoshi Ward, Osaka City, Osaka Prefecture) in the province of Settsu.

Statement Requesting the Equal Merger of Korea and Japan (韓日合邦を要求する声明書) - The statement of Requesting the Equal Merger of Korea and Japan is a statement to request an equal merger between Korea and Japan sent to Emperor Sunjong (of the Korean Empire), the Resident-General of Korea Arasuke SONE and Prime Minister Lee Wan-Yong on December 4, 1909 by a group of Chinilpa (literally "people friendly to Japan") called Iljinhoe which was under the influence of Japan in the Korean Empire (officially reported membership was a few million but actual membership was a few ten thousands).

Stone Axes (石斧) - Stone axes were a kind of stone tools that were axes made of stone attached to wooden handle.

Stone plate (石皿) - Stone plate

Stone spatula (石篦) - A stone spatula is a kind of flake stone tool in a spatula-like shape, and it is considered to be used for cutting trees or bones, tanning animal skins, or maybe digging ground.

Stone tools resembling a knife (ナイフ形石器) - Stone tools resembling a knife were characteristics to the end period of the Paleolithic period, and they were made by blunting and exfoliating flakes like stone knives (blades) (i.e. Exfoliation was adjusted so that the sharp edge of flake would be partly remained like a knife blade and the rest of the edge would be blunted), and by forming the flakes into a shape similar to modern knives.

Subjugation of Takeda (武田征伐) - The "subjugation of Takeda" in Japanese history refers to a series of battles fought by Nobunaga ODA, who invaded the territories of Katsuyori TAKEDA (Suruga, Shinano and Kai Provinces) in order to destroy the Takeda clan, whose power was in decline after the Battle of Nagashino.

Subjugation of the Emishi (蝦夷征討) - The subjugation of the Emishi means the conquest of the Emishi (later called the Ezo), the indigenous inhabitants in the northern and northeastern parts of ancient Japan, carried out by the imperial court.

Suebe (陶部) - Suebe (or Suetsukuribe) was a group of people who were engaged in manufacturing Sueki (unglazed ware) before Taika period.

Sueki (unglazed ware) (須恵器) - Sueki is earthenware which was produced during periods from Kofun to Heian in Japan.

Sugimoto clan (杉本氏) - The Sugimoto clan is one of the samurai families in Japan.

Suigun (水軍) - Suigun is the traditional armed forces on the water in the countries in East Asia where Chinese characters are used.

Suiko (出挙) - Suiko (government loans made to peasants) was a term that indicated the loans carrying interest observed in ancient and medieval Japan.

Suji (administrative district) (筋 (行政区画)) - Suji is an administrative district that was created in the Edo Period, according to geographical conditions.

Sukuigoya (救小屋) - Sukuigoya is a public shelter of the Edo Period, built by the Edo shogunate or local feudal domain for victims of earthquakes, fire, floods, famine and other natural disasters.

Sukune (宿禰) - Sukune was one of the kabane (hereditary titles) established by Yakusa no Kabane (the eight hereditary titles).

Sumiya Incident (角屋での暴挙) - The Sumiya Incident refers to violent acts which Kamo SERIZAWA, head of Shinsengumi (a group who guarded Kyoto during the end of Tokugawa Shogunate), carried out during a party held in ageya (a restaurant where high-class harlots and geisha dispatched from a geisha house entertained guests) called Sumiya in Shimabara, Kyoto in June, 1863.

Sumptuary law (奢侈禁止令) - Sumptuary laws are a series of laws, ordinances, and orders that ban luxury (Shashi) and promote or force thrift.

Sun (A Length Unit in The East Asian System of Weights And Measures) (寸) - Sun is a length unit in the traditional East Asian system of weights and measures.

Sung currency (宋銭) - Sung currency is copper coins which were minted in China during the Baisong period.

Suo (素襖) - Suo is a kind of Japanese kimono.

Supreme command (統帥権) - Supreme command is a power of supreme command and direction to the army.

Surrender of Edo-jp Castle (江戸開城) - The Surrender of Edo-jo Castle was executed during the ending of the Edo period (the final phase of the Tokugawa shogunate), occurring over the months of March to April in 1868; Takamori SAIGO, a representative of the new Meiji government, and Kaishu KATSU, a representative of the former Tokugawa shogunate troops; together strategically negotiated a peaceful resolution to the surrender of Edo-jo Castle; this peacefully negotiated transfer was to become historically known as, The Bloodless Surrender of Edo-jo Castle.

Suzaku (the Vermilion Bird) (朱雀) - Suzaku (also known as Shujaku, or in Pinyin) is one of the legendary divine beasts (God Bird) of the People's Republic of China, and is one of the four gods (also known as the Four Beasts or the Four Phenomena) who rule over the four directions; it is also important in the Five Elements Theory.

Suzakumon Gate (朱雀門) - Suzakumon Gate was the main gate built on the southern end of Imperial Palaces (called daidairi) in ancient Japanese cities, such as Heijo-kyo (capital of Japan in Nara from 710 to 740 and from 745 to 784) and Heian-kyo (capital of Japan in Kyoto from 794 to 1868) that had grid-patterned city layouts.

Syakkonichi (Shiyakukonichi) (赤口日) - Syakkonichi (Siyakukonichi) is the day ruled by Hachigokusotsushin (Hachigokusosshin) of onmyodo (way of IN and Yang), and thought to be the bad luck day for kuji (public duties), suit and contract.

Sydney incident (シドニー号事件) - This incident occurred between Japan and France during The Sino-Japanese War

System of Clans and Hereditary Titles (氏姓制度) - Shisei Seido (the system of clans and hereditary titles) is a system made in ancient Japan in which the Imperial Court gave the nobles living in the capital and the powerful local clans a clan name and a hereditary title according to each person's degree of contribution to the state (Yamato Sovereignty) and the position the person occupies in the Government of the Imperial Court and let them kept the special privilege by the hereditary system.

T

Tabe (a group of peasants set for cultivation of miyake, Imperial-controlled territory in ancient times) (田部) - Tabe was one of the systems that were established during the Kofun period (tumulus period) to control people and land, which also referred to people who cultivated miyake under the direct control of Yamato sovereignty (the ancient Japan sovereignty).

Tada clan (多田氏) - The Tada clan were the descendants of "Seiwa-Genji" (Minamoto clan).

Tada-Genji (Minamoto clan) (多田源氏) - Tada Genji is the name of the line which originated from MINAMOTO no Mitsunaka (Mitsunaka TADA) among Seiwa-Genji (Minamoto clan) branches and was based in Tada.

Tadokoro (manor) (田荘) - Tadokoro was one of the systems that were established during the Kofun period (tumulus period) to control people and land, which also referred to the private property controlled by Gozoku (local ruling family).

Taft-Katsura Agreement (桂・タフト協定) - The Taft–Katsura Agreement was an agreement made between the Prime Minister of Japan Taro KATSURA, who was also the temporary Minister of Foreign Affairs, and William Howard TAFT, the United States Secretary of War and later the 27th President of the United States, who was also a special envoy visiting Japan on the way back from the Philippines.

Taibon Sankajo (大犯三箇条) - Taibon Sankajo refers to the fundamental authorities of Shugo (provincial constable) in the Kamakura and Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Taigaiko (a concept to pursue a forceful diplomacy) (対外硬) - Taigaiko was the idea or concept that considered the situation of Japan in the international community as the critical externally, and only the forceful diplomacy including the military force which denies the international cooperation, and values national independence can defuse a crisis.

