Buddhism

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48 Vows (四十八願) - The 48 Vows refers to the 48 vows made by Hozo Bosatsu (Dharmakara) prior to the start of ascetic training to attain Buddhahood.

A

Agui Shodo Kyodan (Agui Shodo School) (安居院唱導教団) - Agui Shodo Kyodan was one of religious branches of Buddhism during the Northern and Southern Courts period (Japan).

Aizen Myoo (Ragaraja) (愛染明王) - Aizen Myoo (Ragaraja) is one of the Myoos (king of wisdom), being worshipped in Buddhism and having venerable status specific to Mikkyo (Esoteric Buddhism).

Ajikan (阿字観) - The term "Ajikan" refers to a method of meditation introduced by Kukai (a Buddhist priest) during the Heian period.

Ama (nun) (尼) - An ama is an unmarried woman over the age of 20 or a woman who becomes a priestess after the period of Shamini (a female Buddhist novice), even though she has been married.

Amida triad (阿弥陀三尊) - Amida triad is one style to place a Buddhist image in Buddhism.

Amida Worship (阿弥陀信仰) - Amida (Amitabha) worship is the religious belief based on the Pure Land of Buddhism which believes in justification by belief and preaches that praying to Amida Nyorai would lead you to heaven.

Amida-ji Temple (Kamigyo Ward, Kyoto City) (阿弥陀寺 (京都市上京区)) - Amida-ji Temple is the temple of the Jodo (Pure Land) sect in Kamigyo Ward, Kyoto City.

Amida-kyo Sutra (阿弥陀経) - "Amida-kyo Sutra" (Sutra of Amida Buddha) is one of sutras of Mahayama Buddhism.

Amidanyorai (阿弥陀如来) - Amidanyorai, being Amitaabha or Amitaayus in Sanskrit, is one of the Nyorai in Mahayana Buddhism.

ANDO Rensho (安東蓮聖) - Rensho ANDO (1239 - February 18, 1329) was a busho (Japanese military commander) in the late Kamakura period who was a low-level bureaucrat (Miuchibito (private vassals) of the Tokuso family of the regent Hojo clan of the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Ane (安慧) - Ane (794 - May 2, 868) was a Buddhist monk of Tendai Sect in the early Heian period.

Ango (intensified practice of Zen Buddhism) (安居) - Ango is an ascetic practice conducted for a specified period at one place by a group of Buddhist monks who have been engaged in separate activities.

Annen (安然) - Annen (841? - 915?) was a Buddhist monk of Tendai Sect in the early Heian period.

ANO Zenjo (or Zensei) (阿野全成) - Zenjo ANO (1153 - August 8, 1203) was a priest from late Heian period to early Kamakura period and the seventh son of MINAMOTO no Yoshitomo.

Anshin (安心) - The term "anshin," also referred to as anjin, means a state of mind in which there is nothing to be concerned about and one feels calm and easy.

Arakan, arhat (阿羅漢) - Arakan (arhat in Sanskrit) is a saint in Buddhism who is eligible to receive respect and charity.

ARIMA Raitei (有馬頼底) - Raitei ARIMA (1933 -) is a Zen monk in the present day.

ASAYAMA Nichijo (朝山日乗) - Nichijo ASAYAMA (? - November 5, 1577) was a Buddhist monk of Nichiren Sect in the Sengoku period (period of warring states).

Ashura (阿修羅) - Ashura (the transcription of asura in Sanskrit with the meaning of non-heaven) is a guardian god of Hachi Bushu (or Eight Legions, Protectors of Buddhist Teachings) in Buddhism.

Azuchi Shuron (安土宗論) - Azuchi Shuron was a religious debate waged between the Jodoshu sect and the Hokkeshu sect (Nichirenshu sect) at Jogon-in Temple in the town of Azuchi-jo Castle.

B

Baisao (売茶翁) - Baisao (also sometimes pronounced "Maisao", meaning "Old Man Tea-Seller", July 8, 1675 - August 24, 1763) was a Buddhist monk of the Obaku sect in the Edo-period.

Bando-bushi (an event in the Otani school of the Shinshu Sect) (坂東曲) - Bando-bushi is an event taking place at Buddhist memorial services and Hoon-ko (memorial services for Shinran) in the Otani school of the Shinshu Sect.

Bankei Yotaku (盤珪永琢) - Bankei Yotaku (April 18, 1622 - October 2, 1693) was a Buddhist priest of the Rinzai sect during the early Edo period.

BANRI Shukyu (万里集九) - Shukyu BANRI (October 26, 1428 - ?) was a Zen priest and kajin (waka poet) in the Muromachi period.

Banzuii (幡随意) - Banzuii (December 1, 1542 - February 2, 1615) was a learned monk in the Jodo Sect from the Sengoku period (period of warring states) (Japan) to the early in the Edo period.

Bato Kannon (horse-headed Kannon) (馬頭観音) - Bato Kannon (horse-headed Kannon, also called Mezu Kannon), hayagriiva in Sanskrit, is one shape of Bosatsu (Bodhisattva) worshipped in Buddhism.

Bencho (弁長) - Bencho (June 27, 1162 - March 23, 1238) was a Buddhist monk in the Jodo Sect from the late Heian period to the Kamakura period.

Benzaiten (弁才天) - Benzaiten is one of the deva guardian gods in Buddhism.

Bishamonten, Vaisravana (毘沙門天) - Bishamonten (vaizravaNa in Sanskrit) is a Buddha of the Tenbu, deities who reside in a heavenly realm, this being one of six realms in which the souls of living beings transmigrate from one to another, in Buddhism.

Bodai Senna (Bodhisena) (菩提僊那) - Bodai Senna (Bodhisena, 704-760) was a priest from a foreign country in the Nara period.

Bon Toro (A Lantern-Shaped Decoration) (盆燈籠) - "Bon toro" (also called "bon doro," written as "盆燈籠" in Japanese) is a lantern-shaped decoration, which is dedicated to the dead at a grave during the season of "Obon" (an annual festival of the dead) in Japan.

Bonsho (梵鐘) - Bonsho are hanging bells as a Buddhist equipment used in East Asian temples.

Bosatsu, Bodhisattva (菩薩) - Bosatsu, or Bodhisattva (in Sanskrit) is a disciplinant who wants to become Buddha (tries to become Nyorai) in Buddhism.

Buan (豊安) - Buan (c. 764 - October 15, 840) was a priest of the Ritsu sect during the early Heian period.

Buddhism in Japan (日本の仏教) - Buddhism in Japan

Buddhist altar fittings (仏具) - Buddhist altar fittings are defined as special tools or accessories which are used by clergymen, such as Buddhist monks, on the occasion of Buddhist rituals and they are different from daily necessities.

Buddhist invocation (念仏) - The Buddhist invocation is generally to recite 'Namu Amidabutsu' as a devotional exercise in the Jodo-kyo sects of Pure Land teachings.

Buddhist Sutras (経典) - Sutra,' of the Buddhist sutra (Kyoten, Kyoden, sutra in Sanskrit, sutta in Pali), means a record of Shaka's teachings among Buddhist scriptures.

Bukko-ji Temple School of the Shin sect (真宗佛光寺派) - The Bukko-ji (佛光寺) School of Shin Sect is a school of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism).

Bunchi-Jo (Princess Bunchi) (文智女王) - Princess Bunchi (July 30, 1619 - February 4, 1697) was a Buddhist nun who lived during the early Edo period.

Bundo Shunkai (豊道春海) - BUNDO Shunkai (September 1, 1878-September 26, 1970) was a priest of the Tendai sect from the Taisho to Showa period.

Bunei Seikan (文英清韓) - Bunei-seikan (1568 - May 16, 1621) was a priest of the Rinzai sect from the Azuchi-momoyama to early Edo periods.

Bussharito (仏舎利塔) - Bussharito is a Buddhist pagoda that allegedly contains Busshari (remains of Shakamuni-butsu).

Busso Rekidai Tsusai (仏祖歴代通載) - "Busso Rekidai Tsusai" is a chronicle of Buddhism history from the ancient times to the year 1333, which was compiled in China.

Butsubachi (Buddha's punishment) (仏罰) - The term Butsubachi (Buddha's punishment) refers to punishment a person receives who violates the basic truth of the Buddha (Nyorai) 's enlightenment.

Butsudan (Buddhist Alter) (仏壇) - Butsudan is a permanent miniature temple in an ordinary house to enshrine Buddha as well as an alter to enshrine the dead of the family.

Butsugenbutsumo (仏眼仏母) - Butsugenbutsumo, buddhalocanii in Sanskrit, is a form of Buddha that is worshiped in Buddhism, especially in esoteric Buddhism.

Buttetsu (仏哲) - Buttetsu (year of birth and death are unkown) was a priest from a foreign country in the Nara period.

Butto (Pagoda) (仏塔) - A pagoda is a Buddhist building derived from the ancient Indian stupa.

Butto-koji Juhasson (仏塔古寺十八尊) - The Butto-koji Juhasson are reijo (sacred places) containing pagodas, located in the Kinki region.

C

Chido (智洞) - Chido (1736-December 12, 1805) was a priest of the Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) from the mid to the late Edo period.

Chiko Mandala (智光曼荼羅) - Chiko Mandala is the generic name for Jodo Mandalas made after the style of the Mandala which is said to have been envisioned by Chiko and has been preserved in Gango-ji Temple of Nara City

Chinkai (珍海) - Chinkai (1091 - December 20, 1152) was a learned priest pursuing his studies and also an artist monk of the late Heian period.

Chinzo (頂相) - Chinzo, also called chinso or choso, is a portrait or a sculpture of a priest of the Zen sect (a sect of Buddhism).

Chion-ji Temple (知恩寺) - Hyakumanben Chion-ji Temple, located in Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City, is the Grand Head Temple of the Jodo (Pure Land) sect.

Chion-ji Temple (Miyazu City) (智恩寺 (宮津市)) - Chion-ji Temple, located in Miyazu City, Kyoto Prefecture, is a temple of the Myoshin-ji School of the Rinzai Sect.

Chofuku-ji Temple (Kyoto City) (長福寺 (京都市)) - Chofuku-ji Temple, located in Umezu, Ukyo Ward, Kyoto City, is a temple of the Nanzen-ji school of the Rinzai sect.

Chogen (重源) - Chogen (1121 - 19 July, 1206) was a Buddhist monk from the end of the Heian period to the Kamakura period.

Choja (長者) - Choja (or chosha) is a name for an elderly person or rich person.

Choken (澄憲) - Choken (1126 - September 19, 1203) was a Buddhist priest of the Tendai sect who lived from the late Heian period to the beginning of the Kamakura period.

Chomu (蝶夢) - Chomu (1732 – February 2, 1796) was a monk and a haiku poet during the mid Edo period.

Chomyo-ji Temple (頂妙寺) - Chomyo-ji Temple is a Buddhist temple located in Nishiiri (the west) of Shinfuya-machi, Niomon-dori, Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City.

Chonen (ちょう然) - Chonen (February 25, 938 - April 25, 1016) was a priest at Todai-ji Temple during the mid-Heian period.

Chonen (超然) - Chonen (February 3, 1793 - March 22, 1868) was a Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) priest in the late Edo period.

Choraku-ji Temple (in Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto City) (長楽寺 (京都市東山区)) - Choraku-ji Temple, located in Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto City, is a temple of the Ji sect.

Chosai (長西) - Chosai (1184 - February 19, 1266) was a priest of the Jodo Sect in the middle of the Kamakura period.

Choshin (長信) - Choshin (1014 - November 12, 1072) was a Buddhist monk of the Shingon sect, in the mid-Heian period.

Chugan Engetsu (中巌円月) - Chugan Engetsu (January 28, 1300 - February 9, 1375) was a priest of the Rinzai sect during the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Chuin (中陰) - Chuin and chuu refer to the period of mourning lasting seven weeks in Buddhism.

Chuin School (中院流) - Chuin School is one of the sects of the Shingon Buddhism (Tomitsu) that places emphasis on jiso (one of Buddhism practical trainings).

Chukai (忠快) - Chukai (born in 1162; died on April 10, 1227) was a priest of the Tendai Sect during the late Heian period and early Kamakura period.

Cloistered Imperial Prince Dokaku (道覚法親王) - Cloistered Imperial Prince Dokaku (1204 - February 13, 1250) was a priest of the Tendai sect in the early to mid Kamakura period.

Cloistered Imperial Prince Doko (道光法親王) - Cloistered Imperial Prince Doko (April 8, 1612 – August 5, 1678) was a Cloistered Imperial Prince and learned monk during the early Edo Period.

Cloistered Imperial Prince Gyojo (尭恕法親王) - Cloistered Imperial Prince Gyojo (November 29, 1640 - May 28, 1695) was a member of the Imperial family and a Buddhist priest who lived during the early Edo period.

Cloistered Imperial Prince Jiin (慈胤法親王) - Cloistered Imperial Prince Jiin (Jiinhosshinno in Japanese, April 18, 1617 - January 21, 1700) was a Cloistered Imperial Prince in the early to mid-Edo Period.

Cloistered Imperial Prince Joe Hosshinno (静恵法親王) - Cloistered Imperial Prince Joe Hosshinno (1164 - April 26, 1203) was a Cloistered Imperial Prince of the end of Heian period to the early Kamakura period.

Cloistered Imperial Prince Kakukai (覚快法親王) - Cloistered Imperial Prince Kakukai (1134 - December 23, 1181) was a Buddhist monk of Tendai Sect in the late Heian period.

Cloistered Imperial Prince Kakusin (覚深法親王) - Cloistered Imperial Prince Kakusin (May 29, 1588 - March 15, 1648) was a Pure Land Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the early Edo period.

Cloistered Imperial Prince Koben (公弁法親王) - Cloistered Imperial Prince Koben (September 16, 1669 - June 6, 1716) was a Buddhist monk of the Tendai Sect in the Edo period.

Cloistered Imperial Prince Shoe (聖恵法親王) - Cloistered Imperial Prince Shoe (1094 - March 4, 1137) was a Shingon sect priest in the late Heian period.

Cloistered Imperial Prince Shucho (守澄法親王) - Cloistered Imperial Prince Shucho (September 3, 1634 - June 12, 1680) was the first Rinnojinomiya Monzeki (temple formerly led by founder of sect, temple in which resided a member of nobility or imperial family) or Nikko Monzeki.

Cremation (火葬) - Cremation is a type of treating the dead by incinerating the body.

D

Daibirushana Jobutsu Jinbenkaji-kyo Sutra (Mahavairocana Sutra) (大毘盧遮那成仏神変加持経) - "Daibirushana Jobutsu Jinbenkaji-kyo Sutra," which is also called "Birushanakyo Sutra" or "Dainichi-kyo Sutra," refers to Esoteric Buddhist scriptures that are considered to have been established in or around the period of the seventh through eighth centuries.

Daibutsu, a large statue of Buddha (大仏) - Daibutsu is a popular name meaning a large statue of the Buddha as a Buddhist image.

Daichi (大智) - Daichi (1290 - January 18, 1367) was a Buddhist priest of the Sotoshu sect from the late Kamakura period to the period of the Northern and Southern Courts.

Daigan (大含) - Daigan (May 21, 1773 - November 12, 1850) was a priest of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) (Otani school) during the late Edo period.

Daigen shuri bosatsu (a deity which is respected and worshipped at temples of the Soto sect) (大権修利菩薩) - Daigen shuri bosatsu is a deity respected at and enshrined to the temples of the Zen sect, especially the Soto sect.

Daigen Suiho (大元帥法) - Daigen Suiho is one of the magic rituals of esoteric Buddhism.

Daigo School of the Shingon Sect (真言宗醍醐派) - The Daigo school of the Shingon sect, one of the Shingon Buddhist sects of Japan, belongs to the Kogi Shingon (Old Shingon) school.

Daikaku (大覚) - Daikaku (1297 - May 5, 1364) was a Nichiren sect Buddhist monk during the period of the Northern and Southern Courts.

Daikyu Sokyu (大休宗休) - Daikyu Sokyu (1468 - September 25, 1549) was a priest of Rinzai Sect in the Sengoku period (period of warring states).

Daimokuko (題目講) - Daimokuko is a ko (meeting to lecture Buddhist scriptures) composed by followers of Hokke sects.

Daimyo-ji Temple (Kyoto City) (大妙寺 (京都市)) - Daimyo-ji Temple is a temple of the Nichiren sect, located in Nishikyo Ward, Kyoto City.

Dainenbutsu Kyogen (大念仏狂言) - Dainenbutsu kyogen, a silent play created from the teachings of the Yuzu Nenbutsu (reciting the name of Amida Buddha) sect (also known as Dainenbutsu), was revived by Enkaku Shonin.

Dainichinyorai (大日如来) - Dainichinyorai (mahaavairocana in Sanskrit) is a venerable entity of the pantheistic Nyorai (the Dharmakaya Buddha), which is thought of as a unit of the universe itself in Mikkyo (Esoteric Buddhism).

Daisaitogoma ceremony (大柴燈護摩供) - Daisaitogoma ceremony refers to large-scale Goma (Holy Fire) Mass held in the field.

Daisenji Engi (大山寺縁起) - Daisenji engi (tales of the origin of Daisen-ji Temple) is:

Daisetsu Sono (大拙祖能) - Daisetsu Sono (April 7, 1313 - October 1, 1377) was a Buddhist monk of the Rinzai Sect in the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Daishi (priest) (大師 (僧)) - Daishi is a kind of honorific title in China and in Japan bestowed to priests with high virtue by the Imperial Court, and many of them are okurina (posthumous names).

Daishi-do hall (大師堂) - Daishi-do hall is a type of Buddhist hall in Japan built to enshrine and pray to a priest who was entitled as Daishi (literally a great master, an honorific title given by the Imperial Court).

DAITEN Kenjo (大典顕常) - Kenjo DAITEN (1719 - March 22, 1801), a Zen Buddhist monk and a Chinese-style poet, lived from the middle to late Edo period.

Daiun-in Temple (Kyoto City) (大雲院 (京都市)) - Daiun-in Temple, located in Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto City, is an independent temple belonging to the Jodo sect.

Daiun-ji Temple (Kyoto City) (大雲寺 (京都市)) - The Daiun-ji Temple is an independent temple (the Tendai Shomon sect) located in Iwakura, Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City.

Daizen-ji Temple (Kyoto City) (大善寺 (京都市)) - Daizen-ji Temple, located in Fushimi Ward, Kyoto City, is a temple of the Jodo (Pure Land) sect.

Dakiniten (荼枳尼天) - Dakiniten (written as 荼枳尼天 or 荼吉尼天 in kanji characters) is a Buddhist goddess.

Danrin (檀林) - Danrin was a training facility for monks in a Buddhist temple, i.e., a school of a Buddhist sect.

Dao-chuo (道綽) - Dao-chuo (Doshaku) was a Chinese monk Chinese Jodo (Pure Land) sect in the Tang.

Daruma (達磨) - Daruma (Bodhidharma) is regarded as the founder of Zen.

Denpo-kanjo (the consecration for the Transmission of the Dharma) (伝法灌頂) - Denpo-kanjo is a ceremony to confer the title of master called Ajari (a master in esoteric Buddhism; a high priest).

Disposition of Debts of Higashi Hongan-ji Temple (東本願寺借財整理) - Disposition of debts of Higashi Hongan-ji Temple was an incident in which Higashi Hongan-ji Temple asked government officials for a rescue from their debts during the Meiji period.