Taigyaku Jiken (High Treason Case) (大逆事件) - Taigyaku Jiken

Taihei Gyoran (太平御覧) - Taihei Gyoran is one of the encyclopedias from the early Northern Song Dynasty.

Taihei-genpo (the silver coin in ancient Japan) (太平元宝) - Taihei-genpo refers to the silver coin in ancient times in Japan.

Taiho Ritsuryo (Taiho Code) (大宝律令) - Taiho Ritsuryo refers to the Japanese Ritsuryo codes established in the beginning of the eighth century.

Taika Reforms (大化の改新) - The Taika Reforms are political reforms based on Kaishin no Mikotonori (the Imperial Reform Edict) issued in 646 in the Asuka period.

Taiko-kenchi (the land survey by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI) (太閤検地) - The Taiko-kenchi is a series of land surveys (surveys of agricultural lands [i.e. except mountains and forests] and production) conducted by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI throughout Japan.

Taira Clan Administration (平氏政権) - The Taira clan administration was the administration by the Ise-Taira clan led by TAIRA no Kiyomori who lived in the late Heian period (1160s to 1185).

TAIRA no Tomonobu Asonki (平知信朝臣記) - "TAIRA no Tomonobu Asonki" is a diary written by TAIRA no Tomonobu who was a government official at the end of the Heian period.

Tairo (大粮) - Tairo was the food supplied to Jicho (unpaid workers), Eji (guards) and Uneme (court ladies) working at the central government offices in the ancient Ritsuryo system.

Taisaku (対策) - Taisaku is:

Taisei Hokan (transfer of power back to the Emperor) (大政奉還) - Taisei Hokan is a political incident in which the 15th Shogun of the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) Yoshinobu TOKUGAWA reported to the Emperor Meiji that he would return the sovereignty to the Emperor on November 9, 1867 at the end of Edo period, and the Emperor gave the imperial sanction to the report on the next day.

Taishimichi (the road where Prince Shotoku took) (太子道) - Taishimichi refer to Japan's ancient roads that are taken by Prince Shotoku and which have common name.

Taisho Democracy (大正デモクラシー) - Taisho Democracy refers to the movements that emerged in Japan's Taisho period, urging for greater freedom and democracy in politics, society and culture.

Taisho Seihen (Political disturbances in the Taisho Period) (大正政変) - Taisho Seihen' refers to the collapse of the third Katsura Cabinet in February 1913, which resulted from the Campaign for the Defense of the Constitution (the first) that started at the end of the year before.

Taishokkan (Holder of the grand crown) (大織冠) - Taishokkan (Daishikikan) was the highest rank which was established in the Taika Reforms in 647 (enforced in 648) by revising the Kan I junikai (twelve grades of cap rank), and which was newly established in the Kan I jusankai (thirteen grades of cap rank) of the cap rank and official rank system.

Taiwan expedition (台湾出兵) - The Taiwan expedition refers to the Meiji government's dispatch of military troops to Taiwan in 1874.

Taiwan Sotoku-fu (台湾総督府) - Taiwan Sotoku-fu (old form of a character: 臺灣總督府) is the name of the Japanese authorities then, which was established for ruling Taiwan, ceded from Qing to Empire of Japan and became Japanese territory.

Takanashi clan (高梨氏) - The Takanashi clan was a samurai family that dominated the north of Shinano Province (Takai and Minochi counties).

Takanawa negotiation (高輪談判) - The Takanawa negotiation was a conference held by the the head of the Meiji Government and the ambassadors of England, France, United States of America, Italy, and Germany, in Takanawa, Tokyo Prefecture on August 19, 1869.

Takaoka shi (Takaoka Clan) (高丘氏) - Takaoka Clan was one of the clans of Japan.

Takashina Clan (the clan of which the first son of Emperor Tenmu, Prince Takechi [Takechi no Miko] was the ancestor) (高階氏) - Takashina clan is the clan of which the first son of Emperor Tenmu, Prince Takechi, was the ancestor.

Takatori Domain (高取藩) - Takatori Domain was a feudal domain what was located in Yamato Province (present-day Takatori-cho, Takaichi-gun, Nara Prefecture).

Takatsuki Domain (高槻藩) - Takatsuki Domain is one of the domains which existed in Settsu Province.

Takefu Riot (武生騒動) - Takefu riot was a rebellion that occurred in Echizen City, Fukui Prefecture in 1870 after the Meiji Restoration.

Takigawa Incident (滝川事件) - The Takigawa Incident was a crackdown on freedom of thought that occurred at the Kyoto Imperial University in 1933.

Takokushu (他国衆) - Takokushu is a territory of Sengoku daimyo (Japanese territorial lord in the Sengoku period [period of Warring States]).

Tally (割符) - Tally (saifu or wappu) was a certificate stamp used to settle money transactions between distant lands in medieval Japan, and it became the origin of currency exchange.

Tamefusa-kyo Ki (為房卿記) - Tamefusa-kyo Ki, also called 'Daiki,' 'Daigyoki' and 'Daifuki,' is a diary written by FUJIWARA no Tamefusa, who served as Kurodo (chamberlain) and Kurodo no to (head chamberlain) and was active as Okura-kyo (Minister of the Treasury) and Sangi (councilor) for Emperors Gosanjo, Shirakawa, Horikawa and Toba.

Tan (a unit of area in old Japanese system of weights and measures) (反) - Tan (反 or 段) is a unit of area belongs to old Japanese system of weights and measures.

Tan (担) (a unit of weight) (担) - Tan (the letter 擔 was used in Yuan) was a unit of weight (mass) under the Chinese shakkanho (the system of measuring length by the shaku and weight by the kan) (shakusekiho, Chinese traditional system of measurement [unit system], Taiwanese traditional system of measurement).

Tanada (棚田) - Tanada means a rice-producing area located on a slope.

Tango no kuni Fudoki (the records of Tango Province) (丹後国風土記) - "Tango no kuni Fudoki" (The records of Tango Province) is a record of Tango Province (now the northern part of Kyoto Prefecture).

Tango okoku ron (the theory of the Tango Kingdom) (丹後王国論) - Tango okoku ron is a theory in which Teiji KADOWAKI asserted an existence of "Tango Kingdom" in and around Tango region (present Tango City, Kyoto Prefecture) during the Kofun period (tumulus period), which is believed to have been independent and rivaled Yamato sovereignty (the ancient Japan sovereignty) (It is also referred to as "Tanba Kingdom" because Tango Province was divided from Tanba Province later).

Tanhaku (短陌) - Tanhaku (also called shohaku) is a business custom which had been conducted in East Asia before the early modern times; with this custom, a bundle of copper coins consisting of a certain number of coins less than 100 is treated as equal value to 100 copper coins.

Tanko (armor) (短甲) - Tanko is one of the formal names of Ko (armor) used between Yayoi Period and Tumulus Period.

Tanritsu (単立) - The term "Tanritsu" refers to Tanritsu Shukyo Dantai (an independent religious organization).

Tansen (段銭) - Tansen was a form of tax in Japan's Middle Ages.

Tashibu no Sho (Tashibu Manor) (田染荘) - Tashibu no Sho (Tashibu Manor) was a manor belonging to Usa-jingu Shrine in Kunisaki District, Buzen Province (modern day Bungotakada City, Oita Prefecture).

Tashidaka no Sei (Tashidaka system, a wage system established by the Edo bakufu) (足高の制) - Tashidaka no sei (Tashidaka system) refers to an act enforced by Yoshimune TOKUGAWA in July 1723.