Docho (道澄) - Docho (1544 - May 12, 1608) was a Buddhist priest in the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States).

Docho (Certificate of entering the priesthood) (度牒) - Docho is an identification card issued by a state organization to a priest or a nun who has newly entered the priesthood, in the system of entrance into the priesthood that is officially recognized by the state.

Dogen (道元) - Infobox Buddhist

Doin (道隠) - Doin (1741 - July 1, 1813) was a priest of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) during the middle to late Edo period.

Doko (道興) - Doko (1430 - 1527) was a Buddhist monk who was the monzeki (chief priest who is a member of the Imperial Family) of Shogo-in Temple during the Muromachi period.

Donei Eio (曇英恵応) - Donei Eio (1424 - 1504) was a priest of the Soto sect in the Muromachi period.

Donkai (呑海) - Donkai (1265 - March 20, 1327) was a priest of the Ji sect in the late Kamakura period.

Dosen (道詮) - Dosen (ca. 797 - ca. April 2, 873) was a Sanron sect Buddhist monk during the early Heian period.

Dosho (道正) - Dosho (1171 - August 21, 1248), a Buddhist priest of the Soto sect, lived in the early Kamakura period.

Dosho (道昭) - Dosho (629 - April 3, 700) was a priest of the Hosso sect and he was born at Funenomuraji, Tajihi County, Kawachi Province (present Osaka Prefecture).

Dosho (道昌) - Dosho (April 2, 798 - March 20, 875) was a Buddhist monk during the early Heian period.

Dosho (Tendai sect) (道昭 (天台宗)) - Dosho (1281 - January 24, 1356) was a priest of the Tendai sect and a poet.

Doto (道登) - Doto (dates of birth and death unknown) was a priest during the Asuka period.

E

E Ingakyo (Illustrated Sutra of Cause and Effect) (絵因果経) - The E Ingakyo is one manuscript of the "Kako Genzai Inga-kyo Sutra" (one of the sutras representing the life-story of the Buddha) with transcribed sutras in the lower half of the Kansubon (book in scroll style) as well as illustrations in the upper half depicting the contents of the sutra, and it is believed to be the origin of emakimono (picture scrolls) which spread nationwide from the time of the Heian period.

Earthen image (塑像) - The term earthen image means images of which the material is clay.

Ebusshi (絵仏師) - Ebusshi was a monk and specialist who was mainly engaged in the production of Buddhist paintings and coloring of statues.

Eijitsu (栄実) - Eijitsu (1201 – January 21, 1215) was the third son of MINAMOTO no Yoriie, the second seii taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians") of the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Ein Kanjo (恵印灌頂) - Ein Kanjo means the system of teachings of Daigo-ji Temple Sanpo-in, a temple of the Tozan school of Shugendo (Japanese mountain asceticism-shamanism incorporating Shinto and Buddhism concepts), or a ritual conducted in the manner of Ein Horyu (ritual of the Ein school).

Eison (叡尊) - Eison (1201 - October 6, 1290) was a priest of Shingon Ritsu sect during the mid Kamakura period.

Ekei in Ankoku-ji Temple (Temple for National Pacification) (安国寺) (安国寺恵瓊) - Ekei, of Ankoku-ji Temple, was a Zen priest and a Japanese feudal lord from the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States) (Japan) to the Azuchi Momoyama period.

Eko (Buddhist Thoughts of Outgoing and Returning) (回向) - "Eko" (回向, also written as 廻向) or pariNaama (sanskrit) means to 'turn,' 'change' or 'proceed,' and '回向' as its translation with Chinese characters shows the meaning of rotation in '回' and device in '向', which is a thought that Mahayana Buddhism features.

En no Gyoja Reiseki Fudasho (a term relating to reijo sacred places) (役行者霊蹟札所) - En no Gyoja Reiseki Fudasho indicates the pilgrimage of the thirty-six reijo (sacred places) in thirty-six temples and shrines, related to En no Gyoja who is said to have founded Shugendo (Japanese mountain asceticism-shamanism incorporating Shinto and Buddhist concepts).

Enchin (延鎮) - Enchin (dates of birth and death unknown) was a priest of the Hosso sect of the early Heian period.

Enchin (円珍) - Enchin (814 to December 4, 891) was a monk of Tendai Sect in the Heian period.

Encho (円澄) - Encho (772-837) was a Tendai Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the first part of the Heian period.

Engaku (縁覚: cause-awakened one) (縁覚) - Engaku (pratyekabuddha, paccekabuddha, Sanskrit: प्रत्येक बुद्ध) is a term in Buddhism and Jainism, which means one who attains enlightenment through his own efforts without listening to the teachings of Buddha.

Engi (縁起) - Engi

Engyo (円行) - Engyo (799 - March 29, 852) was a monk of Shingon sect in the Heian period.

Enkan (円観) - Enkan (September 1, 1281 - April 2, 1356) was a Tendai Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the latter part of the Kamakura period and the Northern and Southern Courts period.

Enma (閻魔) - According to Buddhism and Hinduism, Enma is the master of Hell.

Enni (円爾) - Enni (November 8, 1202 - November 17, 1280) was a priest of the Rinzai sect of Buddhism in Japan, who lived during the mid-Kamakura period.

Ennyo (円如) - Ennyo (1489 - September 30, 1521) was a monk of the Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) during the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States) (Japan).

Enpa (En school of sculptors) (円派) - Enpa is a school of busshi (sculptor of Buddhist Statues) which started from the mid Heian period and lasted until the Kamakura period.

Ensai (円載) - Ensai (year of birth unknown – 877) was a priest of the Tendaishu sect of the early Heian period.

Ensho (a priest) (延昌 (僧)) - Ensho (880 - March 6, 964) was a priest of the Tendai Sect in the middle of the Heian period.

Enso (円相) - Enso is a type of calligraphic technique in Zen calligraphy, which is a circle painted with a single stroke.

Entoku-in Temple (圓徳院) - The Entoku-in Temple is a tatchu (sub-temple on the site of a main temple) of the Kodai-ji Temple (Kennin-ji Temple school of the Rinzai sect) in Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto City.

Entsu (円通) - Entsu (1754 - 1834) was a priest of the Tendai Sect of the late Edo period.

Entsu-ji Temple (Kyoto City) (円通寺 (京都市)) - The Entsu-ji Temple was a Buddhist temple of the Myoshin-ji Temple school of the Rinzai sect, located in Iwakura Hataeda-cho, Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City.

Eri (会理) - Eri (852 - 935) was a Shingon Sect Buddhism monk who lived during the mid-Heian period.

Esan kiitsu (会三帰一) - Esan kiitsu (Esan kiichi) means that learning ichijo (Single Vehicle) through understanding sanjo (the Three Vehicles carrying sentient beings to the world of enlightenment).

Eun (恵運) - Eun (798 - October 31, 869) was a Buddhist monk of Shingon Sect in the early Heian period.

Exclaustration (還俗) - Exclaustration means that a Buddhist monk quits the priesthood, which requires strict adherence to Buddhist precepts, and returns to secular life.

F

Five Buddhas in the Womb Realm (胎蔵界五仏) - The Five Buddhas in Womb Realm are a kind of venerable image in Buddhism.

Fudo Myoo (不動明王) - Fudo Myoo (acala naatha in Sanskrit) is a subject of worship in Buddhism and one of the Myoo, a venerable status (尊格) that is specific to Mikkyo, Esoteric Buddhism.

Fugen Bosatsu (Samantabhadra Bodhisattva) (普賢菩薩) - Fugen Bosatsu, samanta bhadra in Sanskrit, is a venerable Bosatsu entity and is Bodhisattva, which is worshipped in Mahayana Buddhism.

Fugen Enmei Bosatsu (普賢延命菩薩) - Fugen Enmei Bosatsu is one of Bosatsu worshiped in Buddhism.

FUJII Sensho (藤井宣正) - Sensho FUJII (April 4, 1859 - June 6, 1903) was a Japanese religious figure and explorer.

Fujimon School (富士門流) - Fujimon School is one of the generic names for numbers of honzan temples (head temples) and their branch temples in Nichiren Sect, which succeed the dharma lineage of Nikko, who was one of 6 high-caliber disciples of Nichiren.

Fuju-fuse-gi (nothing could be received or given) (不受不施義) - Fuju-fuse-gi is a concept of the Nichiren sect of Buddhism; "fuju" means refusing offerings from those who don't believe in the Hokekyo (Lotus Sutra) and "fuse" means giving no offerings to priests who propagates beliefs other than Hokekyo.

Fujufuse Nichiren Komon Sect (不受不施日蓮講門宗) - Fujufuse (Not Receive and Not Give) Nichiren Komon Sect is a school of the Nichiren Sect for which the sect founder was Nichiren and the school founder was Nichio.

Fujufuse School of Nichiren Sect (日蓮宗不受不施派) - Fujufuse (Not Receive and Not Give) School of the Nichiren Sect is a sect whose founder was Nichiren and the school founder was Nichio.

Fuke sect (普化宗) - Fuke sect is a branch of Zen Buddhism in Japan.

Fukujoju Nyorai (不空成就如来) - Fukujoju Nyorai (Amoghasiddh) is one of the Five Wisdom Buddhas worshipped in Buddhism.

Furitsukenjo (扶律顕常) - Furitsukenjo is a term that mean "Nehan-gyo Sutra" (The Sutra of The Great Nirvana) from the viewpoint of Buddhism, especially hokke-ichijo (the doctrines called the Single Vehicle of the Lotus) including Tendai-shu sect and Nichiren-shu sect.

FURUICHI Choin (古市澄胤) - Choin FURUICHI (1452 - August 22, 1508) was a priest and busho (military commander) who lived in the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States) in Japan.

FURUICHI Ine (古市胤栄) - Ine FURUICHI (year of birth unknown - 1505) is a priest and a Japanese military commander during the Sengoku period.

Fusan (賦算) - Fusan is the distribution of ofuda (paper charms) on which the words '南無阿弥陀仏、決定往生六十万人' are written, practiced in the Ji sect, a Pure Land sect of Buddhism.

Fushinjo (風信帖) - Fushinjo is the general term to represent three letters written from Kukai to Saicho.

G

GAKUIN Ekatsu (鄂隠慧カツ) - GAKUIN Ekatsu (1357 - March 8, 1425) was a Rinzai sect priest from the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan) to the mid Muromachi period.

Gakyo (雅慶) - Gakyo (date birth is not known - February 8, 1013) was a Buddhist monk of Shingon Sect in the mid-Heian period.

Ganami (願阿弥) - Ganami (? - June 23, 1486) was a priest of Ji Sect in the Muromachi period.

Gangyo (願暁) - Gangyo (date of birth unknown, passed away on April 21, 874) was a learned priest pursuing his studies in the former Heian period.

Ganjin (Jianzhen) (鑑真) - Ganjin (688-June 25, 763) was a naturalized priest in the Nara period.

Gansaini (願西尼) - Gansaini (year of birth and death unknown) was a nun (Buddhist nun) of the Tendai sect in the mid Heian period.

Ganshoni (願証尼) - Ganshoni (953-October 16, 1034) was a nun (Buddhist nun) of the Tendai sect in the mid Heian period.

Garanjin (伽藍神) - Garanjin is a deity that guards temples and shrines.

Gasho (賀静) - Gasho (887 - February 20, 967) was a monk of the Tendai Sect who was active in the middle of the Heian period.

GAZAN Joseki (峨山韶磧) - Joseki GAZAN (1275 - November 23, 1366) was a Soto sect priest from the end of Kamakura period to the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Genchi (源智) - Genchi (1183 - January 18, 1239) was a priest of the Jodo sect of the early Kamakura period.

Gene (玄恵) - Gene (the year of his birth unknown - April 9, 1350) was a Buddhist monk of the Tendai sect and a Confucian scholar who lived during he period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Genei (玄叡) - Genei (year of birth unknown – 840) was a priest of the Sanron sect of Buddhism who lived during the early Heian period.

Gengo (元杲) - Gengo (914 - March 30, 995) was a Shingon Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the mid-Heian period.

Genji Kuyo (源氏供養) - Genji Kuyo is to hold a commemorative service for the Tale of Genji and its author Murasaki Shikibu.

Genjo (also known as Gensei) (源盛) - Genjo, or Gensei (1303 - January 12, 1359) was a military commander and a Buddhist monk in Tendai sect during the period of the Northern and Southern Courts.

Genkai (元海) - Genkai (1093 - 1156) was a Shingon sect priest in the late Heian period.

Genkan (entrance) (玄関) - The word genkan refers to the main entrance of a building.

Genko (a Buddhist priest) (源光 (僧侶)) - Genko (year of birth and death unknown) was a Buddhist priest of the Tendai sect who lived in the end of the Heian period.

Genkoan (源光庵) - Genkoan, a temple of the Soto sect, is situated in Takagamine in Kita Ward, Kyoto City.

Gennin (源仁) - Gennin (818 - December 14, 887) was a priest of the Shingon sect early in the Heian period.

Genpin (玄賓) - Genpin (734 - July 27, 818) was a priest of Hosso sect (The Dharama-Characteristics Sect of Buddhism) from the Nara period to the early Heian period.

Genseishojoju (those guaranteed to be born in the Pure Land while still in this world) (現生正定聚) - The term "Genseishojoju" is also referred to as 'gensho futai (the idea of "not falling back in this world").'

Genshi Kimyo-dan (玄旨帰命壇) - Genshi Kimyo-dan was a school which used to exist in the Tendai sect.

Genshin (Monk) (源信 (僧侶)) - Genshin was a Buddhist priest of the Tendai sect who lived during the mid-Heian period.

Gensho (玄証) - Gensho (1146 - 1204?) was a priest of the Shingon sect of the end of the Heian period to the early Kamakura period.

Genso-eko (還相回向) - Genso-eko (Virtue as instructed by Amida for retiring from the Pure Land to this world) is one of the important Jodo Sect doctrines (teachings of the Pure Land).

Genyu (玄宥) - Genyu (1529 - November 14, 1605) was a Shingon Sect Buddhist monk who lived from the Sengoku period (period of warring states) into the beginning of the Edo period.

Gessen (月僊) - Gessen (1741 - February 25, 1809) was a priest and artist painter living between the mid and late Edo Period.

Gessho (月照) - Gessho (1813 - December 20, 1858) was a Sonno Joi (Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians) School Buddhist monk who lived at the end of the Edo period.

GIDO Shushin (義堂周信) - Shushin GIDO (February 8, 1325 - May 18, 1388) was a priest of the Rinzai sect who was active from the period of the Northern and Southern Courts to the Muromachi period.

Gien (義演) - Gien (October 1, 1558 - June 15, 1626) was a Shingon Sect Buddhist monk who lived from the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States) (Japan) to Edo period.

Gien (義円) - Gien (1155 - April 25, 1181) was a priest at the end of the Heian period and the eighth son of MINAMOTO no Yoshitomo.

Giku (義空) - Giku (date of birth and death unknown) was a Zen-sect priest from Tang China in the early Heian period.

Gio-ji Temple (祇王寺) - Gio-ji Temple, located in Ukyo Ward, Kyoto City, is a temple (nunnery) of the Daikakuji school of the Shingon sect.

Gishin (義真) - Gishin (born 781, died August 26, 833) was an early Heian-period Buddhist monk of the Tendai sect.

Gochi Nyorai (Five Wisdom Buddhas) (五智如来) - The Gochi Nyorai, also known as Godai Nyorai, are five nyorai (tathagatas) associated with the five wisdoms of esoteric Buddhism (wisdom of the essence of the Dharma-realm, great perfect mirror wisdom, wisdom of equality, wisdom of wondrous observation, wisdom of accomplishing that which is to be done).

Godai Bosatsu (Five Great Bodhisattava) (五大菩薩) - Godai Bosatsu are a kind of combination of Bosatsu (those who are engaged in ascetic training in pursuit of the truth and enlightment) that are objects of worship and construction of statues in Buddhist society.

Godai Myoo, the Five Great Myoo (五大明王) - Godai Myoo (the five great Myoo) is a subject of faith in Buddhism and a combination of the five Myoo, which play a central role among Myoo, an honorific entity, which is specific to Mikkyo Esoteric Buddhism.

Gohyaku-Jintengo (五百塵点劫) - Gohyaku-Jintengo (literally, five hundred is like a piece of dust in the infinite time frame) is a word that represents admiration for Siddhartha Gautama spending limitless time in the process of Jodo (completing the path to becoming a Buddha by attaining enlightenment), which is cited in the Nyorai Juryo-bon (the Infinite Life of Buddha Chapter) of Hokekyo (the Lotus Sutra).

Goju no Sotai (五重相対) - Goju no Sotai is a part of the Kyoso Hanjaku (a guide for evaluation of sutras and others) established by Nichiren.

Gokan no ge (五観の偈) - Gokan no ge is gemon, meaning the verses recited before the meal, mainly in the Zen sect of Buddhism.

Gokuraku (極楽) - The word as geographical names in Japan.

Goma (護摩) - Goma is a phonetic translation of a Sanskrit word 'homa' into Japanese.

Gomagi (護摩木) - Gomagi is a wood for burning when a holy fire is lighted.

Gongen (権現) - Gongen is a kind of Japanese shingo (the title given to a Shinto shrine).

Gongyo (Otani School of the Jodo Shishu Sect) (勤行 (真宗大谷派)) - In the case of the Shinshu Otaniha (Otani school of the Jodo Shishu sect), Gongyo (devotional exercises) is to do gassho (putting the palms of hands together), raihai (adoration), shomyo nenbutsu (invocation of the Buddha's name), and to do dokuju (hailing) of gemon (recitation of verses) in front of an 'onaibutsu' (another name for butsudan (a Buddhist altar)) or portable 'mitsuori honzon' (mitsuori - can be folded into thirds, honzon - principal object of worship).

Gongyo (the Nichirensho Sect) (勤行 (日蓮正宗)) - Gongyo is 'shojin' (virya, devotional exercises) of Buddhism.

Gonso (勤操) - Gonso was a Sanron sect priest (born in 754 and passed away in June 25, 827) in the latter Nara period and the former Heian period.

Goroku (a collection of sayings) (語録) - Generally, the term goroku indicates a collection of what a person said.

Goshiki Fudo (五色不動) - The five types (Meguro, Mejiro, Meaka, Meao and Meki) of Fudo-son (Acalanatha) located at six different sites including Ryusen-ji Temple (Meguro), Konjo-in Temple (in Toshima Ward) (Mejiro), Saisho-ji Temple (Meki), Nankoku-ji Temple (Meaka) and Saisho-ji Temple (in Setagaya Ward) (Meao) as well as another Meki (yellow eye) in Tokyo are collectively referred to as Goshiki Fudo.

Goto Egen (historical records of Chinese zen masters) (五灯会元) - Goto Egen is a toshi (historiography) of the Zen Sect established in the Southern Song Dynasty period of China.

GOTO Kanji (後藤環爾) - Kanji GOTO (May 19, 1871 - February 23, 1936) was a battlefield missionary priest and a founder of schools in Japan.

Gozan (a term relating to Zen temples) (五山) - Gozan indicates the status of a Zenrin (temple of the Zen sect) in China and Japan that is ranked above jissatsu (for the ten important temples of the Rinzai sect) and shozan (for ordinary Zen temples).

Gozanban (五山版) - The term "Gozanban" refers to the books published by Gozan (the Five Great Zen Temples in Kyoto) and other temples, which were affected by the active publication of books on Zen Buddhism in the age of the Sung and Yuan dynasties.

Gozanha (group of the highest-ranked temples in the Zen sect) (五山派) - The Gozanha (Gozansorin) are the Zen temples (Zenrin) that were placed under the protection and control of the Gozan-Jissetsu-Shozan system (system of five great temples, ten important temples of the Rinzai sect, and Zen temples other than Gozan and Jissetsu).

Gozu Tenno (牛頭天王) - Originally, Gozu Tenno (gośīrşa) was an Indian deity and the guardian deity of Gion-shoja (the Jetavana monastery).

Great Buddha Statue in Kyoto (京の大仏) - Great Buddha statue in Kyoto originally existed in Hoko-ji Temple (Higashiyama-ku Ward, Kyoto City).

GUCHU Shukyu (愚中周及) - Shukyu GUCHU (1323 - October 4, 1409) was a priest of the Rinzai sect during the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Gudo Toshoku (愚堂東寔) - Gudo Toshoku (May 5, 1577 - November, 1661) was a high Buddhist monk of the Rinzai Sect of Zen sect.

Gukansho (愚管抄) - "Gukansho" is a history book written by Jien, a priest of the Tendai sect, in the early Kamakura period.

Gutoku-sho (literally, idiot monk's note) (愚禿鈔) - "Gutoku-sho" is a treatise written by Shinran on his own religious faith through his master's teaching of the Jodo (Pure Land) sect.

Gyoei (行叡) - Gyoei (year of birth and death unknown) was a priest during Asuka period and Nara period.

Gyoen (行円) - Gyoen (the dates of his birth and death are unknown) was a monk in the mid-Heian period.

Gyogen (行玄) - Gyogen (1097 - December 1, 1155) was a Buddhist monk of Tendai Sect in the late Heian period.

Gyoi (行意) - Gyoi (1177 - 1217 ?) was a priest of the Tendai Sect between the end of the Heian period and the early period of the Kamakura period.

Gyoja/Anja (行者) - Gyoja or Anja has the following meanings.

Gyokei (行慶) - Gyokei (year of birth unknown-August 31, 1165) was a priest of the Tendai sect in the late Heian period.

Gyoki (行基) - Gyoki (or Gyogi, 668 - February 23, 749) was a Buddhist monk of the Nara era in Japan.

Gyoku (行空) - Gyoku (year of birth and death unknown) was a priest of the Jodo sect of Buddhism in the late Heian and the early Kamakura period.

Gyokyo (行教) - Gyokyo (years of his birth and death was unknown) was a Buddhist priest of Daian-ji Temple in the Heian period.

Gyonyo (巧如) - Gyonyo (1376 - November 8,1440) was a monk of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) and the sixth chief priest of Hongan-ji Temple.

Gyoson (行尊) - Gyoson (1055 - March 28, 1135) was a Buddhist priest of the Tendai sect and a waka poet during the late Heian period.

H

Hachibushu (八部衆) - Hachibushu or Tenryu Hachibushu refers to eight deities who guard Buddhism.

Haibutsu-kishaku (a movement to abolish Buddhism) (廃仏毀釈) - Haibutsu-kishaku (廃仏毀釈 in Chinese characters) means a movement to destroy Buddhist temples, Buddhist statues and Buddhist scriptures as well as to abolish the privileges entitled to Buddhist priests/nuns.

Hakkotsu (Ofumi) (白骨 (御文)) - The sixteenth letter 'Hakkotsu' of go jo me (the fifth quire of sutra) of Ofumi which was selected by Rennyo, the eighth chief priest of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) Hongan-ji Temple is especially famous in ofumi.

Hakuin Ekaku (白隠慧鶴) - Hakuin Ekaku (January 19, 1686 - January 18, 1769) was a Zen monk in the Edo Period who is called Chuko no So (father of restoration) of the Rinzaishu sect.

Hannyashin-gyo Hiken (般若心経秘鍵) - "Hannyashin-gyo Hiken" was a commentary on "Hannya Shingyo" (the Wisdom Sutras) and was written by Kukai around 818.

Hanshun (範俊) - Hanshun (1038 - May 21, 1112) was a priest of the Shingon sect of the late Heian period.

Hashiri Bozu (the Running Priest) (走り坊主) - The Running Priest (November 20, 1872 – November 20, 1918) was a Buddhist priest known for his eccentricity of running around the streets of Kyoto City all day long in the Meiji and Taisho periods.

Hatto (Lecture Hall) (法堂) - Hatto is a construction in a Buddhist temple where priests make lectures about Buddhism.

Heart of Great Perfect Wisdom Sutra (Hannya Shingyo) (般若心経) - "Heart of Great Perfect Wisdom Sutra (Hannya Shingyo, Prajñā-pāramitā-hṛdaya in Sanskrit)" is one of the Buddhist sutras that preaches the Ku (Buddhism) of Mahayana Buddhism and Prajna thought.

Hedara (ヘダラ) - The word 'Hedara' (Eurya japonica) is a Buddhist terminology which means 'the flower for altarage.'

Heian Bukkyo (平安仏教) - Heian Bukkyo (Heian Buddhism) is a Buddhist sect established during the Heian period.

Heizei-gojo (a term composed of four kanji characters representing an essential doctrine of Jodo Shinshu Buddhism) (平生業成) - "Heizei-gojo" is a Buddhist term of Jodo Shinshu Buddhism (the True Pure Land Buddhism,) which means that any person must complete preparation for rebirth in heaven while he is still alive.

Henjo (遍昭) - Henjo (born 816, died February 12, 890) was an early Heian period poet and one of the Six Poets and also one of the Thirty-six Immortal Poets.

Henjo Nanshi (変成男子) - The term Henjo Nanshi refers to the idea that a woman, who has been thought to have great difficulty in becoming a Buddha since ancient times, is able to accomplish it by once changing into a man.

Henjo-ji Temple (Kyoto City) (遍照寺 (京都市)) - Henjo-ji Temple, located in Ukyo Ward, Kyoto City, is a Buddhist temple of the Omuro school of the Shingon sect.

Henso-zu (変相図) - Henso-zu, as Buddhist painting, describes the scenery of the Pure Land and Hell.

Hibutsu (秘仏) - Hibutsu are Buddhist images that are normally withheld from public view for religious reasons; they are enshrined in zushi (miniature shrines in temples) with the doors closed.

Hijiri (A Japanese Buddhist Priest Who Traveled Around Local Provinces) (聖) - "Hijiri" refers to a Japanese Buddhist priest who traveled around local provinces.

History of Hongwan-ji Temple (本願寺の歴史) - This article describes the history of Hongwan-ji Temple of the Jodo Shinshu sect, founded by Shinran.

HITACHIBO Kaison (常陸坊海尊) - Kaison HITACHIBO (the date of birth and death unknown) is a legendary person whose name appears in "Genpei Seisui ki" (Rise and Fall of the Minamoto and the Taira clans), "Gikeiki" (a military epic about the life of Yoshitsune), and "Heike Monogatari" (The tale of the Heike), and is said to be a Buddhist priest at the Onjo-ji Temple or Mt. Hiei.

Hiten (飛天) - The term "Hiten" refers to the tennin (heavenly beings) who flies around Buddha and sings.

HOAN Kokei (蒲庵古渓) - Kokei HOAN (1532 - March 5, 1597) was a Rinzai Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the Azuchi-Momoyama period.

Hocho (Bird Release) (放鳥) - Hocho is to let a bird which has been captured or reared by humans free from human stewardship by releasing it out of doors.

Hoe (法会) - Hoe (Buddhist memorial services) are gatherings of Buddhist monks and parishioners for memorial services and Buddhist preaching.

Hojo (方丈) - Hojo is a word expressing an square area with one jo (an unit of length: 1 jo = 3.03 meters) on each side.

Hojo-in Temple (Uji City) (放生院 (宇治市)) - Hojo-in Temple, located in Uji City, Kyoto Prefecture, is a temple of the Shingon Ritsu sect.

Hojoe (ritual of releasing captive animals) (放生会) - Hojoe is a religious ritual in which captive animals are released into the wild to admonish against the taking of life.

Hokke Mandala (法華曼荼羅) - The Hokke mandala (Lotus Mandala) is one of the mandala that represent the world of Hoke-kyo Sutra (the Lotus Sutra) with illustrations, Sanskrit and kanji.

Hokke Sanbu-kyo (Threefold Lotus) Sutra (法華三部経) - The "Hokke Sanbu-kyo (Threefold Lotus Sutra)" is a set of sutras of Mahayana Buddhism.

Hokke Sect of Honmon School (法華宗本門流) - The Hokke Sect of Honmon School is a denomination of Nichiren Buddhism for which the sect founder is considered to be Nichiren and the school founder is believed to be Nichiryu.

Hokke Sect Shinmon School (法華宗真門流) - The Hokke sect Shinmon school is a Buddhist school led by Nichiren with Nichiren being Koso (the founder of the religious sect) and Nichishin being the founder of the school (the Hokke sect Shinmon school).

Hokke Shichiyu (The Seven Parables of the Lotus Sutra) (法華七喩) - Hokke Shichiyu means the seven parables of Hoke-kyo Sutra (the Lotus Sutra).

Hokke-do Hall (法華堂) - Hokke-do Hall, abbreviation of Hokke Sanmaido Hall, is a Buddhist temple in which Tendai-shu sect's Hokekyo sanmai no gyo (religious austerities to concentrate on the Lotus Sutra in Buddhism) is performed.

Hokke-kyo Sutra (法華経) - Hokke-kyo (Hokke-kyo Sutra) is a collective term for the Mahayana Buddhism sutra, 'saddharmapundariika-suutra ('a white lotus flower as right teaching)' in Chinese translation.

Hokyo-ji Temple (宝鏡寺) - The Hokyo-ji Temple of the Rinzai sect is located in Kamigyo Ward, Kyoto City, and the temple is known as an Amamonzeki-ji Temple, which used to be run by nuns of noble women.

Homyo (Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism)) (法名 (浄土真宗)) - Homyo' in Jodo Shinshu is the introduction of oneself showing that he/she is to be a disciple of Shaka or Shkyamuni (a disciple of the Buddha).

Homyo-jiku (a hanging scroll on which a priest's name or the posthumous name of the deceased is drawn) (法名軸) - Homyo-jiku is one of Buddhist altar fittings used in Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land School of Buddhism), on which homyo (a priest's name or the posthumous name of the deceased) is described or painted.

Honbutsu (the Primordial Buddha) (本仏) - "Honbutsu" means the Primordial Buddha among numerous Buddha (Nyorai.)

Hondo (The main hall) (本堂) - Hondo is the building of a Buddhist temple in which the main object of worship is enshrined.

Honen Shonin nijugo reijo (25 sacred grounds of Honen Shonin) (法然上人二十五霊場) - Honen Shonin Nijugo reijo (25 sacred ground of Honen Shonin) is circuit pilgrimage to 25 temples which are related to Honen Shonin, the founder of the Pure Land sect.

Honganji Shonin Denne (Buddhist picture scrolls painted about the life of Shinran) (本願寺聖人伝絵) - Honganji Shonin Denne is a Buddhist scroll which illustrates the life of Shinran, the founder of the Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) with narration.

Honman-ji Temple (本満寺) - Honman-ji Temple is a temple located in Kamigyo Ward, Kyoto City.

Honmatsu Seido System (本末制度) - "Honmatsu seido," a system intended to control the Buddhist organizations, was established by the Tokugawa shogunate during the Edo period.

Honmon Butsuryu Sect (本門佛立宗) - Honmon Butsuryu Sect was the new religious sect of the school of the Hokke sect; it was founded by Seifu NAGAMATSU, who was of a school of Nichiren, and worshiped Nichiren as the origin of the sect.

Honmon Hokke Sect (本門法華宗) - Honmon Hokke Sect is a school of Nichiren Sect of which the sect founder was Nichiren and the school founder was Nichiryu (Honmon School of Hokke Sect).

Honmon Sect (本門宗) - The Nichiren Honmon Sect (Also known as Honmon Sect) is a sect based on Nichiren Buddhism, which was organized by Nikkomon School (a branch temple succeeding the Nikko's Buddhist teaching lineage) in 1876, and merged with the Nichiren Sect and the Kenpon Hokke Sect in 1941 in order to form a better organization.

Honnyo (本如) - Honnyo (1778 – January 9, 1827) was a Buddhist priest in Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) from the middle to the late Edo period who served as the 19th suzerain in Nishi Hongan-ji Temple and Daisojo (a priest of the highest rank in the highest managerial position).

Honpo-ji Temple (本法寺 (京都市)) - The Honpo-ji Temple, located at Teranouchi, Kamigyo Ward, Kyoto City, is a Honzan (a major temple of the Nichiren Sect) and a Yuisho jiin (a historically important temple of the Nichiren Sect).

Honzeige (本誓偈) - Honzeige is chanted for Amida Buddha alone, and this gemon is based on "Kanmuryojukyosho" Gengibun.

Honzen-ji Temple (本禅寺) - Honzen-ji Temple is a branch temple in the Kyoto Jinmon lineage of the Hokke sect.

Honzon (本尊) - Honzon has the following meanings.

Honzon (Nichiren Shoshu) (本尊 (日蓮正宗)) - The honzon (the principal object of worship) in Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism is the Honmonkaidan-no-Daigohonzon (usually called the Lotus Mandala).

Hoon-ko (a memorial services for Shinran) (報恩講) - Hoon-ko refers to a memorial service which was held around the anniversary of the death of Shinran (1173 - 1262), the founder of Jodo Shinshu (True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) for the purpose of Hon shatoku (repayment for indebtedness) to the founder.

Horin (法霖) - Horin (1693 - November 24, 1741) was a gakuso (scholar monk) of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) during the middle of the Edo period.

Horin, Dharma-wheel (chakra) (法輪) - Horin (法輪) (Sanskrit: dharma-chakra, pinyin: falun) is another name for the creed of Buddhism, especially the Four Axioms Noble and the Eightfold Path taught by Buddha.

Horin-ji Temple (Kamigyo Ward, Kyoto City) (法輪寺 (京都市上京区)) - Horin-ji Temple, located in Kamigyo Ward, Kyoto City, is a temple of the Myoshin-ji Temple school of the Rinzai sect.

Horinden (宝林伝) - Horinden is the abbreviated name for Daito Shoshu Sohonzan Sokokei Horinden, a historical account of Zen Buddhism that was established in 801.

Hoshi (Successor) (法嗣) - "Hoshi" (Hassu) refers to a successor of his/her master's teachings.

Hoshi Matsuri (Buddhist star festival) (星まつり) - Hoshi Matsuri is a Buddhist festival celebrating the tonenjo (also referred to as tonenzokusho, each person's star of the year) and honmyojo (each person's star of the year of birth) to ward off evil.

Hoshu (法主) - The word 'hoshu' (also referred as 'hossu') refers to a person who keeps the creed of Buddhism and plays a central role in its teaching, and turns to refer to the supreme leader (head) of the school, sect and religious community.

Hosshinshu (発心集) - Hosshinshu (Tales of Awakening) is a collection of Buddhist tales compiled in the early Kamakura period.

Hossho-ji Temple (法性寺) - Hossho-ji Temple is part of the Seizanzenrin-ji School, Jodo Sect, in Higashiyama-ku Ward, Kyoto City.

Hotan (鳳潭) - Hotan (1654 - April 14, 1738) was a learned monk in the middle of the Edo period.

Hoto (a treasure tower) (宝塔) - "Hoto" is a Buddhist pagoda composed of a cylindrical or octagonal toshin (the body of a pagoda,) with a square-shaped roof on it, and sorin (a metal pinnacle placed on the top of a pagoda).

Hoyo (Buddhist memorial service) (法要) - What is hoyo?

Hozan Kenchin (宝山乾珍) - Hozan Kenchin (1394 - February 14, 1442) was a priest during the Muromachi Period.

Hozo (Japan) (法蔵 (日本)) - Hozo (905 - 969) was a priest of the Hosso sect during the mid Heian period.

Hyakuman-to Tower [also know as Hyakumanto Darani (The one million pagodas and Dharani prayers)] (百万塔) - The Hyakuman-to Towers were produced in the late Nara period at the wish of Emperor Shotoku.

Hyakumanben Nenbutsu (百万遍念仏) - Hyakumanben Nenbutsu is to repeat nenbutsu (Buddhist invocation) for a million times for the purposes of one's own birth in the Pure Land, ceremony as a memorial, and other variety of prayer.

I

Ichiji Kinrin Buccho (a Buddhist deity with a golden wheel, represented by a sacred Sanskrit syllable) (一字金輪仏頂) - Ichiji Kinrin Buccho (ekaakSara-uSNiiSacakra in Sanskrit) is one of the deities worshipped in Esoteric Buddhism.

Ichimai Kishomon (The One Sheet Document) (一枚起請文) - The Ichimai Kishomon is a will left by Honen on February 27, 1212 just prior to his death.

Ichinen sanzen (一念三千) - Ichinen sanzen is a kanpo (meditative training to reach enlightenment) and fundamental principle of the Tendai sect.

Ichinyo (priest) (一如 (僧)) - Ichinyo (1649 - May 30, 1700) was a priest of the Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) and the 16th hoshu (head priest) of the Higashi Hongan-ji Temple.

Ichiryu denju (一流伝授) - Ichiryu denju means jiso denju (initiation of practical training) in the Shingon sect of Buddhism.

IKENOBO Senkei (池坊専慶) - Senkei IKENOBO (the dates of his birth and death were unknown) was a Buddhist priest of Kyoto Choho-ji Temple (Rokkakudo) in the middle of the Muromachi period.

IKENOBO Seno (池坊専応) - Seno IKENOBO (1482 - 1543) was a Buddhist monk of Kyoto Choho-ji Temple (Rokkakudo) as well as a tatebana (flower arrangement) master in the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States).

Ikkoshu (一向宗) - Ikkoshu is a Buddhist sect founded by Ikko Shunsho, a Jodoshu sect monk during the Kamakura period.

IKKYUU Soujun (一休宗純) - Soujun IKKYUU was a Zen monk in the Daitokuji branch of the Rinzai sect, during the Muromachi period.

Imperial Inscription (勅額) - The tem "imperial inscription" ('chokugaku' in Japanese) refers to inscriptions at temples which were written by rulers such as the emperor and typically given to temples throughout the country.

Indo (引導) - Indo

Inge (院家) - Inge can refer to:

INGEN Ryuki (Also known as Yinyuan Longqi) (隠元隆き) - INGEN Ryuki (December 7, 1592 – May 19, 1673) was a Chinese Zen Buddhist priest in the periods of the late Ming Dynasty and the early Qing Dynasty, who was born in Fuqing, Fuzhou of Fujian Province, China; his secular family name was Hayashi (林), and his imperially bestowed titles in Japan were Shinku daishi (daishi: a great teacher monk) and Kako daishi; and he was given special posthumous Buddhist names, Daiko-fusho kokushi (kokushi: a posthumous Buddhist title given by the Emperor), Butsuji-kokan kokushi, Kinzan-shushutsu kokushi, and Kakusho-enmyo kokushi.

Inka (Certification of achievement) (印可) - Inka refers to the license which a master grants to a disciple who has mastered his teachings.

Inpa (院派) - Inpa refers to one of the busshi (sculptor of Buddhist Statues) schools from the late Heian Period to the Kamakura Period.

Inshun (胤舜) - Inshun (1589 to February 5, 1648) was a monk and a martial artist who lived in the early Edo period.