Tateana-shiki (vertical, pit-type) dwelling (竪穴式住居) - Tateana-shiki dwelling is built by first digging a depression in a round or quadrilateral shape, then creating a framework in the depression by installing a number of columns, followed by connecting the framework with balks and beams, and lastly thatching its roof with dirt and reed or other plants.

Tato (田堵) - Tato means the wealthy farmer class that managed rice fields belonging to shoen (manor) or kokugaryo (rice fields governed by provincial government office) during Japan's Heian period.

Tatsumaru Incident (辰丸事件) - The "Tatsumaru Incident" is a famous incident which triggered the anti-Japanese campaign in China.

Tatsuta Domain (竜田藩) - Tatsuta Domain was a feudal domain that was located in Yamato Province (present-day Tatsuta, Ikaruga-cho, Ikoma-gun, Nara Prefecture).

Tawaramoto Domain (田原本藩) - Tawaramoto Domain existed in Tawaramoto, Toichi-gun, Yamato Province (present-day Tawaramoto, Tawaramoto-cho, Shiki-gun, Nara Prefecture).

Teibi Yakujo (丁未約条) - Teibi Yakujo were regulations relating to the control of visitors to Japan which were agreed between the Yi-Dynasty and the So clan in Tsushima in 1547.

Teiji-In Uta-Awase (The Contest Of 'Tanka' [Thirty-One Japanese Syllable's Poem] In Teiji-In) (亭子院歌合) - "Teiji-in uta-awase" refers to "uta-awase" (the contest of 'tanka' [thirty-one Japanese syllable's poem]), held on April 22, 913, by Cloistered Emperor Uda at his residence Teji-in.

Teikin Orai (庭訓往来) - Written in an oraimono (exchange of letters) style, Teikin Orai was an elementary textbook used as a copybook and reader at Terakoya (temple elementary schools during the Edo period).

Teikokuzaiseikakushin kai (conference on reform of imperial financial affairs) (帝国財政革新会) - Teikokuzaiseikakushin kai was a political group established in the middle of the Meiji Period.

Teisuke turmoil (悌輔騒動) - Teisuke turmoil was an uprising which broke out in Niigata Prefecture and Kashiwazaki Prefecture (present-day Niigata Prefecture) in April 1872.

Tekkosen (armored warships) (鉄甲船) - A tekkosen was a large-size Atake-bune (a type of naval warship) that Nobunaga ODA ordered Yoshitaka KUKI to build in order to fight against the Mori/Murakami navy.

Ten-en-chi-hou (天円地方) - Ten-en-chi-hou is an ancient Chinese view of the universe which considers the heaven as round and the earth as square.

Tenchu-gumi Incident (天誅組の変) - Tenchu-gumi Incident ("Tenchu-gumi no hen" in Japanese) was an incident that occurred at the end of the Edo period; it was carried out by a group of people called Tenchu-gumi (Heavenly Avenging Force) consisting of a bunch of ronin (masterless samurai) who were Sonno Joi ha (supporters of the doctrine of restoring the emperor and expelling the barbarians) including Torataro YOSHIMURA; this group rose to action in Yamato Province having a court noble Tadamitsu NAKAYAMA as the commander-in-chief on September 29, 1863 and was subsequently put down and destroyed by the army of the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by the shogun).

Tenguto no Ran(Rebellion of Tenguto) (天狗党の乱) - Tenguto no Ran (Rebellion of Tenguto) was raising of an army at Mt. Tsukuba on May 2, 1864 by the radical party of Sonno Joi (19th century slogan advocating reverence for the Emperor and the expulsion of foreigners) including Koshiro FUJITA, a feudal retainer of Mito Domain and others, as well as the following related conflicts occurred all over the country (the main leader surrendered on January 14, 1865).

Tenka (the realm) (天下) - Tenka (天下, also pronounced tenga, tenge, or amenoshita) is a notion which means the whole world.

Tenka bushin (nationwide construction projects) (天下普請) - Tenka bushin was a type of public works projects which the Edo bakufu (shogunate) ordered daimyo throughout Japan to perform.

Tenka-toitsu (unification of the whole country) (天下統一) - Tenka-toitsu (or Tenga-toitsu) refers to the act of putting the whole country of Japan (except for most parts of Ryukyu and Ezo [inhabited area of Ainu]) under own control and unifying it, mainly during the period from the Seongoku Period (Period of Warring State) to the early Edo period.

Tenma (伝馬) - A tenma refers to a transportation system from ancient times to the early modern times in Japan that carried envoys or goods, or to a horse used.

Tenmanya Incident (天満屋事件) - The Tenmanya Incident was an incident in which members of Kaientai (an association of roshi (masterless samurai) organized by Ryoma SAKAMOTO) (Roshi association) and Rikuentai (an association of roshi organized by Shintaro NAKAOKA) assaulted a hatago (inn with meals) on Aburanokoji-dori Street, Kyoto called Tenmanya, attacking Yasushi MIURA, who was a feudal retainer of the Kishu Domain, and fought a battle against Shinsengumi (group that guarded Kyoto during the end of Tokugawa Shogunate).

Tenmon Hahakase (Doctor of Astronomy) (天文博士) - Tenmon hakase was a government post belonging to Onmyoryo (Bureau of Divination) in the ritsuryo system of ancient Japan.

Tenmon misso (天文密奏) - Tenmon misso was a practice in ancient East Asia whereby observation of unusual astronomical phenomenon was confidentially reported to the monarch along with observations and astrological divination (prediction.)

Tenmondo (天文道) - Tenmondo (ancient horoscopy) is an ancient study involving the observation and recording of unusual astronomical phenomena (extraordinary astronomical events/extraordinary natural phenomena) and investigation of their effects on the Earth.

Tenpo (転封) - Tenpo (aka Tenpu) refers to what the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by the seii taishogun [literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians"]) changed daimyo's (Japanese feudal lord) territories to different locations.

Tenpo-Oban (Large-Sized Gold Coin of the Tenpo Era) (天保大判) - Tenpo-Oban refers to a large-sized gold coin issued from August 13, 1838.

Tenpo-tsuho (a coin that circulated in Japan during the end of Edo period and Meiji period) (天保通宝) - Tenpo-tsuho (a coin first minted in Tenpo era [1830 to 1843]) was a coin that circulated in Japan during the end of the Edo period and Meiji period.

Tenpyo Culture (天平文化) - Tenpyo Culture was an aristocratic and Buddhist culture that flourished in and around Heijo-kyo, the ancient capital of Japan in current Nara, from the end of the seventh century through the middle of the eighth century.

Tenryaku no Chi (天暦の治) - Tenryaku no Chi describes the idealized political reign of the Emperor Murakami in mid-Heian period (in the mid-10th century).

Tenryo (Shogunal Demesne) (天領) - Tenryo is commonly known as a name for territories that were under the direct control of the Edo Shogunate.

Tenryuji-bune (天龍寺船) - Tenryuji-bune refers to official trading vessels of Muromachi bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun), dispatched to Yuan Dynasty in order to raise funds to build Tenryu-ji Temple during the period of the Northern and Southern Courts.

Tensha Tsuchimikado Shinto (天社土御門神道) - Tensha Tsuchimikado Shinto is a school of Shinto religion/Onmyodo (way of Yin and Yang; occult divination system based on the Taoist theory of the five elements) with its headquarters in Oi-cho (formerly Natasho-mura area), Fukui Prefecture.

Tensho Ken-o Shonen Shisetsu (天正遣欧少年使節) - Tensho Ken-o Shonen Shisetsu was a mission of four boys and others dispatched to Rome in 1582, acting for Yoshishige OTOMO, Sumitada OMURA, and Harunobu ARIMA, who were the Christian feudal lords in Kyushu.

Tensho o-jishin (The Great Earthquake of the Tensho Era) (天正大地震) - Tensho o-jishin was an earthquake which occurred on January 18, 1586.

Tensho oban (天正大判) - The Tensho oban is a type of oban (large monetary gold plate in the shape of a flat oval) that had been struck by the Goto family, time-honored craftsmen of gold, mainly by order of the Toyotomi family since the Azuchi Momoyama period until the early Edo period; it is considered to have been minted first in 1588, and the well-known 'Tensho hishi oban', 'Tensho naga oban' and 'Daibutsu oban' are categorized under it.

Tensho-tsuho Coins (天正通宝) - Tensho-tsuho are coins that were issued during the Azuchimomoyama period.

Tenshojingo War (天正壬午の乱) - The Tenshojingo War was fought between Ieyasu TOKUGAWA and Ujinao HOJO in the provinces of Kai, Shinano and Kozuke beginning in 1582.

Tenyakuryo (典薬寮) - The Tenyakuryo (Bureau of Medicine) was an institution established under Japan's Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code); specifically, it was under the purview of the Kunaisho (Imperial Household Agency) of the Ritsuryo system, and was the bureau responsible for giving medical care and providing doses of medicine.

Teppoki (鉄炮記) - Teppoki (Gun Chronicle) is a history book concerning the transmission of guns to Japan, and was completed in 1606 during the Edo period.

Teradaya Incident (寺田屋事件) - The Teradaya Incident can refer to one of two incidents that occurred at the Teradaya inn in Fushimi (present-day Fushimi ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture) in the suburbs of Kyoto at the end of the Edo period.

Terakoya (寺子屋) - Terakoya were educational institutes for ordinary citizens during the Edo period.

Teshima clan (手島氏) - The Teshima clan is one of the clans in Japan.

Tetsudai Fushin (Large-scale engineering work by federal lords under shogun's order) (手伝普請) - Tetsudai Fushin was a large-scale civil engineering work done by territorial lords under the orders from the Toyotomi government and the Edo Shogunate.

Tetsugakukan incident (哲学館事件) - Tetsugakugan incident occurred at Toyo University (current Toyo University) in 1902.

Theory of 'expelling the barbarians' (Joi Ron) (攘夷論) - The theory of 'expelling the barbarians' (Joi ron) was a view that prevailed in Japan during the end of the Edo period and aims to expel foreigners from Japan.

Third Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (第3回気候変動枠組条約締約国会議) - The Third Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3, the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties) held on December in 1997 by the United Nations in the Kyoto International Conference Center (Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture), was an international conference of which the main object was to reach an international consensus on regulations concerning the emission of greenhouse gases,

Third Ito Cabinet (第3次伊藤内閣) - Summary

Three Mountains of Yamato (大和三山) - The Three Mountains of Yamato is the generic name for the three mountains that tower high over the southern area of the Nara Basin in Nara Prefecture (former Yamato Province) and around Asuka.

Three New Local Laws (地方三新法) - Chiho San Shinpo (Three New Local Laws) refers to three laws on the Japanese local administration system that were enacted during the Meiji period.

Three Scholars of Dejima (出島の三学者) - The three scholars of Dejima were the ones who came to Dejima in Nagasaki during the Edo period and conducted a study of natural history.

Three-day War by the Taira Clan (Heian period) (三日平氏の乱 (平安時代)) - The Three-day War by the Taira Clan was one of the domestic conflicts which occurred in the Jisho-Juei War during the late Heian period.

To (a unit of volume in old Japanese system of weight and measures) (斗) - To (斗; a unit of volume)

Toa-dobunkai (Toa-dobunkai nationalism group) (東亜同文会) - Toa-dobunkai (1898-1946) was a private diplomatic group which used to be in Japan.

Tobaku movement (倒幕運動) - The Tobaku movement refers to the political movement at the end of the Edo period, which aimed to overthrow Edo Bakufu as well as the political power structure.

Tochi chosa jigyo (land research project) (土地調査事業) - Tochi chosa jigyo (land research project) refers to the land research and land measurement project conducted in Taiwan and Korea which were under the control of Japan.

Tochokufu (official document to enforce the Emperor's order) (騰勅符) - Tochokufu refers to a Daijokanpu (the official documents of the Daijokan, the office of the supreme political leader) to deliver and enforce the order of the Emperor.

Toei Company (東映) - Toei Company Limited is a Japanese film production and distribution company.

Togakushi-ryu/Togakure-ryu school (戸隠流) - Togakushi-ryu (also called Togakure-ryu) school is one of ninjutsu (ninja art) schools.

Togu Gakushi (東宮学士) - Togu gakushi were one of the educational officers who served the Crown Prince (Togu) under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Togu-No-Fu (an official in charge of education of the Crown Prince) (東宮傅) - Togu-no-fu was a kind of educational officer that worked for the Togu (Crown Prince) as stipulated in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Togubo (Crown Prince's Quarters) (春宮坊) - Togubo existed in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in ancient Japan.

Toimaru (specialized wholesale merchant) (問丸) - "Toimaru" were organizations specialized in transport, warehousing and commission sales, which based themselves in cities by the rivers and ports where nengumai (rice paid as land tax) was unloaded.

Toiya (問屋) - Toiya (Tonya) refers to a wholesale agent as a general meaning used today; it has different meanings, however, if it is used in the context of history or the law.

Toiyaba (administrative offices) (問屋場) - Toiyaba were administrative offices in post stations on roads during the Edo period, which mainly dealt with relays of riders and horses as well as sukego fuka (labor from the neighboring villages to help the primarily imposed village).

Tojo (imperial city) System (system for city planning) (都城制) - Tojo system is a way of city planning developed in the East Asia cultural sphere by absorbing the influence of Chinese imperial cities.

Tokametsuke (灯火目付) - Tokametsuke was one of the physical trainings of Ninja (a secret agent in feudal Japan highly skilled in stealth and secrecy).

Toki Yasuyuki Rebellion (土岐康行の乱) - Toki Yasuyori Rebellion was an incident that occurred from 1389 to 1390, during the Muromachi period of Japan, in which Yasuyuki TOKI, a shugo daimyo (shugo is a governor of a province during the middle ages of Japan, and a shugo daimyo is a regional lord who has an official title of shugo from the government of the time) was defeated by the Muromachi bakufu.

Tokusei ikki (Tokusei uprising) (徳政一揆) - A Tokusei uprising is a type of peasant uprising.

Tokusei uprising during the Kakitsu era (嘉吉の徳政一揆) - The Tokusei uprising during the Kakitsu era was a peasant uprising to demand Tokuseirei (ordering return of land sold and dissolution of debts) and occurred in Kyoto and its surroundings such as the Omi Province in 1441(the first year of the Kakitsu era).

Tokuseirei (徳政令) - The "Tokuseirei" (ordering return of land sold and dissolution of debts) was acts by the Imperial Court and the bakufu (Japanese feudal governments headed by a shogun) during the Middle Ages in Japan, from the Kamakura period to the Muromachi period.

Tokuseirei (a debt cancellation order) in the Kenmu Era (建武の徳政令) - Tokuseirei in the Kenmu era is an act promulgated on June 13, 1334.

Tokyo Gyoko (Imperial visit to Tokyo) (東京行幸) - Tokyo gyoko are the imperial visits to Tokyo which were made twice in 1868 and 1869.