Inso (the gesture of the hands of an image of Buddha or a god of Hinduism) (印相) - Inso is a Buddhist and Hinduism term which refers to the gesture of the hands having a certain symbolic meaning.

Institute for Zen Studies (禅文化研究所) - The Institute for Zen Studies is a research institute (a corporation) about Zen and Zen-related culture established jointly by the Rinzaishu and Obakushu sects, and is located on the premises of Hanazono University.

Ippen (一遍) - Ippen was a priest in the mid Kamakura period.

Issan Ichinei (一山一寧) - Issan Ichinei (1247 - November 28, 1317) was a priest who came to Japan from Yuan (Yuan Dynasty).

Isshikoshosoku (一紙小消息) - Isshikoshosoku is a part of a Buddhist sermon taught by Honen.

Isshin-in Temple (一心院) - Isshin-in Temple is a Jodoshu sect (the Pure Land sect) temple at Higashiyama Ward in Kyoto City as well as the head temple of the Shasei school of the Jodo sect.

ITO Shinjo (伊藤真乗) - Shinjo ITO (Fumiaki ITO, March 28, 1906 - July 19, 1989) was a religious leader who founded Shinnyoen, the lay Buddhist Organization.

J

Jakuen (寂円) - Jakuen (1207 - October 15, 1299) was a Buddhist priest of the Soto sect who came from the Southern Song of China to Japan in the Kamakura period.

Jakunyo (寂如) - Jakunyo (1651 - September 21, 1725) was a priest of the Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) in the early part of the Edo period.

Jetavana Vihara (祇園精舎) - Jetavana Vihara (the formal name is "Jetavana Anathapindadasya-arama" in Sanskrit) was a temple at Sravasti in Middle India, where Buddha preached sermons.

Ji Sect (時宗) - The Ji sect is a sect of the Jodo sect which was established at the end of the Kamakura period.

Jichie (実恵) - Jichie (also pronounced Jitsue, born 786, died December 24, 847), was an early Heian-period Buddhist priest of the Shingon sect.

Jien (慈円) - Jien (May 17, 1155 - October 28, 1225) was a priest of the Tendai sect in the Kamakura period and was famous for the history book, "Gukansho."

Jien (慈延) - Jien (1748-August 2, 1805) was a priest of the Tendai sect and poet from the mid to late Edo Period.

Jihen (慈遍) - Jihen (date of birth unknown) was a gakuso (scholar monk) of the Tendai sect and a Shintoist who lived during the end of the Kamakura period until the period of the Northern and Southern Courts.

Jiin Sho-Hatto (寺院諸法度) - Jiin Sho-Hatto is a general term for a set of regulations that applied to the Buddhist religious community in the Tokugawa Shogunate in the Edo period.

Jiin-ho (寺院法) - "Jiin-ho" is a name for laws regarding Buddhist temples.

Jikaku (Temple Ranking) (寺格) - Jikaku was the hierarchy of a Buddhist temple used to classify its status based on its economic and social standing.

Jikkai (the Ten Realms) (十界) - Jikkai means all the states of a human spirit categorized into 10 types according to the creed of the Tendai sect, including Rokudo (six posthumous worlds) as well as the four of states of Shomon, Enkaku, Bosatsu and Buddhahood.

Jikku Kannongyo (one of the Buddhist scriptures) (十句観音経) - Jikku Kannongyo is one of the Buddhist scriptures.

Jikun Toren (竺雲等連) - Jikun Toren (1383 - February 5, 1471) was a Rinzai Sect priest in the middle of the Muromachi period.

Jinko-in Temple (神光院) - The Jinko-in Temple is a tanritsu jiin (a temple which belongs to no sect) of the Shingon Sect line in Kita Ward, Kyoto City.

Jinmon School of the Hokke Sect (法華宗陣門流) - The Jinmon school of the Hokke sect is a Buddhist school under Nichiren, with Nichiren being Shuso (or Koso, the founder) and Nichijin (1339 – 1414) being Haso (the founder of the school).

Jinnichi (神日) - Jinnichi (860-December 29, 916) was a priest of the Shingon sect from the early to late Heian Period.

Jinpan (尋範) - Jinpan (1093 - 1174) was a Buddhist priest in the late Heian period.

Jinu (尋有) - Jinu (year of birth and death unknown) was a priest of the Tendai sect who lived in the Kamakura period.

Jinzen (尋禅) - Jinzen (943 - March 16, 990) was a Buddhist monk of Tendai Sect in the mid-Heian period.

Jisan (慈山) - Jisan (1637-August 7, 1690) was a scholar monk during the early Edo period.

Jishu (慈周) - Jisyu (1734 - April 28, 1801), a Buddhist priest of the Tendai sect and a composer of Chinese poems, lived in the mid-Edo period.

Jissetsu (十刹) - Jissetsu is a form of Zen temple in China and Japan, below the Gozan (Zen temples highly ranked by the government) and above the Shozan (zen temples other than Gozan (five great zen temples) and Jissetsu (ten important temples of the Rinzai sect)).

Jitsunyo (実如) - Jitsunyo (September 26, 1458 - March 5, 1525) was a Buddhist priest of the Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) who lived from the mid-Muromachi period into the Sengoku period (period of warring states).

Jiun (慈雲) - Jiun (August 24, 1718 - January 22, 1805) was a Buddhist priest of the Shingon Sect in the late Edo period.

Jiun (似雲) - Jiun (February 18, 1673 – August 6, 1753) was a monk of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land sect of Buddhism) and a poet.

Jiun-Myoi (慈雲妙意) - Jiun-Myoi (1274 - July 10, 1345) was a priest of the Rinzai Sect from the latter part of the Kamakura period to the period of the Northern and Southern Courts.

Jizo Bosatsu (地蔵菩薩) - Jizo Bosatsu (d kSiti gharbha in Sanskrit) is one of the venerable entities of Bosatsu, which is worshipped in Buddhism.

Jizo-in Temple (Kita Ward, Kyoto City) (地蔵院 (京都市北区)) - Jizo-in Temple, located in Kita Ward, Kyoto City, is a temple of the Jodo sect.

Jizo-in Temple (Nishikyo Ward, Kyoto City) (地蔵院 (京都市西京区)) - Jizo-in Temple, located in Nishikyo Ward, Kyoto City, is a nonsectarian temple of the Rinzai sect.

Jizo-in Temple (Uji City) (地蔵院 (宇治市)) - Jizo-in Temple, located in Uji City, Kyoto Prefecture, is a temple of the Jodo sect.

Joa (乗阿) - Joa (1540 – August 28, 1619) was a Buddhist priest of the Jishu School and poet between the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States) and the early part of the Edo period.

Joan (静安) - Joan (790 - March 25, 844) was a Hosso sect Buddhist monk during the early Heian period.

Jobonrendai-ji Temple (上品蓮台寺) - Jobonrendai-ji Temple, located in Kita Ward, Kyoto City, is a temple of the Chizan school of the Shingon sect.

Jocho (定朝) - Jocho (D.O.B. unknown - died September 2, 1057) was a sculptor active in the latter part of the Heian period and is said to be the sculptor who perfected the technique called yoseki-zukuri, in which the main part of a statue is made out of two or more pieces of wood.

Jodo (Pure Land) (浄土) - Jodo (Pure Land) is a Buddhist concept which pointed to a world clean and pure.

Jodo Monrui Jusho (浄土文類聚鈔) - The term "Jodo Monrui Jusho" refers to a theoretical treatise in which Shinran wrote about the fundamental thoughts of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism).

Jodo Sanbu-kyo (the three main sutras of the Jodo (Pure Land) sect) (浄土三部経) - The Jodo Sanbu-kyo is a collective name for the basic three sutras of the various Jodo sects in Japan.

Jodo Sanmandala (Three Pure Land Mandalas) (浄土三曼荼羅) - Jodo Sanmandala is a term representing the 3 leading types of compositions among the traditional Jodo Mandala (Pure Land Mandala) (or Jodo Henso-zu [Pictures of Amitabha's Paradise] to be precise) in Japan.

Jodo Shinshu (浄土真宗) - Jodo Shinshu (Shin-Buddhism/True Pure Land Sect) is one of the sects of Japanese Buddhism, and a religious community that Shinran, an apprentice of Honen, succeeded and which developed Honen's doctrine (Jodo Shu/Pure Land Buddhism) in the early Kamakura period.

Jodo Shinshu Higashi Hongan-ji school (浄土真宗東本願寺派) - Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) Higashi Hongan-ji school is a school of the Jodo Shinshu consisting of more than 300 branch temples and respected temples which separated from the Shinshu sect Otani school containing around 10,000 branch temples.

Jodo Shinshu sect Hongwan-ji-ha (浄土真宗本願寺派) - The sect Hong gwan-ji-ha is one of the Jodo Shinshu sects.

Jodo Shinshu Sect Shinrankai (浄土真宗親鸞会) - Jodo Shinshu Shinrankai (founded in 1958) is a new sect of the Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) Sect.

Jodo Shu (浄土宗) - Jodo Shu is one of the denominations of Buddhism in Japan, which was founded by Honen Shonin and the teaching and practice of which is Jodo Kyo Senju-nenbutsu (Exclusive Nenbutsu).

Jodo-e (Celebration of Shakyamuni Buddha's enlightenment) (成道会) - Jodo-e is a hoyo (Buddhist memorial service) celebrating the Jodo (completing the path to becoming a Buddha by attaining enlightenment) of Shakyamuni.

Jodo-in Temple (浄土院 (京都市左京区)) - Jodo-in Temple, located in Ginkakuji-cho, Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City, is a temple of the Jodo (Pure Land) sect.

Jodo-kyo (Pure Land Teachings) (浄土教) - Jodo-kyo is a teaching for people to become Buddha in the Land of Bliss of Amitabha Buddha.

Joe (定恵) - Joe (writes; 定恵) (643 - Feb. 2, 666) was a scholar monk in the Asuka period.

Jogakuji (Buddhist temples with status similar to state-sponsored provincial temples) (定額寺) - Jogakuji refers to Buddhist temples with the second highest temple status following "kandaiji" (state-sponsored temples of great scale) and "kokubunji" (state-sponsored provincial temples), which existed in the Nara and Heian periods.

Jogakuso (a quota for Buddhist priests, or Buddhist priests under a quota system) (定額僧) - Jogakuso refers to a quota system for Buddhist priests under the "kodai ritsuryosei" (ancient East Asian system of centralized governance), or priests themselves under this system.

Jogyo (貞暁) - Jogyo (also known as Teigyo, March 25, 1186 - April 3, 1231) was a monk living from the end of the Heian period to the beginning of the Kamakura period.

Jogyo (常暁) - Jogyo (birth date unknown - January 9, 867) was a Buddhist monk who lived during the first part of the Heian period.

Jogyo Zanmai-do Hall (常行三昧堂) - Jogyo zanmai-do hall is a type of Buddhist hall built to perform the jogyo zanmai which is one of the Shishuzanmai (the four kinds of samadhi) of the Tendai sect.

Johen (静遍) - Johen (1166 - May 16, 1224) was a priest of the Shingon Sect in the early part of the Kamakura period.

Jojin (成尋) - Jojin (1011 - November 9, 1081) was a Tendai Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the mid-Heian period.

Joju-ji Temple (浄住寺) - Joju-ji Temple, located in Nishikyo Ward, Kyoto City, is a temple of the Obaku Sect.

Jokai (定海) - Jokai (February 1, 1074 - May 20, 1149) was a Buddhist monk of the Shingon sect who lived during the late Heian period.

Jokai (聖戒) - Jokai (year of birth and death unknown) is a priest of Kankiko-ji Temple of the Jishu Sect during the mid Kamakura period.

Jokaku (上覚) - Jokaku (1147 - October, 1226) was a Buddhist monk of the Shingon Sect from the late Heian period to the early Kamakura period.

Jokei (貞慶) - Jokei (June 29, 1155 - March 3, 1213) was a Buddhist monk in the Hosso Sect in the early Kamakura period.

Jonyo (常如) - Jonyo (1641-June 14, 1694) was a priest in the Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) and the 15th Head Priest of Higashi Hongan-ji Temple.

Jonyo (乗如) - Jonyo (乗如, also written as 乘如) was a Buddhist priest of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) in the mid Edo period.

Joon (浄音) - Joon (1201 - July 7, 1271) was a priest of the Jodo Sect from the early to the middle of the Kamakura period.

Josetsu (如拙) - Josetsu (the years of his birth and death was unknown) was an artist-monk from the period of the Northern and Southern Courts to the middle of the Muromachi period.

Josho (定昭) - Josho (906 - 983) was a Shingon Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the mid-Heian period.

Josho-ji Temple (Kyoto City) (常照寺 (京都市)) - Josho-ji Temple is a Buddhist temple belonging to the Nichiren Sect located in Takagamine, Kita Ward, Kyoto City.

Josu (貞崇) - Josu (also known as Teisu) (866 - August 19, 944) was a Shingon Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the mid-Heian period.

Joto (常騰) - Joto (740 - October 13, 815) was a Buddhist priest who lived from the Nara period to the beginning of the Heian period.

Joyano kane (除夜の鐘) - Joyano kane means striking a bronze bell (temple bell) around 12:00 am on New Year's Eve (December 31).

Joyo (定誉) - Joyo (958 - 1047) was a Shingon sect Buddhist monk during the latter half of the Heian period.

Jozo (浄蔵) - Jozo (891 - December 27, 964) was a Tendai Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the mid-Heian period.

Jugyuzu (十牛図) - Jugyuzu is a set of ten drawings of cows which depict the path leading to the enlightenment of Zen meditation.

Juichimen Kannon, (Kannon with Eleven Faces) (十一面観音) (十一面観音) - Juichimen Kannon (ekadaza mukha in Sanskrit) is one of the venerable entities of Bosatsu, which is worshipped in Buddhism.

Jujubibasharon (the Discourse on the Ten Stages) (十住毘婆沙論) - "Jujubibasharon" is a treatise on Buddhism in 17 volumes.

Jujushinron (Ten Stages of Mind Development) (十住心論) - "Jujushinron" (Ten Stages of Mind Development), or "Himitsu Mandala Jujushinron" (Ten Abiding Stages on the Secret Mandalas) to be precise, is one of the most famous writings by Kukai, which was written around 830 and describes the system of Shingon Esoteric Buddhism in response to the imperial order of Emperor Junna.

Junen (十念) - Junen is (a manner of) chanting a homage to Amida Buddha ten times.

Junen-ji Temple (Kyoto City) (十念寺 (京都市)) - Junen-ji Temple, a temple of the Seizan Jodo sect, is located in Kamigyo Ward, Kyoto City.

Juni Shinsho, the 12 protective deities (十二神将) - Juni Shinsho (the 12 protective deities) are tenbu, deities who reside in a heavenly realm, one of six realms in which the souls of living beings transmigrate from one to another; they are worshiped and shaped into statues in Buddhism, and are good deities that guard Buddhism.

Juniten (十二天) - Juniten is a mixture of the twelve deities of 'Ten,' which are Goho Zenshin (good deities protecting dharma) in Buddhism and is given high value in Esoteric Buddhism, as well as Shitenno (Four Guardian Kings).

Junnyo (准如) - Junnyo (August 3, 1577 - January 21, 1632) was an individual from the Azuchi-Momoyama period and Edo period.

Junnyo (順如) - Junnyo (1442 - July 13, 1483) was a monk of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) during the middle to late Muromachi period.

Junsai (遵西) - Junsai (year of birth unknown - March 16, 1207) was a priest of the Jodo (Pure Land) sect of Buddhism who lived from the late Heian period to the early Kamakura period

Junshin (順信) - Junshin (year of birth unknown, died on April 20, 1250) was a priest of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) who lived in the mid Kamakura period.

Junson (准尊) - Junson (November 28, 1585 – June 3, 1622) was a Buddhist priest and the 18th chief priest of Kosho-ji Temple.

Junyoze (Buddhism Ten Factors of Life) (十如是) - Junyoze (Buddhism Ten Factors of Life) is the principle of causality which is expounded in the Chapter of Expedient Means of "the Lotus Sutra".

Junyu (a priest) (淳祐 (僧)) - Junyu (890 - August 18, 953) was a priest of the Shingon Sect in the middle of the Heian period.

Juo (10 Kings; 10 judges of the hell) (十王) - Juo are the 10 judges of the hell (Buddhism).

Juo Sohitsu (授翁宗弼) - Juo Sohitsu (1296 - 1380) was a Rinzai Sect Buddhist monk who lived from the latter part of the Kamakura period to the Northern and Southern Courts period (Japan).

Juo-shinko (Ten Kings (Ten Judges of Hell) belief) (十王信仰) - In Juo-shinko, the faithful beg for the mercy of ten judges, who decide the realm to which the dead would go posthumously.

Jurasetsunyo (十羅刹女) - Jurasetsunyo are ten demonesses of Tenbu (group of Protectors of Buddhist Laws) in Buddhism.

Jurin-ji Temple (Kyoto City) (十輪寺 (京都市)) - Jurin-ji Temple, a temple of the Tendai Sect, is located in Oshio-cho, Oharano, Nishikyo Ward, Kyoto City.

Jusanbutsu shinko (Thirteen Buddha belief) (十三仏信仰) - Jusanbutsu shinko refers to the belief in Juo, ten kings, who are judges in Meido hell including Enma-o (the King of Hell) who were created in Japan based on the Juo-shinko (ten Kings (ten Judges of Hell) belief) and in buddhas, according to the Honji-suijaku setsu (theory of original reality and manifested traces), whose present forms are judges who conduct the later trials (the sixth, the twelfth, and the 32nd anniversaries).

Juzu (beadroll) (数珠) - Juzu (数珠) is a Buddhist ritual implement and a kind of ring composed of many beads which are linked by piercing a bundle of threads into a hole made on each bead.

K

Kaidan (Ordination Platform) (戒壇) - The term kaidan (ordination platform) is a Buddhist term that refers to a place for giving the precepts of Buddhism.

Kaido (快道) - Kaido (1751 to 1810) was a gakuso (scholar monk) of the Shingon sect Buzan school of the Shingi Shingon sect, who made a great contribution to bibliography.

Kaigen (Eye-Opening) (開眼) - Kaigen refers to enshrining a Buddha statue or Buddhist painting newly made in a temple or hall to welcome the spirit.

Kaigen-hoyo (開眼法要) - Kaigen-hoyo is a Buddhist memorial service held at the completion of Buddhist statue, painting, altar, or tomb.

Kaimon Shocho (海門承朝) - Kaimon Shocho (1374 – June 6, 1443) was the prince of Emperor Chokei of the Southern Court (Japan).

Kaisen Joki (快川紹喜) - Kaisen Joki (year of birth unknown - April 25, 1582) was a priest of the Rinzai Sect of Buddhism from the Warring States period and the Azuchi-Momoyama period.

Kaiso (開創) - Kaiso means to found a temple.

Kakua (覚阿) - Kakua (1143 - unknown) was a priest in the Tendai Sect of Buddhism from the end of the Heian period until the beginning of the Kamakura period.

Kakuban (覚鑁) - Kakuban (July 27, 1095 - January 25, 1144) was a high priest of Shingon sect who was active in the late Heian period, and the restorer of the Shingon sect and the founder of Shingi Shingon sect.

Kakucho (覚超) - Kakucho (960 - February 21, 1034), a Buddhist priest of the Tendai sect, lived in the mid-Heian period.

Kakue (覚恵) - Kakue

Kakuen (覚円) - Kakuen (1031 - May 19, 1098) was a Tendai Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the latter part of the Heian period.

Kakugen (覚源) - Kakugen (1000 - September 20, 1065) was a Japanese Buddhist monk of Shingon Sect in the late Heian period.

Kakujin (覚尋) - Kakujin (1021 - 1081) was a priest of the Enryaku-ji Temple who lived in the middle of the Heian period.

Kakujo (覚恕) - Kakujo (1521 - February 4, 1574) was a Buddhist priest of the Tendai sect who lived during the Sengoku period (period of warring states) (Japan).

Kakujo (a priest) (覚助 (僧)) - Kakujo (1013 - December 9, 1063) was a Buddhist priest of the Tendai sect who lived in the mid-Heian period.

Kakujo (a sculptor of Buddhist statues) (覚助 (仏師)) - Kakujo (birth year unknown to 1077) was a sculptor of Buddhist statues in the middle of the Heian period.

Kakukai (覚海) - Kakukai (1142 - September 13, 1223) was a Shingon sect priest from the late Heian period to the early Kamakura period.

Kakunin (覚仁) - Kakunin (dates of birth and death unknown), was a priest at Todai-ji Temple in the latter part of the Heian period.

Kakunyo (覚如) - Kakunyo was a Buddhist monk of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) who was active from the end Kamakura period to the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Kakure Nenbutsu (隠れ念仏) - Kakure Nenbutsu (Hidden Buddhist Invocation) refers to the individuals or groups of people who secretly practiced or believed in the Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) (Ikko Sect), which was banned by powerful rulers.

Kakushi Nenbutsu (A General Term for Heretical Sects [and Their Beliefs] Within Buddhism) (隠し念仏) - "Kakushi nenbutsu" is a general term that refers to heretical sects (and their beliefs) within Buddhism, which have various secretive aspects.

Kakuun (覚運) - Kakuun (953 - December 18, 1007) was a Buddhist priest of the Tendai sect who lived in the mid-Heian period.

Kakuyu (覚猷) - Kakuyu (1053 - November 3, 1140) was a Buddhist priest of the Tendai Sect in the late Heian period.

Kamakura Bukkyo (鎌倉仏教) - Kamakura Bukkyo (Kamakura Buddhism) refers to the movement for Buddhist reform developed from the end of the Heian period to the Kamakura Period.

Kanbutsue (灌仏会) - Kanbutsue is a ceremony that celebrates the birth of Buddha.

Kancho (寛朝) - Kancho (916 - July 13, 998) was a Buddhist monk of the Shingon Sect in the middle of the Heian period.

Kanchu Chutai (観中中諦) - Kanchu Chutai (year of birth unknown-April 30, 1406) was the ninth priest of Shokoku-ji Temple in Kyoto.

Kangaku (勧学) - Kangaku (Kangaku ranking) means the title to be given to Buddhist monks who are in a commanding position with a high level of education and learning in religious schools of Japanese Buddhism after the end of modern times.

Kangakue (勧学会) - Kangakue was a Buddhist meeting held to conduct teaching, nenbutsu (Buddhist invocation), and create Chinese-style poems themed after "Hokekyo" (Lotus Sutra), and was held by the scholars of Kidendo (the study of the histories) in Daigakuryo (Bureau of Education) and the priests of Enryaku-ji Temple on Mt. Hiei, on March 15 (in old lunar calendar) or September 15 (in old lunar calendar) at the western foot of Mt. Hiei or at the temples in and around Heian-kyo (ancient Kyoto), in the mid through latter period of the Heian period.

Kangangiin (寒巌義尹) - Kangangiin (1217 - October 12, 1300), a Buddhist priest of the Soto sect, lived in the mid-Kamakura period.

Kangen (観賢) - Kangen (854 - July 9, 925) was a priest of the Shingon sect during the mid Heian Period.

Kangiten (Nandikesvara) (歓喜天) - Kangiten (or Nandikesvara) (Ganapati in Sanskrit) is one of the tenbu, guardian deities that reside in a heavenly realm, one of six realms in which the souls of living beings transmigrate from one to another, in Buddhism.

Kani (寛意) - Kani (1062 - July 12, 1101) was a Buddhist monk of Shingon Sect in the late Heian period.

Kanin (寛印) - Kanin (dates of birth and death unknown) was a Tendai sect priest in the middle Heian period.

Kanjin (勧進) - Kanjin was work done by Buddhist monks in connection with missionary activities intended to bring relief to people.

Kanjo (灌頂) - Kanjo is a ceremony mainly celebrated in Esoteric Buddhism, in which a legitimate successor is declared by pouring water over the top of the head.

Kanjo (寛助) - Kanjo (1057 - February 19, 1125) was a Shingon Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the latter part of the Heian period.

Kanku (寛空) - Kanku (884 - February 28, 972) was a Shingon sect priest in the middle of the Heian period.

Kankyo no Tomo (閑居友) - Kankyo no Tomo is a collection of Buddhist tales written in kana in the early Kamakura period.

Kanmuryoju Kyo sutra (観無量寿経) - "Kanmuryoju Kyo" (The Sutra of Contemplation on the Buddha of Immeasurable Life) is one of the Mahayana Buddhist sutras.

Kanmuryojukyosho (Commentaries on Meditation Sutra) (観無量寿経疏) - "Kanmuryojukyosho" is a commentary written by Shandao of China.

Kanna Zen (A Style Of 'Zazen' [Sitting Meditation]) (看話禅) - "Kanna Zen" (also called "Kanwa Zen") is a style of "zazen" (sitting meditation) which is practiced in the Zen Sect of Buddhism.

Kannodoko (感応道交) - Kannodoko means connections between a Buddha and a human being, or between a teacher and a learner.

Kannon Bodhisattva, Kannon Bosatsu (観音菩薩) - Kannon Bodhisattva, Kannon Bosatsu,(अवलोकितेश्वर Avalokiteśvara in Sanskrit) is a sacred image (一尊) of Bosatsu in Buddhism and a kind of Buddha (尊格) that has attained widespread faithful since ancient times, particularly in Japan.

Kannon-ji Temple (Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto City) (観音寺 (京都市東山区)) - Kannon-ji Temple, located in Sennyuji Yamanouchi, Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto City, is a temple of the Shingon sect's Sennyu-ji school.

Kanpen (寛遍) - Kanpen (1100 - July 28, 1166) was a Shingon Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the latter part of the Heian period.

Kanshin (寛信) - Kanshin (also known as Kanjin) (1084 - April 2, 1153) was a Shingon sect priest in the late Heian period.

Kanshu (勧修) - Kanshu (945-August 17, 1008) was a priest of the Tendai sect in the mid Heian period.

Kanshun (桓舜) - Kanshun (978 - October 9, 1057) was a Buddhist monk of the Tendai sect who lived during the mid Heian period.

Kanzan Egen (関山慧玄) - Kanzan Egen (1277 - January 19, 1361) was a monk of the Rinzai sect of Buddhism from the latter stages of the Kamakura period to the Northern and Southern Courts period (Japan).

Kebutsu (化仏) - Kebutsu (the Artificial Buddha)

Kechimyaku Sojo (Nichiren Shoshu sect) (血脈相承 (日蓮正宗)) - According to Buddhism, Kechimyaku Sojo means the handing down of law (dharma) from a mentor to a disciple.

Kechimyaku-sojo (血脈相承) - Kechimyaku-sojo (also referred as kechimyaku-sosho) or blood inheritance is a metaphor that is used to describe the inheritance of teachings (Buddhism) from a mentor to a pupil, taking the blood flow as an analogy.

KEIAN Genju (桂庵玄樹) - Genju KEIAN (1427-July 8, 1508) was a priest of the Rinzai sect of Buddhism in Japan, who formed the Satsunan School (school of Neo-Confucian in Satsuma).

Keien (慶円) - Keien (also read as 'kyoen;' 1140 - February 28, 1223) was a priest who established Shinbutsu ryobu shiso (the idea of Dual-Shinto and Buddhism) during the early part of the Kamakura period.

Keien (Tendai sect) (慶円 (天台宗)) - Keien (Kyoen, 944 - October 9, 1019) is a Buddhist priest of the Tendai sect during the mid Heian period.

KEIJO Shurin (景徐周麟) - Shurin KEIJO (1440 - April 11, 1518) was a priest of the Rinzai sect of the late Muromachi period.

Keisaku (kyosaku) (a Zen stick) (警策) - Keisaku is the abbreviation for Keikakusakurei.

Keiso (慶祚) - Keiso (955 - January 25, 1020) was a priest of the Tendai sect during the mid Heian period.

Keitetsu Genso (景轍玄蘇) - Keitetsu Genso (1537 - November 26, 1611) was a priest of the Rinzai Sect from the Azuchi-Momoyama period to the early Edo period.

Keitokudentoroku (books of the genealogy of Zen Buddhism, consisting of biographies of priests in India and China) (景徳傳燈録) - Compiled by Dogen in the Baisong Dynasty era in China, Keitokudentoroku (written 景徳傳燈録 or 景徳伝灯録 in the modern kanji, 30 volumes) is a history book representative of the Zen sect.

Kenchi (顕智) - Kenchi (1226 - July 30, 1310 ?) was a monk of the Jodo Shinshu (True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) in the mid Kamakura period.

Kengo-in Temple (遣迎院) - The Kengo-in Temple is a temple of the Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) in Takagamine, Kita Ward, Kyoto City, and the Head Temple of the Kengoin school of Jodo Shinshu.

Kengoin School of The Jodo Shinshu Sect (浄土真宗遣迎院派) - The Kengoin school of the Jodo Shinshu sect is one of the schools of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism).

Kenkyo (顕教) - Kenkyo (also pronounced Kengyo) (exoteric Buddhism) is the disclosed teaching of Buddhism.

Kenmitsu taisei (a hypothesis about Japanese medieval Buddhism) (顕密体制) - Kenmitsu taisei refers to a hypothesis about a medieval religious theory in Japan, which was proposed by Toshio KURODA, a historian.

Kenpon Hokke Sect (顕本法華宗) - Kenpon Hokke Sect, whose sect founder was Nichiren and school founder was Nichiju, is a school of the Nichiren Sect.

Kenrojishin (堅牢地神) - Kenrojishin is one of the Tembu-shin in Buddhism and controls earth.

Kenshin (顕真) - Kenshin (1131- December 20, 1192) was a Tendai sect priest in the late Heian period.

Kenshun (賢俊) - Kenshun (1299-August 2, 1357) was a monk of Shingon sect in the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Kenshun (兼俊) - Kenshun (962 - year of death unclear) was a priest of the Shingon sect in the late Heian period.

Kenson (顕尊) - Kenson (March 5, 1564 - April 12, 1595) was the 17th head priest of Kosho-ji Temple.

Kian Soen (規庵祖円) - Kian Soen (February 8, 1261 - April 28, 1313) was a priest of the Rinzai sect of the late Kamakura period.

KIBE Koji (木辺孝慈) - Koji KIBE (1881-1969) was a priest in the Shinshu-kibe school of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism).

Kifudo painting (黄不動) - Kifudo painting is a 'hibutsu' (Buddhist image normally withheld from public view) of a standing statue of Fudomyoo (cetaka), the entire body of which is yellow, handed down to Onjo-ji Temple, commonly called Mii-dera Temple, in Otsu City, Shiga Prefecture.

Kikai (喜海) - 1178 - January 13, 1251) was a Kegon sect priest in the middle of the Kamakura period.

KIKEI Shinzui (季瓊真蘂) - Shinzui KIKEI (1401 - September 25, 1469) was a priest of the Rinzai Sect of Buddhism and also master of Inryoken Household in Rokuonin Temple in the Muromachi period.

Kiseki (鬼籍) - Kiseki is a family register for the dead ('ki' in Chinese).

Kishimojin (Goddess of Children) (鬼子母神) - Kishimojin' or 'Kishibojin' (haaritii in Sanskrit, Goddess of Children) is a yasha (yaksha in Sanskrit, Buddhist deity sometimes depicted as a demonic warrior) guarding Buddhism and a goddess.

KITSUSAN Mincho (吉山明兆) - Mincho KITSUSAN (1352 - 5 October,1431) was an artist monk during the early and middle Muromachi period.

Koan (Zen riddles) (公案) - Koan can have either of the following meanings:

Koen (皇円) - Koen (1074? - July 16, 1169) was a priest of the Tendai sect in the late Heian period.

Koge (香偈) - Koge is a gemon taken from the Jodo Hojisan (Hymns of the Pure Land Ritual).

Koho (杲宝) - Koho (1306 - July 28, 1362) was a Shingon sect scholar-monk during the period of the Northern and Southern Courts.

Kohokakumyo (孤峰覚明) - Kohokakumyo (1271 - June 27, 1361) was a Rinzai sect Buddhist monk from the late Kamakura period to the period of the Northern and Southern Courts.

Koin (公胤) - Koin (1145 - July 13, 1216) was a waka poet and a priest of the Tendai sect who lived from the end of Heian period until the early part of the Kamakura period.

Kojo (priest) (光定 (僧)) - Kojo (779 - September 24, 858) was a priest of the Tendai sect early in the Heian period.

Kokai (Buddhist priest) (公海 (僧)) - Kokai (January 29, 1608 – November 22, 1695) was a Buddhist priest of the Tendai Sect in the early part of the Edo period.

Kokaku (皇覚) - Kokaku (date of birth and death unknown) was a priest of the Tendai Sect in the late Heian period.

Kokan Shiren (虎関師錬) - Kokan Shiren (1278 - August 11, 1346) was a Rinzai Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the latter part of the Kamakura period and the Northern and Southern Courts period.

Kokei (皇慶) - Kokei (977 - August 27, 1049) was a Tendai sect priest in the middle days of the Heian period.

Kokei (公慶) - Kokei (1648 to August 30, 1705) was a monk of the Sanronshu Sect who lived in the early Edo period.

Kokua (国阿) - Kokua (1314 - October 4, 1405) was a Ji Sect Buddhist monk who lived from the Northern and Southern Courts period (Japan) to the mid-Muromachi period.

Kokuanten (黒闇天) - Kokuanten (Sanskrit:Kālarātri,Kālarātrī) was one of Tembu-shin in Buddhism.

Kokudachi (穀断ち) - Kokudachi (spiritual practice of eating no grain) is one of Buddhism "gyo" (spiritual practices).

Kokuzo Bosatsu (虚空蔵菩薩) - Kokuzo Bosatsu is Ākāśagarbh or Gaganagajja in Sanskrit, and is a Bosatsu that is revered in Buddhism.

Komokuten (Virupaksa) (広目天) - According to Buddhism, Komokuten (viruupaakSa in Sanskrit) is the Buddha of Tenbu (deities who reside in a heavenly realm, one of six realms in which the souls of living beings transmigrate from one to another).

Komuso (虚無僧) - Komuso were monks of the Fuke sect of Zen Buddhism who did not shave their heads in the traditional monk fashion and, co-existed as monks in the day to day lay world.

Komyo-ji Temple (Ayabe City) (光明寺 (綾部市)) - Komyo-ji Temple, located in Ayabe City, Kyoto, is a temple of the Daigo school of the Shingon sect.

Komyo-ji Temple (Nagaokakyo City) (光明寺 (長岡京市)) - Komyo-ji, the Grand Head Temple of the Seizan Jodo sect, is located in Ao, Nagaokakyo City, Kyoto Prefecture.

Kongo-ji Temple (Kameoka City) (金剛寺 (亀岡市)) - Kongo-ji Temple, a Buddhist temple of the Tenryu-ji school of the Rinzai sect, is located in Kameoka City, Kyoto Prefecture.

Kongobutsushi Eison Kanjingakushoki (金剛仏子叡尊感身学正記) - Kongobutsushi Eison Kanjingakushoki is an autobiography of Eison, a Buddhist monk who founded the Shingon Ritsu sect in the Kamakura period.

Kongocho-kyo (金剛頂経) - Kongocho-kyo (Diamond Peak Sutra) is a general term for assorted 'Kongocho-kyo' texts that were compiled one after another by a group called "Shoe Kongocho-kyo" (sarvatathāgatatattvasaṃgrahaṃ nāma mahāyānasūtraṃ, or "Mahayana Sutra Named as a Collection of All the Truth of Nyorai," abbreviated as "Shinjitsu Sho-gyo").

Kongosho (Vajra; a ritual implements in Exoteric Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism) (金剛杵) - Kogosho, vajra in Sanskrit, is a ritual object in Esoteric Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism.

Konren-ji Temple (金蓮寺 (京都市)) - Konren-ji Temple, located in Kita Ward, Kyoto City, is a temple of the Ji sect.

Kontai-ji Temple (金胎寺) - Kontai-ji Temple, located at Harayama, Wazuka-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto Prefecture, is part of the Daigo school of the Shingon sect.

Konyo (広如) - Konyo (1798 - August 19, 1871) was a priest of the Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) in the end of the Edo period, the 20th head priest of the Nishi Hongan-ji Temple, and daisojo (a Buddhist priest of the highest order).

Koryo (a moderately carved beam like a rainbow) of Daibutsu-den Hall (the Great Buddha hall) of Todai-ji Temple (東大寺大仏殿虹梁) - Two 23.5 meter-long beams of Japanese red pine are used to support the roof of Daibutsu-den Hall of Todai-ji Temple; these two beams were carried from the Shiratori Shrine of Hyuga Province (Ebino city) to Todai-ji Temple of Yamato Province by several hundred thousand people in 1704, and it took them nine months.

Kosai (幸西) - Kosai (1163 - May 27, 1247) was a priest of the Jodo sect early in the Kamakura period.

Kosho School Jodo Shinshu (真宗興正派) - Kosho School Jodo Shinshu Sect (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) is one of the religious schools of Jodo Shinshu.

Koshu Sect (洪州宗) - The Koshu sect (Hongzhou-zong) was a sect of the Zen sect (Chan-zong) in the Tang Dynasty.

Koun (康運) - Koun (years of birth and death unknown) was a sculptor of Buddhist images at the end of the Heian period and in the early part of the Kamakura period, and a member of the Kei school of sculpture.

KOUN Ejo (孤雲懐奘) - Ejo KOUN ((1198 - September 26, 1280) was a priest of the Zen Sect in the Kamakura period.

Koyasan Shingon Sect (高野山真言宗) - Koyasan Shingon sect is one of Shingon sect that was founded in the early Heian Period by Kobo Daishi (a posthumous title of the priest Kukai) who visited China and studied Esoteric Buddhism with Keika (also called Eka) in Qinglongsi Temple (in Xian City) in Changan (Xian City) during the Tang Dynasty (China).

Kudara Kannon (wooden statue of Kannon Bosatsu [Buddhist Goddess of Mercy]) (百済観音) - Kudara Kannon is a wooden statue of Kannon Bosatsu (Buddhist Goddess of Mercy) which was made during the Asuka period (from the mid until the late seventh century) and is owned by Horyu-ji Temple in Ikaruga-cho, Nara Prefecture.

Kuden (Zushi) (宮殿 (厨子)) - Kuden is a kind of Buddhist altar case called 'Zushi' to contain a Buddhist object of worship such as a Buddhist statute, an image of patriarch, or the like.

Kudensho (口伝鈔) - "Kudensho" is a book written in 1331 by Kakunyo, who was the third chief priest of Hongan-ji Temple of the Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism).