Tokyo Jidai (Tokyo Period) (東京時代) - The Tokyo period is a notion devised as a way to refer to the period after 1868, when the Edo bakufu collapsed and the Meiji restoration was started, within the framework of periodization of Japanese history.

Tokyo Tento (transferring the capital) (東京奠都) - The Tokyo Tento is when Edo was designated as Tokyo during the Meiji Restoration.

Tomonomiyatsuko (the chief of various departments at the Imperial Court) (伴造) - Tomonomiyatsuko is the Gozoku (local powerful clans) who administered each group of tsukasa (offices) in the Yamato Dynasty under or sometimes together with the clans of muraji (one of ancient Japanese hereditary titles denoting rank and political standing).

Tonarigumi (neighborhood association) (隣組) - Tonarigumi

Tonden (屯田) - Tonden

Tondenhei (屯田兵) - Tondenhei refers to a soldier or a troop that undertook the guard and reclamation of Hokkaido in the Meiji period..

Tonjiki (屯食) - Tonjiki refers to food given to lower officials or sometimes respectable persons at a banquet in the garden of the Imperial Court and nobles' residence during the Heian period.

Tonjutsu (遁術) - Tonjutsu is a technique of Ninjutsu to hide or escape from enemies.

Tonoi (宿直) - Tonoi was to guard the Imperial Palace, Kanshi (government officials) and the nobility under the ancient Ritsuryo Code (criminal and civil laws).

Tonomo no Tsukasa (Palace Equipment and Upkeep Office) (殿司) - Tonomo no tsukasa was one of the kokyu junishi (twelve offices belonging to kokyu, empress's residence).

Toraijin (Settlers) (渡来人) - Toraijin refers to people who came to Japan from abroad in a broad sense, but it also refers to people who became naturalized citizens of Japan from the Chinese continent via the Nansei Islands or the Korean Peninsula in ancient times in a limited sense.

Toshi (messenger from the Kamakura bakufu to the Imperial Court in Kyoto) (東使) - Toshi, also known as Kanto-onshi, is a messenger dispatched from the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) to Imperial Court in Kyoto, to Rokuhara Tandai (the bakufu deputy in Kyoto) or to Kanto-moshitsugi (liaison officer mediating between the bakufu and the Imperial Court), etc. and was employed for communication of the bakufu's opinions of issues of special political importance to Kyoto.

Tosho-Chosonsei (town and village system in islands) (島嶼町村制) - Tosho-Chosonsei is a generic term used to refer to the system implemented in island areas apart from the town and village system implemented in Japan's mainland.

Tosho-ji War (東勝寺合戦) - The Tosho-ji War was a battle fought in Kamakura (the present Kamakura City), Sagami Province in 1333, at the end of Kamakura period.

Totsukawa Goshi (Samurai from Totsukawa area in Nara) (十津川郷士) - Totsukawa Goshi is a group of samurai who lived in Totsukawa-go, Minami Yamato (Nara Prefecture).

Toyo Jiyuto (Oriental Liberal Party) (東洋自由党) - The Toyo Jiyuto (Oriental Liberal Party) was a political party formed by Kentaro OI, a member of the (Meiji) left wing of the Jiyuto (Liberal Party), along with Tokichi TARUI (a former member of the Toyo Shakaito [Oriental Social Party]), Kishichi KOKUBO, Shogo ARAI and other politicians on November 6, 1892.

Toyo Takushoku (東洋拓殖) - Toyo Takushoku Kabushiki Gaisha was a special company established for the purpose of carrying forward colonial enterprises in Korea during the era of the Great Empire of Japan.

Toyooka Prefecture (豊岡県) - Toyooka Prefecture is a prefecture established in 1871 based on the policy of Haihan-chiken (abolition of feudal domains and establishment of prefectures).

Toyotomi Government (豊臣政権) - The Toyotomi government was a Japanese government that ruled the country from 1590 (in fact, 1585) to 1603.

Trade between Japan and the Yuan Dynasty (日元貿易) - Nichigenn-boueki was the trade relationship held between Japan and the Yuan Dynasty.

Train Arson Attack (電車焼き討ち事件) - Densha Yakiuchi Jiken (literally Train Arson Attack) was to cause arson to trains and other facilities.

Transcendentalism (超然主義) - Transcendentalism refers to a philosophy in which individuals stand firm in their position detachedly (nonchalantly) without being influenced by the state of things that surround them.

Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Japan and Austria (日墺修好通商航海条約) - The Japan-Austria Treaty of Amity and Commerce was an agreement concluded between Japan and Austria/Hungarian empire on October 18, 1869.

Treaty of Portsmouth (ポーツマス条約) - Treaty of Portsmouth refers to a peace treaty of the Russo-Japanese War.

Treaty of Shimonoseki (下関条約) - Treaty of Shimonoseki is a common name of the peace treaty signed at the peace conference after the Sino-Japanese War on April 17, 1895.

Triple Intervention (三国干渉) - The Triple Intervention refers to the recommendation made by France, the German Empire and the Russian Empire to Japan on April 23, 1895 that Liaodong Peninsula which was given to the Japan Empire as wartime reparation based on the Treaty of Shimonoseki be returned to Qing, China.

Tsubo (a unit of area in old Japanese system of weights and measures originated in China) (坪) - Tsubo is a unit of area in old Japanese system of weights and measures.

Tsubo-sen (the tax charged on sake dealers) (壷銭) - Tsubo-sen, which was also called shuzo-yaku and sakatsubosen, was the most ancient form of the tax imposed on "Sakaya", sake dealers.

Tsuchi Uprising (Tsuchi-ikki or Do-ikki) (土一揆) - The term "tsuchi uprising" (called tsuchi-ikki or do-ikki in Japanese) refers to political appeals by the masses which had occurred from the middle to the late Muromachi period.

Tsuge no Kuni no Miyatsuko (闘鶏国造) - Tsuge no Kuni no Miyatsuko (also called 'Tsuge Kokuzo') was a Kuni no miyatsuko (the head of a local government) who ruled the northern-east of Yamato Province.

Tsujigiri (辻斬) - Tsujigiri stands for the action of a samurai who indiscriminately kills a passers-by with his blade on the street and was observed most frequently during the Edo period.

Tsuka-gashira (pommel) (柄頭) - "Tsuka-gashira" is the equipment attached to a sword.

Tsuko-tegata (通行手形) - Tsuko-tegata was a certificate for people in the Edo period to prove that they were traveling with permission.

Tsukubo (突棒) - Tsukubo is one of the tools for capturing criminals which was used in the Edo period.

Tsukuda (佃) - Tsukuda was a rice field directly managed by lord of the manors, shokan (an officer governing manor) or jito (manager and lord of manor) in shoen koryo sei (System of Public Lands and Private Estates) in medieval Japan.

Tsunesada-Shino-den (Biography of Tsunesada-Shino) (恒貞親王伝) - Tsunesada-Shino-den was one of the biographies in classical Chinese which was written in the early Heian period.

Twelve Cap Rank System (冠位十二階) - The twelve cap rank system (kani-junikai) was a court rank system established January 14, 604.

Twenty-six Martyrs of Japan (日本二十六聖人) - The twenty-six Martyrs of Japan is 26 Catholics executed in Nagasaki City on February 5, 1597 by order of Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI.

U

Uchi-daka (real value of the yield) (内高) - Uchi-daka (real value of the yield) means kokudaka (crop yield) that was used as the appraisal standard to impose nengu (land tax) to the people of shoryo (territory) of daimyo (Japanese feudal lord) and hatamoto (bannermen) in the Edo period.

Uchikowashi (打ちこわし) - Uchikowashi refers to an action to destroy residences of the people who were considered to act wrong, and it was one of the patterns of grass-roots movements in the Edo period.

Uda Disturbance (宇陀崩れ) - Uda Disturbance refers to the family feud which broke out in the Uda-Matsuyama Domain in Yamato Province during the Edo period.

Uda-Matsuyama Domain (宇陀松山藩) - The Uda-Matsuyama Domain was a domain which existed in Yamato Province.

UESUGI The War of Zenshu (上杉禅秀の乱) - The War of Zenshu UESUGI was the war that broke out in the Kanto region in 1416, the Muromachi period.

Uetsufumi (Ancient Japanese Literature) (上記) - "Uetsufumi" is one of the writings called Koshi Koden (ancient history and legends) which contains ancient Japanese history including Ugayafukiaezu dynasty, which was before Yamato Dynasty, written in ancient Japanese characters, but it is said to be gisho (apocryphal book).

Uijin (初陣) - Uijin is the first battle that young people in the Japanese samurai hierarchy participated in.

Uin (Council of the Right) (右院) - The Uin (Council of the Right) was an administrative body in the early Meiji period.

Ukagaikata (a government officer in the Edo period) (伺方) - "Ukagaikata" indicates the name of a government post in Kanjosho (the department in charge of financial and public affairs) of the Edo bakufu or officers (called kanjo-shu) of that department.

Umekita Ikki (梅北一揆) - Umekita ikki (Umekita Uprising) is an uprising instigated by Kunikane UMEKITA, a vassal of the Shimazu clan in July 1592.

Unequal Treaty (不平等条約) - An unequal treaty is a category that is formed on the basis of the nature of the treaty, under which one state does not approve the enforcement of authority by another state over nationals of the former state.

Untei (the first public library in Japan) (芸亭) - Untei is a facility regarded as the first public library in Japan.

Unzusho (雲図抄) - Unzusho is a book on rites that was written in the late Heian period.

Uprising in Yamashiro Province (山城国一揆) - Yamashiro no kuniikki (the uprising in Yamashiro Province) occurred in three southern counties (Kuse-gun, Tsuzuki-gun and Soraku-gun) of Yamashiro Province (currently the southern part of Kyoto Prefecture) in 1485.

Uprising of the Hayato People (an ancient tribe in Kyushu) (隼人の反乱) - Uprising of the Hayato people was organized by the Hayato in southern Kyushu in 720 to rebel against the Yamato sovereignty.

Urakami Yoban Kuzure (the fourth persecution of Urakami Christians) (浦上四番崩れ) - "Urakami yoban kuzure," which means the fourth suppression campaign against crypto-Christians in Urakami area, refers to a large-scale crackdown on Christians which took place in Nagasaki Prefecture from the end of Edo period to the early Meiji period.

Urushigami Monjo (漆紙文書) - Urushigami Monjo refers to the ancient documents that remained without corruption and were made by using the disposal documents as the paper lid of the container that had lacquer inside and permeating lacquer into the paper.

Usayama-jo Castle (宇佐山城) - Usayama-jo Castle was a yamajiro (a castle built atop a mountain to take advantage of the mountain's topography) constructed in the Medieval Period, and its ruins can be found near Nishikoori, Otsu City, Shiga Prefecture.

Usei-kai (雨声会) - The Usei-kai, which lasted for three days, from June 17th (Monday) to June 19th (Wednesday), 1907, is the name given to an evening banquet held by Kinmochi SAIONJI, then prime minister, at his private residence in Kandasurugadai, to which he invited various Japanese literati.

Utaryo (雅楽寮) - Utaryo (Bureau of Traditional Music) was an organization belonging to the Jibusho (the ministry of civil administration) under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Utsumi Clan (内海氏) - The Utsumi clan (also known as the Uchiumi, the Uchimi, or the Uchikai clan) is a Japanese family name.

Utsuro (samurai family) (洞 (武家)) - Utsuro was a quasi family-related community from the late Muromachi period to the Azuchi-Momoyama period that organized family members and vassals around the head of the family, called soryo (heir); organizations such as these were seen among Sengoku daimyo (Japanese territorial lord in the Sengoku period) in the Tohoku and Kanto regions.

V

Village Community (村社会) - The village community mainly means the social structure in a village.

W

Wa (倭) - 倭 (Wa or Yamato) was the name used by Chinese dynasties to refer to the area centering the Japanese Archipelago and people living there since the days before Christ.

Wado-kaichin (和同開珎) - Wado-kaichin (can be called Wado-kaiho) was the coin minted and issued in Japan in 708.

Wajinchi (Japanese land, southern Hokkaido) (和人地) - Wajinchi is an area division in Hokkaido in the early-modern times.

Wakae Hachinin-shu (eight elite retainers of Hidetsugu TOYOTOMI) (若江八人衆) - Wakae Hachinin-shu is a popular term for the group of elite retainers of Hidetsugu TOYOTOMI.

Wakan (倭館) - Wakan (왜관) was a foreign settlement for Japanese people established at the Southern area of Korean Peninsula from the medieval to modern period of Japan, or in the Yi Dynasty Korea period (Korean Dynasties period).

Wakasa Domain (若桜藩) - The Wakasa Domain was a feudal domain owning areas around Hatto-gun, Inaba Province (Wakasa-cho, Yazu-gun, Tottori Prefecture).

Wake clan (和気氏) - The Wake clan was a Gozoku (local ruling family) based in the Wake District (formerly Fujino District) of Bizen Province.

Wakisaka clan (脇坂氏) - The Wakisaka clan is a Japanese clan.

Wakoku (Japan) (倭国) - The term 'Wakoku' refers to a name which ancient Chinese dynasties or other countries around China used to designate a political force or its area in the Japanese Islands around that time.

Wakon yosai (Japanese spirit with Western learning) (和魂洋才) - Wakon yosai (Japanese spirit with Western learning) means adopting Western arts while valuing Japanese traditional spirituality, and harmonizing as well as developing them.

Wamyo Ruijusho (和名類聚抄) - Wamyo Ruijusho is a dictionary compiled in the mid Heian period.

War of Arioka-jo Castle (有岡城の戦い) - The War of Arioka-jo Castle was a siege conducted in the period from August 1578 to November 17, 1579.

Warabite sword (蕨手刀) - Warabite sword is one of the Japanese iron swords.

Warrior class (士族) - The warrior class was a status given to hatamoto (a direct vassal of the shogun) and high-ranking warriors of the Edo period after the Meiji Restoration.

Washu Yoshinogun Gunzanki (和州吉野郡群山記) - Washu Yoshinogun Gunzanki (hereafter 'Gunzanki') is a name of the series of the natural history and topography books written by Tomoari MINAMOTO of the Kishu Domain, a scholar of herbalism and natural history in the late Edo period.

Watakushiikusa (私軍) - Watakushiikusa (also called shisen [private warfare]) is a small-scale military/battle conducted in Japan before the early-modern period for Katakiuchi (revenge) or for self-preservation, without an official order such as Daijokanpu (official documents of Daijokan, which is the office of the supreme political leader), senji (imperial decree) or an order from bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Wayakushu aratame kaisho (agency for checking the quality of Japanese medicinal materials) (和薬種改会所) - Wayakushu aratame kaisho was an agency established by the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) during the Edo period, which performed quality control check on domestic (Japanese) materials of medicines.

Wayo (和与) - Wayo is a legal term used in ancient and medieval Japan.

Wayojo (和与状) - Wayojo is an agreement signed by the parties in question who make compromises.