Kueissho (倶会一処) - Kueissho is one of the benefits in the Jodo sect, regarding one's passing into the Pure Land.

Kuhon (Kyuhin) (九品) - Kuhon (Kyuhin) refers to a three-way classification of things and people's characters and each classification is divided into further three categories.

Kuhon-ji Temple (Kyoto City) (九品寺 (京都市)) - Kuhon-ji Temple, located in Higashi Kujo, Minami Ward, Kyoto City, is a temple of the Jodo (Pure Land) sect.

Kuhon-ji Temple (Nantan City) (九品寺 (南丹市)) - Kuhon-ji Temple, located in Nantan City (former Sonobe-cho, Funai County), Kyoto Prefecture, is a temple of the Omuro school of the Shingon sect.

Kujaku Myoo (the peacock king of those who hold knowledge) (孔雀明王) - Kujaku Myoo is an object of worship in Buddhism and one of the Myoo (king of wisdom) having venerable status specific to Mikkyo (Esoteric Buddhism).

Kukai (空海) - Kukai was a priest who lived in the early Heian period.

Kumano Gongen (熊野権現) - Kumano Gongen (also known as Kumano no Kami or Kumano no Okami) is a deity (Shinto) enshrined in Kumano Sanzan (three major shrines, Kumano-hongu-taisha Shrine, Kumano-hayatama-taisha Shrine and Kumano Nachi Taisha Shrine) and became to be called gongen (avatar) under Honji-suijaku thought (theory of original reality and manifested traces).

Kuon jitsujo (久遠実成) - "Kuon jitsujo" is the thought in the teachings of Hoke-kyo Sutra (the Lotus Sutra) according to which Buddha was not enlightened at the age of thirty-five but was coming from the eternal past as Buddha (the enlightened one) by Rinne Tensho (the belief that all things are in flux through the endless circle of birth, death, and rebirth, or the circle of transmigration).

Kurama kokyo (鞍馬弘教) - Kurama kokyo is a religious school that was established in October 1947 by Shigaraki Koun, the chief priest of Kurama-dera Temple who was affected by Theosophy, separating from Tendai-shu sect.

Kuri (庫裏) - Kuri (庫裏) refers to a single building among a Buddhist temple complex.

Kushibussho [classic Zen koan (small presentations of the nature of ultimate reality, usually presented as a paradox)] (狗子仏性) - Kushibussho is one of the representatives of Zen koans.

Kuya (Koya) (空也) - Kuya or Koya (903 - September 11, 972) was a priest in the mid-Heian period.

Kuyo (put offerings to Buddha, scriptures and priests) (供養) - Kuyo is a translation of the Sanskrit word Puja or Pujana, and refers to making cordial offerings of incense, flowers, tomyo (brightness of a burning lamp), food, and drink.

Kyokaku (経覚) - Kyokaku (also pronounced Gyokaku) (1395 - September 19, 1473) was a monk of the Hosso sect during the Muromachi period.

Kyonyo (教如) - Kyonyo (6 November, 1558 - 6 November, 1614) the twelfth chief priest of the Ishiyama Hongan-ji Temple.

Kyoso Hanjaku (evaluation of sutras) (教相判釈) - Kyoso Hanjaku means evaluation of Buddhist scriptures, and was practiced in regions where Buddhist scriptures using Chinese characters were used, including China, for the purpose of evaluating and interpreting Buddhist scriptures based on the height and depth of their contents.

Kyoto Conference (京都会議) - The Kyoto Conference is a common name of the conference which is held in Kyoto (Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture).

Kyoto Gozan Temples (京都五山) - Kyoto Gozan Temples refers the status of a Buddhist temple, and to the system of state-sponsored temples of the Zen sect (Rinzai sect) in Kyoto among the Five Mountain System.

Kyozuka (経塚) - Kyozuka (literally, "scriptures tomb") are burial sites where Buddhist scriptures were buried.

L

Lotus Leaf (蓮の葉) - The lotus leaf refers to the leaf of the hydrophyte called lotus, which floats on the water's surface, and is also called Kayo due to the introduction of Chinese herbal drugs.

M

Magaibutsu (Buddha statues in cliffs and rocks) (磨崖仏) - The term "Magaibutsu" refers to Buddha statues which were carved into the natural rock face or bare rock or the rock scattered on mountains including an alcove of rock face.

Mahayana Buddhism (大乗仏教) - Mahayana Buddhism is a sect of Buddhism that has been traditionally practiced in central and eastern Eurasian Continent.

Maitreya Bodhisattva in Manas in a Semi-Lotus Position (弥勒菩薩半跏思惟像) - Maitreya Bodhisattva in manas in a semi-lotus position came to Japan when Miroku (Maitreya) worship was imported from China in the sixth through the seventh centuries, and many statues created in the Asuka and Nara period still remain in Japan.

Makashikan (Mahayana Practice of Cessation and Contemplation) (摩訶止観) - Makashikan (Mahayana Practice of Cessation and Contemplation), one of the textbooks on Buddhism, is a commentary on Shikan (a type of meditation).

Makura-kyo Death Guidance (Pillow Sutra) (枕経) - Makura-kyo (also referred to as makura-gyo) is one of the services held immediately after a person's death to offer sutra chanting to the dead person for the first time.

Makyo (An Unbalanced Mental Condition That An Ascetic Of Zen Sect Of Buddhism Can Fall Into During Meditation) (魔境) - "Makyo" refers to an unbalanced mental condition of ego-swelling that results from excessive self-consciousness, into which an ascetic of the Zen Sect of Buddhism tends to fall when halfway awakened.

Mandala (曼荼羅) - Mandala (Sanskrit: mandala) means works that express sanctuary, Buddhahood and/or the world view of Buddhism visually and symbolically by means of statutes of Buddha, symbols and characters (especially those of Esoteric Buddhism).

Mangan (completion of a vow) (満願) - Mangan refers to completion of the period determined to be spent praying for Shinto or Buddhist deities or to practice asceticism.

Mansai (Manzei) (満済) - Mansai (Also known as Manzei) (1378 – July 17, 1435) was a Buddhist monk of Daigo-ji Temple (Shingon Sect) from the period of the Northern and Southern Courts through the middle of the Muromachi period.

Manshuin Temple (曼殊院) - Manshuin Temple is a Buddhist temple of the Tendai Sect that is located at Ichijo-ji Temple in Sakyo-ku Ward, Kyoto City.

MANZAN Dohaku (卍山道白) - Dohaku MANZAN (1635 - 1715) was a priest of Soto Sect in the early Edo period.

Mappo mukai (末法無戒) - Mappo mukai is the education and learning of various Nichiren schools with a concept to deny the validity of precepts in the Final Dharma Age.

Mappo-shiso (末法思想) - Mappo-shiso is a kind of Buddhist prediction philosophy under three periods which the period of 1,000 years (also said to be 500 years) after the establishment of Buddhism by Shaka is called Shobo, and the following period of 1,000 years is called Zobo and the following period of 10,000 years is called Mappo and these three periods are considered as different.

Matarashin (摩多羅神) - Matarashin (also known as Matarishin) is the principal image of the Tendai Sect, specially in the Genshi Kimyodan (a secret ceremony of the Tendai sect), and is also regarded as a guardian deity of the Amida-kyo Sutra and nenbutsu (Buddhist invocation).

Matsuji (末寺) - Matsuji is a reference to temples under the control of Honzan (head temple), but it had a different purpose when Honmatsu seido (the system of head and branch temples) was established, compared to the present day.

MATSUMOTO Myokei (松本明慶) - Myokei MATSUMOTO (1945 -) is the present-day Busshi (sculptor of Buddhist statues) who belongs to the Keiha School.

Matsunoo-dera Temple Hotokemai (松尾寺の仏舞) - The Matsunoo-dera Temple hotokemai (Buddhist dance) is a religious ritual conducted at Matsunoo-dera Temple (Maizuru City) in Maizuru City, Kyoto Prefecture.

Meihosotetsu (明峰素哲) - Meihosotetsu (1277 - May 5, 1350) was a Soto sect Buddhist monk from the late Kamakura period to the period of the Northern and Southern Courts.

Meinichi (命日) - Meinichi means a deathday, or the day of a person's death.

Mikkyo, Esoteric Buddhism (密教) - Mikkyo is an abbreviation for Himitsu Bukkyo, or esoteric Buddhism.

MINAMOTO no Kiyomitsu (源清光) - MINAMOTO no Kiyomitsu was a warrior in the late Heian period.

Miroku Bosatsu, Maitreya Bodhisattva (弥勒菩薩) - Miroku Bosatsu (Maitreya Bodhisattva in Sanskrit) is one of the Buddhas of Buddhism.

Mitsugon-in Temple (密厳院) - Mitsugon-in Temple

Mokujiki (木喰) - Mokujiki (1718 - 1810) was a Buddhist practitioner and sculptor of Buddhist statues during the late Edo period.

Mokujiki Ogo (木食応其) - Mokujiki Ogo (1536 - November 8, 1608) was a priest of the Shingon sect during the Azuchi-Momoyama period.

Mokujikiyoa (木食養阿) - Mokujikiyoa (year of birth is not clear - December 25, 1763) was a Buddhist monk of Shingon Sect in the mid-Edo period.

Mokusho-zen (a method of zazen) (黙照禅) - The term "Mokusho-zen" indicates a method of zazen (sitting meditation) in Zen Buddhism.

Mongaku (文覚) - Mongaku (1139 - September 5, 1203) was a priest of the Shingon Sect of Buddhism who lived from the Heian period to the early Kamakura period.

Monju Bosatsu (文殊菩薩) (文殊菩薩) - Monju Bosatsu, or maJjuzrii in Sanskrit, is one of the Bosatsus which is worshiped in Mahayana Buddhism.

Monkan (文観) - Monkan (1278 - November 29, 1357) was a priest who lived from the Kamakura period to the period of the Northern and Southern Courts.

Monryu (門流) - Monryu is a designation used to refer to branch schools of Nichiren's disciples who considered the Myohorenge-kyo Sutra (the Lotus Sutra) as Shobo (the true teachings of Buddha), by using the founder's name or the name of the area where the founder propagated Buddhism.

Monto (門徒) - Monto is a name one uses for comrades of the same sect.

Monto Mono Shirazu (門徒物知らず) - Monto mono shirazu' is a phrase which believers of other sects use when they criticize monto (believers) of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) as 'they don't know about the manners of Buddhism.'

Monzeki (Monseki) (門跡) - "Monzeki" or "Monseki" means the formal successor of the founder of a Buddhist sect in Japan.

Morinobo Zoryu (森坊増隆) - Morinobo Zoryu (dates of birth and death unknown) was a Buddhist monk in the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States).

Most Wicked Are the True Object of Salvation (悪人正機) - This thought is very meaningful in Jodoshinshu doctrine, meaning 'It is evil people who are the major object of salvation based on the Vow of Amida Nyorai (Primal Vow of Other Power).'

MOTOSAWA Chikuun (本沢竹雲) - Chikuun MOTOSAWA (March 26, 1836 - October 13, 1907) was a priest of Jodo Shinshu (True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) and a Japanese scholar of the Chinese classics, who founded Kakuchi gakusha (the Kakuchi school), known as 'Chonmage gakko' (the school of must-wear a Japanese topknot), located in the present Higashi Murayama-gun, Yamagata Prefecture.

Mountain Buddhism (山岳仏教) - Mountain Buddhism, a form of Buddhism for the practitioner of austerities who seeks an ascetic practice place in mountains, was begun by Saicho (767-822), the founder of the Tendai sect, Kukai (774-835), the founder of the Shingon sect, and others against the secularization of Nara Buddhism (Nanto rokushu), which had strengthened its ties with the government.

Muhoto (Stone Pagoda) (無縫塔) - Muhoto is a stone pagoda (Buddhist pagoda) mostly used as a priest's tomb tower.

Mujaku Dochu (無著道忠) - Mujaku Dochu (September 16, 1653 - January 25, 1745) was a gakuso (scholar priest) of Myoshin-ji Temple school of the Rinzai sect of Zen during the Edo period.

Mukan Fumon (無関普門) - Mukan Fumon (1212 – January 3, 1292) was a Buddhist priest of the Rinzai Sect in the mid-Kamakura Period.

Mukyoku Shigen (無極志玄) - Mukyoku Shigen (1282 - March 23, 1359) was a priest of the Rinzai Sect of Buddhism from the late Kamakura period to the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Mumonkan (Wu-wen kuan; Gateless Gate) books of the Zen sect (無門関) - Mumonkan (written as 無門関 or 無門關 in Chinese characters) is a collection of koan (questions that a master gives to a person who seeks the secret of Zen to avoid deviating from the correct way) compiled by Mumon Ekai in the Sung period in China.

Murals in the Kondo (Golden Hall) of Horyu-ji Temple (法隆寺金堂壁画) - The murals in the Kondo of Horyu-ji Temple are Buddhist paintings around the late seventh century, which were painted on the walls of the Kondo of the Horyu-ji Temple in Ikaruga Town, Nara Prefecture.

MURATA Juko (村田珠光) - Juko MURATA (1432 - June 29, 1502) was a chajin (master of the tea ceremony) in the middle of the Muromachi period.

Muryoju-kyo Sutra (無量寿経) - "Muryoju-kyo Sutra" is one of the Buddhist scriptures of Mahayana Buddhism.

Muryoju-kyo Ubadaisha Ganshogechu (the Commentary on Verses on the Aspiration to Be Born in the Pure Land) (無量寿経優婆提舎願生偈註) - Muryoju-kyo Ubadaisha Ganshogechu (the Commentary on Verses on the Aspiration to Be Born in the Pure Land) was compiled by Tanluan, a Buddhist monk in the Northern Wei dynasty (China).

Muryoju-kyo Ubataisha Ganshoge (the Verses on the Aspiration to Be Born in the Pure Land) (無量寿経優婆提舎願生偈) - "Muryoju-kyo Ubataisha Ganshoge" is a commentary on "Muryoju-kyo Bussetu Muryoju-kyo (the Sutra on the Buddha of Immeasurable Life)" compiled by Seshin, which was translated into Chinese by Bodhiruci in the Northern Wei dynasty.

Myoden-ji Temple (妙伝寺) - Myoden-ji Temple is a Buddhist temple of the Nichiren sect located in Nijo-dori sagaru, Higashi Oji-dori Street, Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City.

Myoe (明恵) - Myoe (February 28, 1173 - February 18, 1232) was a Buddhist monk of Kegon Sect in the early Kamakura period.

Myoen-ji Temple (Kyoto City) (妙円寺 (京都市)) - Myoen-ji Temple is located in Matsugasaki, Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City and is a temple of the Nichiren Sect, founded by Nichiren in 1253.

Myogaku (明覚) - Myogaku (1056-year of death unknown) was a priest of the Tendai sect in the late Heian period.

Myogo Honzon (名号本尊) - Myogo Honzon is a form of honzon (the principal object of worship at a temple) in Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism).

Myogu (明救) - Myogu (946 - August 2, 1020) was a priest of the Tendai Sect in the middle of the Heian period.

Myoho (Buddhist priest) (明法 (僧)) - Myoho (1184 - December 4, 1251) was a priest of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) who lived in the Kamakura period.

Myoho (the Supreme Dharma) (妙法) - Myoho (Saddharma in Sanskrit) means the first victorious and mysterious dharma in Buddhism.

Myoitsu (明一) - Myoitsu (728 - April 21, 798) was a Buddhist monk from the Nara period to the early Heian period.

Myoson (明尊) - Myoson (971 - July 24, 1063) was a Buddhist monk of Tendai Sect in the late Heian period.

Myoun (明雲) - Myoun (1115 - January 3, 1184) was a Tendai Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the late Heian period.

Myozen (明全) - Myozen (1184 - July 11, 1225) was a Buddhist priest of the Rinzai sect who lived in the beginning of the Kamakura period.

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Nagahama Biwako Daibutsu (長浜びわこ大仏) - Nagahama Biwako Daibutsu (Great Buddha of Nagahama Biwako) is the statue of Buddha in Ryochu-ji Temple on Mt. Heian in Nagahama City, Shiga Prefecture.

Naijin (Inner sanctuary of a shrine or a temple) (内陣) - The term "naijin" refers to a place where a honzon (a principal image of Buddha) is enshrined inside the hondo (main hall) of a temple, or where a shintai (an object of worship housed in a Shinto shrine and believed to contain the spirit of a deity) is enshrined inside the honden (main hall) of a shrine.

Namu Amidabutsu (a Single, Sincere Call upon the Name of Amida) (南無阿弥陀仏) - The 'Namu' of Namu amidabutsu is a transcription of namo (Sanskrit), meaning 'I'm becoming a believer' and 'amidabutsu' employs amita (Sanskrit) is abbreviated from 'amitaayus (Great Buddha with infinite longevity)' and 'amitaabha (Great Buddha with infinite light),' meaning 'immeasurable' in Sanskrit.

Namu-myoho-renge-kyo (南無妙法蓮華経, 'Glory to the Sutra of the Lotus of the Supreme Law' mantra). (南無妙法蓮華経) - 南無妙法蓮華経 is read as "Nam-myoho-renge-kyo".

NANPO Bunshi (南浦文之) - Bunshi NANPO (1555 - October 25, 1620) was a priest of the Rinzai Sect from the Azuchi-Momoyama period to the early Edo period.

Nanpo Shomyo (南浦紹明) - Nanpo Shomyo (1235 - February 17, 1309) was a priest of the Rinzai sect in the Kamakura period.

Nanto Rokushu (南都六宗) - Nanto Rokushu' (also called 'Nanto Rikushu') is the general term of the six Buddhist sects which flourished mainly in Heijo-kyo (the capital of Japan in the Nara period) in the Nara period.

Nehan-e (Memorial service for the anniversary of Buddha's Nirvana) (涅槃会) - Nehan-e, also referred to as Nehan-ko or Nehan-ki, is a Buddhist memorial service practiced in Japan and China on February 15 in the Chinese lunar calendar, the day when Shakyamuni entered Nirvana (died), to remember the illustrious memory of Shakamuni and repayment of a kindness.

Neko-dera (cat temple) (猫寺) - Neko-dera is the common name for temples deeply linked to cats that exist all over Japan.

NENAMI Jion (念阿弥慈恩) - Jion NENNAMI (dates of birth and death unknown) was a swordsman and Zen monk in the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan) and the Muromachi period.

Nenbutsu-ko (念仏講) - Nenbutsu-ko means kochu, which is the gathering for nenbutsu chanting by lay believers of Japanese Buddhism.

Nenbutsu-odori (念仏踊り) - Nenbutsu-odori is a kind of dance where the dancing and singing are performed by different people, and can be distinguished from odori nenbutsu which is performed by a single person who dances and chants a Buddhist sutra at the same time.

Nenbutsuichie (念仏一会) - Nenbutsuichie means repeating a Buddhist invocation, i.e. Namu Amidabutsu (a single, sincere call upon the name of Amida).

Nenge Misho (拈華微笑) - The Nenge misho (heart-to-heart communication (lit: holding a flower and subtly smiling) tradition is a Zen legend that holds that, Zen teachings extend from a linage that goes back to the sage Shakyamuni.

Nenki (年忌) - Nenki is an anniversary of the death of a person.

Nenku (然空) - Nenku (year of birth unknown - August 30, 1297) was a priest of the Jodo sect of the Kamakura period.

Nicchin (日鎮) - Nicchin (1469 to June 24, 1527 (old lunar calendar)) was the 12th head priest of Taiseki-ji Temple.

Nichia (日阿) - Nichia (? - March 10, 1407) was the seventh head priest of Taiseki-ji Temple.

Nichien (日延) - Nichien (year of birth and death unknown) was a priest of the Tendai sect in the mid Heian period.

Nichiga (日我) - Nichiga (1508 - December 21, 1586) was a Buddhist monk of Hokkeshu sect during the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States).

Nichiho (日甫) - Nichiho (1607 - 1698) was a Nichiren sect priest in the early Edo period and master of tatebana (standing flowers).

Nichiin (日院) - Nichiin (1518 - August 16, 1589) was the 13th head priest of Taiseki-ji Temple.

Nichijo (日静) - Nichijo (1298 - August 8, 1369) was a priest of the Nichiren/Hokke sect who lived during the period of Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Nichiju (日什) - Nichiju (June 11, 1314 - February 28, 1392) was a Nichiren sect priest in the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Nichiju (日重) - Nichiju (1549 to 1623) was a Nichiren sect priest from the Azuchi-momoyama to the early the Edo period.

Nichiko (日こう) - Nichiko (1532 - 1598) was a monk of Nichiren Sect in the Azuchi-momoyama period.

Nichio (日奥) - Nichio (July 5, 1565 - April 22, 1630) was a Nichiren sect priest from the Azuchi-momoyama to the early Edo period.

Nichiren chant (題目) - The Nichiren chant is the words of Namu Myohorenge-kyo, which are recited in the Buddhist religious services held by religious organizations such as Nichiren and the Hoke-kyo Sutra sect.

Nichiren Hon Sect (日蓮本宗) - Nichiren Hon Sect, whose sect founder was Nichiren and school founder was Nisson of Fujimon School, is a school that inherits Nichiren's teachings.

Nichiren Sect (日蓮宗) - The Nichiren sect is a Buddhist sect founded by Nichiren in the Kamakura period.

Nichiren Shoshu Sect (日蓮正宗) - Nichiren Shoshu Sect is one of the religious schools of Buddhism which had Nichiren as the founder of a religious sect, and was founded by Nikko.

Nichiryu (Honmon School of Hokke Sect) (日隆 (法華宗本門流)) - Nichiryu (1385 - 1464) was a Nichiren sect priest in the middle of the Muromachi period.

Nichiryu (of the Honmon Hokke Sect) (日隆 (本門法華宗)) - Nichiryu (1385 - April 10, 1464) was a mid Muromachi-period Buddhist monk of the Nichiren Sect.

Nichishin (Hokke sect Shinmon school) (日真 (法華宗真門流)) - Nichishin (1444 - April 18, 1528) was a priest of the Nichiren sect of the middle of the Muromachi period.

Nichiu (日有) (日有) - Nichiu (May 18, 1402 - November 10, 1482) was a priest during the mid Muromachi period who was the head of Taiseki-ji Temple from 1419 to 1467 and again from 1472 to 1482.

Nichiyo (日誉) - Nichiyo (1556 - January 1, 1641, Japan) was a Shingon Sect priest in the Edo period.

Nichizo (日像) - Nichizo (September 14, 1269 - December 19, 1342) was a Buddhist priest of the Nichiren sect who lived from the late Kamakura period to the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Nichizon (日尊) - Nichizon (1265 – 1346) was a disciple of Nikko.

Nihon Daruma Sect (日本達磨宗) - Nihon Daruma Sect is a school of the Zen Sect which Nonin DAINICHIBO founded.

Nihon Ojo Gokuraku-ki (日本往生極楽記) - "Nihon Ojo Gokuraku-ki" (Japanese-version collection of memoirs of persons who became Buddha) refers to ojoden (stories of the attainment of rebirth in the Pure Land) compiled by YOSHISHIGE no Yasutane (year of birth unknown - 1002) in the middle Heian period.

Nijuyohai (二十四輩) - Nijuyohai refers to the 24 top disciples of the Buddhist monk Shinran when he propagated the Buddhist faith in the Kanto region, as well as the temples worshiping these disciples as founders.

Nika Sojo Documents (二箇相承) - Nika Sojo are documents which were believed to be addressed from Nichiren to his disciple, Nikko, in 1282.

Nikken (日乾) - Nikken (1560 - December 6, 1635) was a Buddhist monk of Nichiren Sect in the Azuchi-momoyama period to the early Edo period.

Nikko (日講) - Nikko (April 23, 1626 - April 20, 1698) was a Buddhist monk of Nichiren Sect in the early Edo period.

Nikon no tokudo (耳根の得道) - Nikon no tokudo refers to attain Nirvana and salvation (Jodo (completing the path to becoming a Buddha by attaining enlightenment)) by listening to the chanting of Myohorenge-kyo Sutra (the Lotus Sutra).

Ningai (仁海) - Ningai (951 - June 22, 1046) was a Shingon Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the mid-Heian period.

Ninjitsu (仁実) - Ninjitsu (1091-July 11, 1131) was a priest of the Tendai sect in the late Heian period.

Ninkaku (仁覚) - Ninkaku (1045 - April 17, 1102) was a priest of the Tendai Sect during the latter part of the Heian period.

Ninkan (仁寛) - Ninkan (birth date unknown - 1114) was the founder of the Tachikawa School (Esoteric Buddhism).

Nippo Soshun (日峰宗舜) - Nippo Soshun (1368 - March 10, 1448) was a priest of the Rinzai Sect from the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan) to the middle of the Muromachi period.

NISHIMURA Kocho (西村公朝) - Kocho NISHIMURA (June 4, 1915 - December 2, 2003) was a busshi (sculptor of Buddhist Statues), Buddhist Statues repair specialist, and Buddhist priest.

Nissei (日政) - Nissei (March 23, 1623 - March 30, 1668) was a Buddhist monk of the Nichiren sect and a poet of Chinese poetry who lived in the early Edo period.

Nisshin (日親) - Nisshin (1407 - October 30, 1488) was a priest of the Nichiren Sect in the Muromachi period.

Nisshin (日禎) - Nisshin (1561 - 1617) was a high priest of the Nichiren sect of Buddhism during the periods of Warring States (in Japan) and Azuchi-Momoyama period.

Nisshin (of the Nichiren Sect of Buddhism) (日真 (日蓮宗)) - Nisshin (1565 - May 17, 1626) was a monk of the Nichiren Sect of Buddhism from the Azuchi-Momoyama period to the Edo period.

Nissho (日昌) - Nissho (1562 to May 17, 1622) was the 15th head priest of Taiseki-ji Temple.

Nissho (Fujufuse school) (日正 (不受不施派)) - Nissho (1829 - 1908) was a priest of the Nichiren sect (Fujufuse school) of the end of the Edo period to the Meiji period.

Nisshu (日主) - Nisshu (January 8, 1556 to September 16, 1617) was the 14th head priest of Taiseki-ji Temple.

Noen (能円) - Noen (1140-1199) was a Buddhist monk who lived at the end of the Heian period.

Nokotsudo (A Japanese Ossuary) (納骨堂) - A nokotsudo is the building in which the remains of cremation are kept.

Nyoho (如宝) - Nyoho (731 - February 19, 815) was a Ritsu sect monk from China through the Nara period to the Heian period.

Nyoirin Kannon (如意輪観音) - Nyoirin Kannon, cintaamaNicakra in Sanskrit, is a venerable entity of Bosatsu, Bodhisattva, and is worshipped in Buddhism.

Nyonin Kinsei (No Women Admitted) (女人禁制) - "Nyonin Kinsei (No Women Admitted)" means forbiddance for women to enter shrines and temples, reijo (sacred ground), ceremonial sites and others, as well as the limitation to unobstructed cultivation and worship by men.

Nyoshin (a Japanese Buddhist monk of the Jodo Shinshu school) (如信) - Nyoshin was a priest of Jodo Shinshu (the Pure True Land school of Buddhism) from the middle to the end of the Kamakura Period.

Nyujo (入定) - Nyujo is one of the ultimate ascetic practices of Shingon Esoteric Buddhism.

Nyushutsu Nimonge (入出二門偈) - The term "Nyushutsu Nimonge" refers to a gatha (geju) (poetic verse of a scripture) written by Shinran.

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Obaku Sect (黄檗宗) - The Obaku sect is a sect of Buddhism in Japan and one of the Zen sects, after the Rinzai and Soto sects.

Oeshiki (お会式) - Oeshiki means Daihoe (great Buddhist memorial service) (a festival) that is held on the anniversary of sects' founders etc.

Official introduction of Buddhism (仏教公伝) - The expression "Official introduction of Buddhism" refers to the introduction of Buddhism through official negotiation between nations.

Ofumi (letters) (御文) - The term "Ofumi" refers to letters of sermons written in kana by Rennyo, the eighth chief priest of Hongan-ji Temple of Jodo Shinshu Buddhism, which were dispatched to followers throughout the country as a means of propagation.

Ojo (往生) - Ojo is a methodology for becoming a Buddha, as defined by the Mahayana Buddhism.

Ojoyoshu (The Essentials of Salvation) (往生要集) - Ojoyoshu is a Buddhism book in one part and three volumes compiled in 985 by Genshin (priest), a Sozu (the Prelate) in Eshinin Temple at Yokawa on Mt. Hiei, in which he collected important passages relating to gokuraku ojo (the Pure Land of Amitabha where the dead are allowed to live peacefully), extracting from many sources such as Buddhist scriptures and instructions in terms of the Jodo Sect.

OK (長勢) - Chosei was a "busshi" (a sculptor of Buddhist statues) in the middle of the Heian period, whose birth year was 1010 (birth date unknown) and death date was December 27, 1091.

OK (坊官) - Bokan is an organization which was in charge of the household management of the supreme leader of a temple (betto [administrator of a Buddhist temple] or sango [three monastic positions with management roles at a temple]) and so on, or the monks who belonged to such an organization in and after the Heian period.

Omi Saigoku Sanjusankasho (近江西国三十三箇所) - Omi Saigoku Sanjusankasho (the 33 temples in Omi Province of Saigoku [provinces in Kinki region]) refers to 33 sacred places enshrining Kannon for pilgrimage and are located in present Shiga Prefecture.

OMORI Zenkai (大森禅戒) - Zenkai OMORI (1871- February 4, 1947) was a priest of the Soto Sect who had lived from the Meiji period to the Showa period.

Omuro School of the Shingon Sect (真言宗御室派) - The Omuro School of the Shingon ("True Word") sect is one of the Shingon sect schools in Japan and belongs to the Kogi (old) Shingon sect.

Onaibutsu (a Buddhist altar) (御内仏) - Onaibutsu is a Buddhist altar, or a principal image enshrined in it.

Onan oshi (横難横死) - Onan (横難) oshi (横死) means to die in an unforeseen disaster or to die an unnatural death.

ONISHI Ryokei (大西良慶) - Ryokei ONISHI (December 21, 1875 - February 15, 1983) was a Hosso Sect Buddhist monk who served as head priest of Kiyomizu-dera Temple in Kyoto and in his later years was also renowned for holding the record as the oldest person in Japan.

Onriedo (abhorrence of living in this impure world) (厭離穢土) - "Onriedo (also called Enriedo)," a term associated with the Jodo (Pure Land) sect, is often used to express an antithesis with Gongujodo (seeking rebirth in the Pure).

Oryoki (応量器) - Oryoki is tableware, as used by an individual ascetic of the Zen sect of Buddhism.

Osen Keisan (横川景三) - Osen Keisan (1429 - December 25, 1493) was a Zen monk (Rinzai sect) in the middle to late Muromachi period.

Oso-eko (往相回向) - Oso-eko (Amida's instructions on virtue for entering the Pure Land) is one of Jodo Shinshu's (the True Pure Land Buddhist Sect) important doctrines and corresponding term to Genso-Eko (Amida's instructions on virtue for returning to this world).

OTANI Eijun (大谷瑩潤) - Eijun OTANI (1890-May 23, 1973) was a priest of the Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) of Buddhism

OTANI Ennei (大谷演慧) - Ennei OTANI (November 14, 1914 - January 28, 2008) was a priest of Jodo shinshu sect (True Pure Land Sect Buddhism).

OTANI Koei (大谷光瑩) - Koei OTANI was a monk of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) who lived from the Meiji period to the Taisho period.

OTANI Koen (大谷光演) - Koen OTANI (February 27, 1875 - February 6, 1943) was a Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) monk who was the 23rd Hossu (head priest) of the Otani School of the Jodo Shinshu.

OTANI Koshin (大谷光真) - Koshin OTANI (August 12, 1945 -) is the 24th Monshu (the chief priest) of the Hongan-ji school of the Jodo Shinshu sect and the head priest of the religious corporation Hongan-ji Temple.

OTANI Kosho (大谷光照) - Kosho OTANI (November 1, 1911 - June 14, 2002) was a Japanese religious figure.

OTANI Koson (大谷光尊) - Koson OTANI (March 17, 1850 - January 18, 1903) was a priest of the Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) and the 21st hoshu (head priest) of the Nishi Hongan-ji Temple who lived from the end of the Edo period to the early part of the Meiji period.

OTANI Kozui (大谷光瑞) - Kozui OTANI (December 27, 1876 – October 5, 1948) was a religionist and an explorer of Japan.

Otani Mausoleum (大谷本廟) - Otani mausoleum is a graveyard in Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture where the grave of Shinran, the founder of the Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) is located.

Otani Sobyo Mausoleum (大谷祖廟) - Otani Sobyo Mausoleum is the grave of Shinran, the founder of the Shinshu sect Otani school (Higashi Hongan-ji Temple), which is located in Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture.

OTANI Sonyu (大谷尊由) - Sonyu OTANI (August 19, 1886 - August 1, 1939) was a priest and statesman of Jodo shinshu (the True Pure Land sect of Buddhism).

Otani-byodo Mausoleum (大谷廟堂) - The Otani-byodo was the mausoleum of Shinran who was the founder of Jodo Shinshu sect

OZEKI Soen (尾関宗園) - Soen OZEKI (1932 -) is the head priest of the Daisen-in sub-temple of Daitoku-ji Temple.

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Pedestal (台座) - The pedestal is the table on which to place a Buddha statue or an image sculpture.

Priest-Imperial Prince Shoshin (性信入道親王) - Priest-Imperial Prince Shoshin (July 1, 1005 - October 18, 1085) was a member of the Imperial Family and monk in the mid Heian period.

Priestly Imperial Prince Dojo (道助入道親王) - Priestly Imperial Prince Dojo (November 7, 1196 - February 28, 1249) was a Priestly Imperial Prince of the early Kamakura period.

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Raigo (頼豪) - Raigo (1002 - 1084) was a Japanese monk of the Tendai sect in the mid Heian period.

Raigo (来迎) - In the Jodo (Pure Land) sect of Buddhism, Raigo means Amida Nyorai (Amitabha Tathagata), who is riding on the colorful clouds together with various bosatsu and tennin (heavenly beings), coming to see a person who is about to die in order to take him or her to the heavens, and who is served by Kannon Bosatsu (Kannon Buddhisattva) and Seishi Bosatsu on the side.

Raigo-in Temple (Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto City) (来迎院 (京都市東山区)) - Raigo-in Temple (Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto City) is a Buddhist temple of the Sennyu-ji school of the Shingon Sect.

Raigo-in Temple (Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City) (来迎院 (京都市左京区)) - Raigo-in Temple, located in Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City, is a temple of the Tendai sect.

Raiyu (頼瑜) - Raiyu (1226 - February 7, 1304) was a Shingon Sect Buddhist monk who lived from the mid- to late-Kamakura period.

Rakkei (落慶) - Rakkei (落慶) refers to celebration of new construction or the completion of repairs to temples and shrines.

Ranbakeishi (蘭坡景し) - Ranbakeishi (1417 – March 17, 1501) was a Buddhist priest of the Rinzai sect between the mid-Muromachi and Sengoku periods (Period of Warring States).

Rankei Doryu (蘭渓道隆) - Rankei Doryu (1213 - August 13, 1278) was a Zen priest and the founder of the Daikaku-ha school who came to Japan from China at the time of the Southern Sung Dynasty in the middle of the Kamakura Period.

Rankoku Genjo (蘭谷元定) - Rankoku Genjo (1653 - May 31, 1707) was a priest of the Rinzai sect Obaku school of the early Edo period.

Reigan (霊巌) - Reigan (May 9, 1554 - October 15, 1641) was a priest of the Jodo sect of the early Edo period.

Reijo (Sacred Places) (霊場) - A reijo is a place where human souls are said to gather after death.

Reiku (霊空) - Reiku (1652 - November 4, 1739) was a Tendai Sect priest in the middle of the Edo period.

Rengo (蓮悟) - Rengo (1468 - August 26, 1543) was a priest of Jodo Shinshu sect (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) over the middle of the Muromachi period and the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States).

Renjo (蓮乗) - Renjo (1446 - March 17, 1504) was a monk of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) during the middle of Muromachi period and up to the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States) (Japan).

Renjun (蓮淳) - Renjun (1464 - October 8, 1550) was a priest in the Muromachi period and the Sengoku period (period of warring states).

Renko (蓮綱) - Renko (1450 - December 6, 1531) was a priest of Jodo Shinshu sect (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) from the mid Muromachi period to the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States).

Renkyo (蓮教) - Renkyo (1451 - July 5, 1492) was a priest of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) (the Koshoji School of Jodo Shinshu Sect) in the Sengoku period (period of warring states) (Japan).

Rensei (蓮誓) - Rensei (1455 - September 17, 1521) was a priest of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) who lived from the mid Muromachi period to the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States).

Richu-nyoo (理忠女王) - Richu-nyoo (September 26, 1641 - October 9, 1689) was a Buddhist nun of the early Edo period.

Rinju (臨終) - Rinju is the time immediately before one dies.

Rinkyu-ji Temple (林丘寺) - The Rinkyu-ji Temple is an independent temple of the Rinzai sect at Shugakuin, Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City.

Rinsen-ji Temple (臨川寺) - Rinsen-ji Temple is a Buddhist temple belonging to the Rinzai Sect Tenryuji School located in Ukyo Ward, Kyoto City.

Rinzai Zen Buddhism (臨済宗) - That is not a transmission based on words (logos).

Rinzo (輪蔵) - Rinzo means a type of sutra warehouse that is built within a Buddhist temple.

Rishu-kyo (Principle of Wisdom Sutra) (理趣経) - "Rishu-kyo" is the Buddhist scriptures of Esoteric Buddhism, which is Part Six of 'Kongocho-kyo' (Vajrasekhara Sutra).

Risshu Sect (律宗) - Risshu sect is one the sects of Buddhism which research and practice commandments.

Rokudo (六道) - Rokudo is a Buddhist term and it means six posthumous worlds to which the souls of the dead transmigrate.

Rokudo Chinno-ji Temple (六道珍皇寺) - Rokudo Chinno-ji Temple is a Buddhist temple belonging to the Rinzai Sect Kenninji School located in Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto City,

Rokuji-Raisan (六時礼讃) - Rokuji-Raisan is a Pure Land Sect Buddhist memorial service.

Rokujo Madenokoji Bussho (六条万里小路仏所) - Rokujo Madenokoji Bussho was a Buddhist sculpture workshop that operated in the Heian period.

Rokusai Nenbutsu (六斎念仏) - Rokusai Nenbutsu is one of Odori Nenbutsu (chanting of prayers while dancing).