Women's suffrage (女性参政権) - Women's suffrage, also known as woman suffrage, refers to the right of women to participate in national and local politics directly or indirectly.

Written Appointments among the Samurai Class (Kantojo) (官途状) - Kantojo (官途状) is a letter which was used after the Muromachi period which stated, that a vassal who distinguished himself in a battle was allowed by his lord to use a specific government post as his private name.

X

Y

Yagyu Domain (柳生藩) - Yagyu Domain was the ruler of Yagyu-go Village, Sonokami no kori County, Yamato Province (modern day Yagyu District, Nara City).

Yakukin (役金) - Yakukin is a kind of allowance or expense paid to the retainers of the shogun by the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Yakuryo (executive allowance) (役料) - Yakuryo (executive allowance) was one of the executive allowances that the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) gave to the retainers of the Shogun.

Yakusa no Kabane (the eight honorary titles) (八色の姓) - Yakusa no Kabane refers to the system of eight titles newly established by the Emperor Tenmu in 684; the eight titles were Mahito, Asomi/Ason, Sukune, Imiki, Michinoshi, Omi, Muraji, and Inagi.

Yamaga Domain (山家藩) - Yamaga Domain included the areas in and around Yamaga in Ikaruga no kori (Ikaruga County), Tanba Province as its territory.

Yamagata–Lobanov Agreement (山縣・ロバノフ協定) - The Yamagata-Lobanov Agreement was the agreement signed on June 9, 1896 between the empires of Japan and Russia on disputes over their sphere of influence over Korea.

Yamagunitai (山国隊) - The Yamagunitai (the Yamaguni Corps or Troop) was an armed force of farmers that was formed during the Bakumatsu period (a fifteen-year period, from 1853-1868, that saw the demise of the Tokugawa bakufu) in the hamlet of Yamaguni in Kuwata county of Tanba Province (the modern-day Keihoku-cho, Ukyo Ward, Kyoto).

Yamakami Domain (山上藩) - The Yamakami Domain existed in Omi Province (present-day Yamakami-cho, Higashi-Omi City, Shiga Prefecture).

Yamashiro no Kuni no Miyatsuko (山背国造) - Yamashiro no Kuni no Miyatsuko (also known as Yamashiro Kokuzo, written as 山背国造 or 山代国造) was a kuninomiyatsuko (provincial governor) who ruled the south-west part of Yamashiro Province.

Yamashiroya Incident (山城屋事件) - The Yamashiroya Incident was an incident that Wasuke YAMASHIROYA, a government contractor for the Ministry of Army, committed suicide when he was unable to repay the public money he had borrowed from the Ministry without collateral in 1872.

Yamatai (The state of Yamatai) (邪馬台国) - Yamatai (邪馬台国) is a vassal state which is mentioned in Gishiwajinden ('Worenchuan' [the account of the people of 'Wa'] in "Wei chih" [The History of the Wei Dynasty]).

Yamato (大和) - Yamato refers to the current region of Nara Prefecture in ancient times to the early Meiji period and is also another name of Japan.

Yamato Eikyo War (大和永享の乱) - Yamato Eikyo War occurred in Yamato Province in 1429, in the Muromachi period.

Yamato Gojo Domain (大和五条藩) - Yamato Gojo Domain was a feudal domain that was located in Yamato Province (present-day Futami, Gojo City, Nara Prefecture).

Yamato Katsuragi Hozan-ki (大和葛城宝山記) - Yamato Katsuragi Hozan-ki (大和葛城宝山記) is a Shinto book written from the point of view of Buddhism, especially Shugendo (Japanese ascetic and shamanistic practice in mountainous sites).

Yamato Kingdom (ヤマト王権) - The Yamato Kingdom is a term used to refer to the royal authority and government that developed around a monarch, known as an okimi, and several powerful clans during the Kofun period (tumulus period).

Yamato Monogatari (大和物語) - Yamato Monogatari (literally, "Tales of Yamato") is a story of the Middle Ages of Japan, written in the Heian period.

Yamato no Kuni no Miyatsuko (倭国造) - Yamato no Kuni no Miyatsuko (also called 'Yamato Kokuzo') was a Kuni no Miyatsuko (the head of a local government) who ruled over the center of Yamato Province.

Yamato no Miyako (倭京) - Yamato no Miyako is a city existed in ancient Japan.

Yamato Period (大和時代) - The Yamato Period is a period in Japanese history.

Yamato Province (大和国) - Yamato Province is one of the ryoseikoku (provinces) once established under the local administration system in Japan.

Yamato race (大和民族) - The Yamato race is the race that has been living since ancient times in the Japanese Islands including Japan's mainland (Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu) and the other islands around them.

Yamato-Genji (Minamoto clan) (大和源氏) - Yamato-Genji, a branch of the Seiwa-Genji (Minamoto clan), was started by MINAMOTO no Yorichika, the second son of MINAMOTO no Mitsunaka.

Yanagawa Ikken (柳川一件) - The Yanagawa Ikken was an incident in which Yoshinari SO, the lord of the Tsushima Domain, and his chief retainer Shigeoki YANAGAWA confronted each other over forgery of the sovereign's message exchanged between Japan and Joseon Dynasty in the early Edo period.

Yanagimoto Domain (柳本藩) - Yanagimoto Domain covered Shikijo, Yamabe and Uda counties of Yamato Province.

Yanagisawa Clan (柳沢氏) - The Yanagisawa was a Japanese feudal clan (samurai warriors).

Yasu no kuninomiyatsuko (安国造) - Yasu no kuninomiyatsuko (Yasu kokuzo) was the Kuninomiyatsuko (kokuzo: the head of a local government) who governed the eastern part of Omi Province (the east coast of Lake Biwa).

Yayoi period (弥生時代) - Yayoi period is one of periodizations in the Japanese Archipelago excluding Hokkaido and Okinawa Islands.

Yogaku Koyo (Principles of Early Education) (幼学綱要) - "Yogaku Koyo" (Principles of Early Education) is the 'shushin' (moral education) book compiled by Nagazane Motoda, lecturer in the Imperial Household, under the command of Meiji Emperor and distributed by the Department of the Imperial Household on December 2, in 1882.

Yogin (洋銀) - Yogin is a foreign silver brought in to Japan at the end of the Edo Period through the beginning of the Meiji Period.

Yokoe on Sho (Yokoe Manor) (横江荘) - Yokoe on Sho (Yokoe Manor) was a manor located in Kaga Province from the Heian period to the Sengoku period (period of Warring States).

Yokoyama Party (横山党) - The Yokoyama Party, centered in the Yokoyama-sho estate in Tama County, Musashi Province (the present Hachioji City, Tokyo), was an armed group from the same family that existed from the late Heian period to the Kamakura period, and based themselves in Musashi Province (Osato County, Hiki County, and Tachibana County) and the northern part of Sagami Province.

Yokoyama-jo Castle (in Omi Province) (横山城 (近江国)) - Yokoyama-jo Castle was located in Sakata County, Omi Province (the present-day Horibe and Ishida-cho, Nagahama City, Shiga Prefecture).

Yomei-gaku (陽明学) - Yomei-gaku is the Japanese term for the school of Confucianism established by Wang Yangming in Ming Dynasty China, which continued Mencius' doctrine that human nature is fundamentally good.

Yomogami (四方髪) - Yomogami is one of ninjutsu (ninja art) used by ninja, disguising himself as multiple persons in order to save himself.

Yonaoshi Ikki (Social reform uprisings) (世直し一揆) - Yonaoshi Ikki refers to a rush of uprisings that the Japanese society experienced from the later Edo period to the early Meiji period.

Yonin (遥任) - 遥任 (yonin) (the expression of 遙任 was also used sometimes) indicates that the person who was appointed to a kokushi (governor) of a province did not live in the province.

Yoriai (寄合) - Yoriai is a consultation organization in villages under the goson-sei system (municipal system of small towns and villages) that began in the Middle Ages in Japan.

Yorifune (drifting ships and wreckage) (寄船) - "Yorifune" meant ships drifting or drifted ashore and their loads after having met with some mishaps in the medieval and modern times in Japan.

Yorioya-Yoriko (寄親・寄子) - Yorioya-Yoriko refers to the master-servant relationship similar to the parent-child relationship created in medieval Japan or the relationship of the guardian and the protected person based on the master-servant relationship.

Yoriudo (寄人) - Yoriudo (Yoryudo) was a term used during the middle ages after the Heian period for certain people, but had multiple meanings.

Yoro Ritsuryo Code (養老律令) - Yoro Ritsuryo Code is the fundamental law enacted in 757 during the ancient period of Japan.

Yoshida dormitory of Kyoto University (京都大学吉田寮) - Yoshida dormitory of Kyoto University is one of Kyoto University's dormitories.

Yoshino Gen (芳野監) - Yoshino Gen was a special local administration division or organization established in the Yoshino area in Japan in the eighth century.

Yoshino Pact (a pact concluded with Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jito about the enthronement of Prince Kusakabe) (吉野の盟約) - The Yoshino pact was concluded by Emperor Tenmu and his empress who was later known as Empress Jito promising their son, Prince Kusakabe, to be the next emperor.

Yowa no Hokuriku syuppei (the dispatch of troops to the Hokuriku region in the Yowa period) (養和の北陸出兵) - The Yowa no Hokuriku syuppei (the dispatch of troops to Hokuriku region in the Yowa period) was conducted by the Heike in order to track down and kill the rebelling powers in the Hokuriku region, and intensified around September 1181 (ending around December 1181 or January 1182 (November 1181 by the old lunar calendar)).

Yugisho (testimony by boiling water) (湯起請) - Yugisho is a method that was mainly used in trials to judge which of the two claimants involved had a just claim.

Yuhitsu (右筆) - Yuhitsu is a civil officer who worked as a secretary of samurai family in the medieval and modern times.

Yujo (prostitute) (遊女) - Yujo or Asobime was a prostitute who did sexual service to men at yukaku (prostitute quarters) or a posting station, and the meaning of yujo is generally considered 'a woman who has her guest make merry.'

Yushi (privately adopted child) (猶子) - Yushi is a system that existed prior to the Meiji period to establish a parent-child relationship with a child who was not kin.

Yushi Sensei (Despotism by Domain-dominated Government) (有司専制) - Yushi Sensei is a term criticizing the Meiji government for their domain cliques and transcendentalism.

Yusocho (the field-tax report) (輸租帳) - Yusocho refers to an account book recording accurate figures of Denso (rice field tax) and Jishi (land taxes under the Ritsuryo system) actually collected in one year in order for the Ritsuryo government (ancient Japanese government of centralized governance) to survey the actual performance of government affairs by Kokushi (provincial governor), which was always carried by Kochoshi, one of Shidoshi dispatched to the capital by Kokushi, in charge of submitting Chocho (list of choyo (tribute and labor) and was submitted by Minbusho (the Ministry of Popular Affairs) by order of the government.

Yusoden (輸租田) - The term "Yusoden" means rice fields on which denso (rice field tax) was imposed under the taxation system of Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the Ritsuryo Code).

Yuteihisho (遊庭秘抄) - Yuteihisho is a book of kemari (Japanese ancient Imperial court game like kick-ball) of Mikohidari school that was written during the Northern and Southern Courts period (Japan).

Z

Za (座) - The za, established mainly by merchants, manufacturers and entertainers, refers to the guilds that existed from the Heian period to the Sengoku period (period of warring states).

Zaibatsu (a financial clique or group, or a company syndicate) (財閥) - The word Zaibatsu means a tremendous exclusive capitalist or enterprise of the pre-disposition of the era of financial cliques, but generally it is defined as a business group in which a parent company (holding company) capitalized by a family or its kinship forms the core of the group and has its subsidiaries run a variety of businesses, some of which hold monopoly positions in their respective fields or industries.

Zaichokanjin (在庁官人) - Zaichokanjin is a general term for a local government official who undertakes the practical business of kokuga (local area) administration from the Heian period to the Kamakura period in Japan.

Zaigomachi (local town) (在郷町) - Zaigomachi was one of Japanese city forms.

Zaike (Min-oku) (在家 (民屋)) - Zaike was a house, and the cultivated land and residents belonging to the house.

Zaike-Yaku (The Tax And The Labor Imposed In Medieval Japan) (在家役) - "Zaike-yaku" refers to the tax and the labor that were imposed per "zaike" in medieval Japan.

Zakko (Special Technicians) (雑戸) - Zakko refers to groups of technical experts mainly from handicraft industry, coming from shokugyobe (professional Be [groups of people who belonged to the Yamato Dynasty]) subordinated to specific government offices under the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) of Japan before the Taika Reforms.

Zanpatsu Datto Rei (散髪脱刀令) - Zanpatsu Datto Rei is an edict of the Grand Council of State submitted by Meiji government in September 23, 1871.

Zato (座頭) - Zato

Zatsumusata (雑務沙汰) - Zatsumusata is a term that was used in medieval Japan, referring to civil dispute, suit, and trial except for territory and land tax.

Zeniza (銭座) - Zeniza is an organization or agency which minted coins including Kanei Tsuho during the Edo period.

Zenko Seihyo (善行旌表) - Zenko Seihyo was a practice of awarding a person for a good conduct and announcing it in public.

Zeze-jo Castle (膳所城) - Zeze-jo Castle used to stand in present Honmaru-cho, Otsu City, Shiga Prefecture.

Zi (辞) - Zi is monjo (written material) used by lower-ranking government officials equal to or below the rank of Zonin or by the common people or hakucho (inferior servants) when they reported to their superiors, under the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Zipangu (ジパング) - The term 'Zipangu' refers to an old name of an island which was said to be Japan in Europe.

Zoishokenden (list of conferrals of posthumous ranks) (贈位諸賢伝) - "Zoishokenden" is the title of a book which lists 966 persons who were granted a rank posthumously between 1868 and 1911; a brief biography is provided for each of them.

Zoyaku (雑役) - Zoyaku (Zoeki) is the term for the taxation system introduced after the middle of the Heian period.

Zoyakumen (雑役免) - The term "Zoyakumen" (or Zoekiden) means myoden (rice fields named after the local land lords who developed the land in question) which were exempted from zatsueki (levies other than land tax) under the system of shoen (manor) and kokugaryo (territories governed by provincial government) during the medieval period.

Zoyakumen Kei Shoen (雑役免系荘園) - The term "Zoyakumen kei shoen" means shoen (manor) which were granted Zoyakumen (the right to exempt from all levies other than regular land tax) and whose lords were allowed to secure the amount equivalent to zatsueki (odd-jobs tasks) for themselves.

Zoyo (雑徭) - The zoyo tax system was one in which taxes were paid in the form of labor, under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in China and Japan.

Zuryo (The Head of The Provincial Governors) (受領) - "Zuryo" (受領) is a Japanese historical terminology referring to provincial governors.

Zushoryo (the Bureau of Drawings and Books) (図書寮) - Zushoryo was one of the institutions belonging to Nakatsukasasho (Ministry of Central Affairs) in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in Japan.