Rokusodankyo (Platform Sutra) (六祖壇経) - The rokusodankyo (Platform Sutra) is one of the Buddhist scriptures and is a collection of preaching by Eno, the rokuso (sixth leader) of the Chinese Zen sect.

Ryakko shugyo (countless kalpas of practice to reach enlightenment in Buddhism) (歴劫修行) - Ryakko shugyo is the ascetic practices which a bodhisattva (one who vows to save all beings before becoming a Buddha) does for a long period of time while being reincarnated over and over for three generations, past, present, and future.

Ryaku kataginu (Buddhist stall worn around the neck) (略肩衣) - Ryaku kataginu is a hogu (ritual implements) that followers of Shinshu sect Otani school dangle from their neck as a ceremonial dress before the altar of a temple.

Ryoankeigo (了庵桂悟) - Ryoankeigo (1425 - October 3, 1514) was a Buddhist monk of Rinzai Sect in the mid-Muromachi period and Sengoku period (Period of Warring States) (Japan).

Ryochu (良忠) - Ryochu (August 20, 1199 - August 16, 1287) was a Jodo sect Buddhist monk during the middle of the Kamakura period.

Ryoen (良円) - Ryoen (August 24, 1179 - February 26, 1220) was a priest of Kofuku-ji Temple during the late Heian period through the early Kamakura period.

Ryoen (Tendai sect) (良円 (天台宗)) - Ryoen (983 - July 1050) was a Buddhist priest of the Tendai sect during the mid Heian period.

Ryogen (良源) - Ryogen (912 - January 31, 985) was a priest of the Tendai Sect who was active in the Heian period.

Ryoginan (龍吟庵) - Ryoginan is a temple of the Tofuku-ji Temple school of the Rinzai sect, located in Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture, and is tatchu (sub-temple on the site of the main temple) of Tofuku-ji Temple.

Ryohen (Shingon sect) (良遍 (真言宗)) - Ryohen (1150 - September 7, 1232) was a priest of the Shingon sect of the late Heian period to the Kamakura period.

Ryokai-mandala (Mandala of the two Realms) (両界曼荼羅) - Ryokai-mandala is a mandala which visually depicts the truth and the state of enlightenment that is advocated by Dainichi Nyorai (Mahavairocana), principal Buddha in Esoteric Buddhism.

Ryoken (亮賢) - Ryoken (1611 - April 18, 1687) was a Shingishingon sect monk during the early Edo period.

Ryoko (良弘) - Ryoko (born in 1142; year of death unknown) was a priest of the Ono school of the Shingon Sect during the late Heian period.

Ryonen (了然) - Ryonen (1646 - October 29, 1711) was a Buddhist nun of the Obaku Sect who lived from the early Edo period to the mid-Edo period.

Ryonin (良忍) - Ryonin (February 26, 1073 ? - February 26, 1132) was a Buddhist priest of Tendai Sect in the late Heian period and the founder of Yuzu Nenbutsu (Buddhist invocation) Sect.

Ryonyo (良如) - Ryonyo (January 27, 1613 - October 18, 1662) was a Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) priest in the early Edo period.

Ryoshonyudo Shinno (良尚入道親王) - Ryoshonyudo Shinno (January 16, 1623 - August 6, 1693) was the Monzeki (head priest of temple who was a member of the Imperial Family) of Kyoto Manju-in Temple in the early Edo period.

Ryuhon-ji Temple (立本寺) - Ryuhon-ji Temple, located in Kamigyo Ward, Kyoto City, is one of the original temples (with a long historical lineage) of the Nichiren sect of Buddhism.

Ryukan (隆寛) - Ryukan (1148 - January 21, 1228) was a Jodo sect priest from the late Heian period to the early Kamakura period.

Ryukei Shosen (龍渓性潜) - Ryukei Shosen (September 15, 1602 - October 6, 1670) was a priest of the Obaku Sect in the early Edo period.

Ryusan Tokuken (龍山徳見) - Ryusan Tokuken (1284 - December 22, 1358) was a priest of the Rinzai Sect from the late Kamakura period to the period of the Northern and Southern Courts.

Ryushu Shutaku (龍湫周沢) - Ryushu-shutaku (1308 - October 17, 1388) was a Buddhist priest of the Rinzai Sect in the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (in Japan).

Ryuzen (隆禅) - Ryuzen (1038 - August 21, 1100) was a Hosso sect Buddhist monk in the late Heian period.

S

Saigoku Aizen Junana Reijo (a term relating to reijo sacred places) (西国愛染十七霊場) - Saigoku Aizen Junana Reijo is the comprehensive name for seventeen reijo (sacred places) that enshrine Aizen Myoo (Ragaraja) in Osaka, Hyogo, Okayama, Kyoto, Shiga, Mie, Nara, and Wakayama Prefectures.

Saishin (済信) - Saishin (also called Seijin) (March 12, 954 - July 14, 1030) was a monk of Shingon sect in the mid Heian period.

SAITO Tokiyori (斉藤時頼) - Tokiyori SAITO (year of birth and death unknown) was a samurai in the late Heian period.

Samue (作務衣) - A samue is a garment that a zen (Buddhist) monk wears when he performs samu, or duties such as daily sutra chanting, and the cleaning of the precincts of the temple.

Sanborai (三宝礼) - Sanborai is a gemon taken from Zunshi Jodosangangi.

Sanbujo (三奉請) - Sanbujo is a gemon taken from Hojisan (Hymns of the Pure Land Ritual).

Sandai Soron (三代相論) - Sandai Soron is a general name for a religious conflict in the Soto sect, which started in 1267 and lasted for about 50 years.

Sandaihiho: the Three Great Secret Dharmas (三大秘法) - Sandaihiho (the Three Great Secret Dharmas) comprises the fundamental dharmas in Buddhism by Nichiren and consists of Honmon no Honzon (the Object of Veneration of the Essential Teachings of the Lotus Sutra), Honmon no Kaidan (the Platform for the Receipt of the Precepts and Place of Practice of the Essential Teachings of the Lotus Sutra) and Honmon no Daimoku (the Sacred Title of the Essential Teachings of the Lotus Sutra).

Sange (to scatter flowers) (散華) - Sange means as follows.

Sangege (懺悔偈) - Sangege is a gemon taken from Shijukegon Fugengyoganbon.

Sanichigonjitsu no soron (三一権実諍論) - Sanichigonjitsu no soron refers to the disputes during the period from around 817 through 821 on Buddhism between Tokuitsu (his date of birth and death unknown) who was a Buddhist priest in Hosso sect of Buddhism (Japanese equivalent of the Chinese Faxiang sect) and Saicho (767 – 822) who was the founder of Nihon Tendai sect.

Sanji Chion-ji Temple (三時知恩寺) - Sanji Chion-ji Temple, located in Kamigyo Ward, Kyoto City, is a temple (nunnery) of the Jodo (Pure Land) sect.

Sanjo Bussho (三条仏所) - Sanjo Bussho was a Buddhist sculpture workshop that was located in Kyoto's Sanjo-dori Street in the mid Heian period.

Sanjo-wasan (Three Books of Buddhist Hymns written in Japanese) (三帖和讃) - "Sanjo-wasan" is a collective term for Jodo-wasan (hymns of the Pure Land school), Koso-wasan (hymns about high-ranked priests), and Shozomatsu-wasan (hymns about three stages of the history of Buddhism), all of which were written in Japanese by Shinran.

Sanko-ji Temple (三鈷寺) - The Sanko-ji Temple is a temple of the Seizan sect in Oharano, Nishikyo Ward, Kyoto City.

Sanmai (三昧) - Sanmai (三昧, transcription of Samādhi) means the ultimate state of mental concentration attained through zen, in the case of Buddhism, or through meditation, in the case of Hinduism.

Sanmon (large triple gate to temple) (三門) - The term Sanmon refers to a gate located in front of a temple.

Sanmon and Yamato (山門) - Sanmon

Sanno Shinko (山王信仰) - Sanno Shinko is a belief of Shinto originated from Hiyoshi Taisha shrine at the foot of Mt. Hiei (Otsu City, Shiga Prefecture).

Sanpo-e (a Japanese literary collection of Buddhist narratives) (三宝絵詞) - Sanbo-ekotoba is a collection of Buddhist tales compiled in the middle of the Heian period.

Sanpokojin (三宝荒神) - Sanpokojin (or also called sanbokojin) is one of the Buddhist beliefs peculiar to Japan.

Sanposon (三宝尊) - Sanposon (also pronounced as Sanboson) is the honzon (principal image of Buddha) of the Hokke sect and Nichiren Sect of Buddhism.

SANYO Genkitsu (三要元佶) - Genkitsu SANYO (1548 - June 19, 1612) was a Zen priest who was active during the period from the Azuchi-Momoyama period to the early Edo period.

SATA Kaiseki (佐田介石) - Kaiseki SATA (May 12, 1818 to December 9, 1882) from Higo Province was a Jodo Shinshu sect monk of Hongan-ji school (In his later years, he was a Tendai sect monk) from the end of the Edo period to the beginning of Meiji period.

Satori: Enlightenment (悟り) - Satori (悟り: enlightenment) means that one learns, becomes aware of or notices what one hasn't known; another Kanji (覚り), whose meaning is similar to awakening, is sometimes used.

Seated Statue of the Rushana-butsu (the Birushana Buddha) in the Todai-ji Temple (東大寺盧舎那仏像) - The seated statue of the Rushana-butsu in the Todai-ji Temple is a Buddha statue generally known as the 'Great Buddha of Nara.'

Segaki (施餓鬼) - Segaki is a title of a Buddhist mass.

Seicho no Ie Uji Bekkaku Honzan (生長の家宇治別格本山) - Seicho no Ie Uji Bekkaku Honzan is the bekkaku honzan (special head temple) of Seicho no Ie, which is centered around Hozo-jinja Shrine in Uji City, Kyoto Prefecture.

Seijun (清順) - Seijun (year of birth unknown - May 2, 1566) was a nun of the Rinzaishu sect in the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States).

Seiryu Gongen (Seiryo Gongen) (清瀧権現) - Seiryu Gongen (清瀧権現), or Seiryo Gongen, is a guardian goddess of Daigo-ji Temple, the grand head temple of the Shingon sect Daigo-ha branch in the Fushimi Ward of Kyoto City.

Seishi Bosatsu (勢至菩薩) - Seishi Bosatsu, Bon name: mahaasthaamapraapta, is a Bosatsu in Buddhism.

Seizan-Fukakusa school of the Jodo Sect (浄土宗西山深草派) - Seizan-Fukakusa school of the Jodo Sect is one school of the Jodo Sect, whose head temple is the Seigan-ji Temple in Nakagyo Ward, Kyoto City.

Seki Bokuo (関牧翁) - Seki Bokuo (1903 - 1991) was a priest of the Rinzai Sect in Japan.

Seki Seisetsu (関精拙) - Seki Seisetsu (1877 - 1945) was a Zen priest of the Rinzai Sect who lived from the Meiji period to the Showa period.

Sekisen school (石泉学派) - Sekisen school is one of the schools under Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) Hongan-ji school.

Sekishu no koe (The voice of one hand clapping) (隻手の声) - Sekishu no koe' or sekishuonjo (The sound of the one hand) was one of the representative Koans of Zen, invented by Hakuin.

Sekizanzenin Temple (赤山禅院) - Sekizanzenin Temple, located at Shugakuin, Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City, is a temple of the Tendai sect.

Sekko Soshin (雪江宗深) - Sekko Soshin (1408 - July 12, 1486) was a priest of the Rinzai Sect from the middle of the Muromachi period to the Sengoku period (period of warring states) (Japan).

Sena (宣阿) - Sena (1647 - November 6, 1735) was a waka poet during the mid Edo period.

Senchaku hongan nenbutsu shu (A Collection of Passages on the Nembutsu Chosen in the Original Vow) (選択本願念仏集) - "Senchaku hongan nenbutsu shu" is a treatise in two volumes comprising sixteen chapters written by Honen in 1198 on the request from Kanezane KUJO, who was a Kanpaku (chief adviser to the Emperor).

Sengaku (仙覚) - Sengaku was a learned priest pursuing his studies priest of the Tendai sect in the early Kamakura period.

Senju Kannon (Thousand-Armed Goddess of Mercy) (千手観音) - Senju Kannon, sahasrabhuja aaryaavalokitezvara in Sanskrit, is a venerable entity of Bosatsu, Bodhisattva, which is worshipped in Buddhism.

Senkan (千観) - Senkan (918-January 23, 984) was a priest of the Tendai Sect in the mid Heian period.

Sentei (専貞) - Sentei (1660 - September 25, 1698) was a priest of the early Edo period.

Sesshin (接心) - Sesshin (接心) is sometimes described as 攝(摂)心, and it means concentration of a confused heart.

Sesshu (雪舟) - Known as Sesshu (1420 - 1506), he was an ink painter and Zen monk active in the Muromachi period in the latter half of the 15th century, and was called a master painter.

Sesson Yubai (雪村友梅) - Sesson Yubai (1290 - January 14, 1347) was a Zen monk of the Rinzai Sect who lived from the late Kamakura period to the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Setsuna (ephemeral) (刹那) - Setsuna is one of the Buddhist concepts of time and is the briefest unit of time in Buddhism.

Seven Patriarchs (七高僧) - The seven patriarchs are the seven high priests selected by Shinran, the founder of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism).

Shadow of death (死相) - The shadow of death is described as follows:

Shaka Sanzon (釈迦三尊) - Shaka Sanzon is a style in Buddhism for installing Buddha images.

Shakanyorai (釈迦如来) - Shakanyorai (Shikyajirai or Shakamuni-butsu) is a title of respect for Shaka (Kudonshittaruta, Gautama Siddhaartha in Sanskrit, Gotama Siddhatthaa in Pali), a founder of Buddhism, as Buddha.

SHAKU Soyen (釈宗演) - Soyen SHAKU (January 10, 1860 - November 1, 1919) was a priest of the Rinzai sect of Buddhism during the Meiji and Taisho periods.

Shakubuku (折伏) - Shakubuku is an abbreviation of hashaku-kupukku.

Shakunyo (綽如) - Shakunyo was a monk of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) during the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Shakyo (copying of a sutra) (写経) - Shakyo is a Buddhist practice to copy Buddhist scriptures, and it also means Buddhist scriptures that have been copied.

Shibosatsu (四菩薩) - Shibosatsu (shi means four), means four Bosatsu literally, is a combination of Bosatsu as the object of worship or construction of statues in the Buddhism.

Shibujo (四奉請) - Shibujo is a gemon taken from Hoshozenshi Goehojisan.

Shichijo Bussho (Shichijo Sculpture Workshop) (七条仏所) - Shichijo bussho was a sculpture workshop of the Keiha school of sculptures in Shichijo Street, Kyoto.

Shichijo Omiya Bussho (七条大宮仏所) - Shichijo Omiya Bussho was a Buddhist sculpture workshop that operated in the Heian period.

Shiga-in Temple (滋賀院) - Shiga-in Temple, a temple of the Tendai sect located in Sakamoto, Otsu City, Shiga Prefecture, s a honbo (a priest's main living quarters) (Sosatobo) of Enryaku-ji Temple on Mt. Hiei.

Shigisan Shingon sect (信貴山真言宗) - The Shigisan Shingon sect is a Shingon set that worships Bishamonten (Vaisravana; also called Tamonten) and its Grand Head Temple is Chogosonshi-ji Temple (Shigisan-ji Temple).

Shijokobuccho (熾盛光仏頂) - Shijokobuccho, prajvalosniisa in Sanskrit, is a kind of Buddha that is a deified protuberance on the top of the skull of a Nyorai (tathagata), i.e., a form of usniisa.

Shika (知客) - Shika is one of the positions in a Zen temple.

Shika Kakugen (Nichiren's Four Criticisms) (四箇格言) - Shika (or Shiko) Kakugen (or Shika no Kakugen) (Four Criticisms) refers to the criticisms expressed by Nichiren, the founder of Nichiren Buddhism, against other Buddhist sects that existed in his time.

SHIMAJI Mokurai (島地黙雷) - Mokurai SHIMAJI (March 10, 1838 - February 3, 1911) was a priest of the Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) Hongan-ji school who actively worked in the Meiji period.

SHIMOTSUMA Rairyu (下間頼龍) - Rairyu SHIMOTSUMA (1552 - June 15, 1609) was a priest of the Otani family in the age of the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States) (Japan).

SHIMOTSUMA Raitan (下間頼旦) - Raitan SHIMOTSUMA (year of birth unknown - 1574) was a monk and busho (Japanese military commander) of the Otani family who lived during the Sengoku period (Japan).

SHIMOTSUMA Shinrai (下間真頼) - Shinrai SHIMOTSUMA (1513 - July 15, 1552) was a bokan (a priest who served the family of a monzeki (the head priest of the head temple of a sect, formerly led by the founder of the sect)), who served the Otani family.

Shinbutsu (真仏) - Shinbutsu (March 17, 1209 - April 13, 1258) was a Pure Land Sect Buddhist priest in the mid-Kamakura period.

Shinen (信円) - Shinen (1153 - January 6, 1225) was a Buddhist priest of Kofuku-ji Temple from the end of the Heian period to the early Kamakura period.

Shinga (真雅) - Shinga (801 - February 1, 879) was a priest of the Shingon sect of Buddhism during the early Heian period.

Shingi (清規) - Shingi (Monastic regulations in the Zen Sect), which is formally called Shojodaikaishu kikujunjo, is the regulations of a group of the Zen sect (a sect of Buddhism).

Shingi Shingon sect (新義真言宗) - The Shingi Shingon sect is a school of the Shingon sect (whose founding father was Kobo-daishi Kukai), and this school is connected to Raiyu, a high-ranking Buddhist priest of the Kakuban school, which followed the teachings of Kogyo Daishi Kakuban, who brought about the revival of the Shingon sect.

Shingon (親巌) - Shingon (1150 - December 8, 1236) was a Shingon Sect priest who lived from the late Heian period to the early Kamakura period.

Shingon (literally, 'truthful utterances') (真言) - The term "shingon" or "Sanskrit mantra" refers to sacred utterances, derived from Mikkyo scriptures (Esoteric Buddhism scriptures) such as Daibirushana Jobutsu Jinbenkaji-kyo Sutra (Mahavairocana Sutra).

Shingon Risshu Sect (真言律宗) - Shingon Risshu sect is one sect which practices the commandments of Vajrayana based on the dharma of Shingon Esoteric Buddhism.

Shingon Sect (真言宗) - The Shingon sect is a Buddhist sect of Japan that was founded by Kukai (Kobo Daishi) in the early ninth century.

Shingon Sect Daikakuji School (真言宗大覚寺派) - The Shingon Sect Daikakuji School is one of the schools of the Shingon Sect of Buddhism in Japan and is part of the Kogi Shingon (Old Shingon) Sect.

Shingon sect Sennyu-ji School (真言宗泉涌寺派) - Shingon sect Sennyu-ji school is one of the Shingon line Buddhist schools that belongs to the Kogi Shingon school (Old Shingon school).

Shingon Sect Yamashina School (真言宗山階派) - The Shingon sect Yamashina school is a Buddhist school of the Shingon lineage in Japan, classified into the Kogi (old) Shinshu sect.

Shingonshu Juhachi Honzan (真言宗十八本山) - Shingonshu juhachi honzan is an organization consisting of the 18 Head Temples of schools in the Shingon sect.

Shingyo (真興 (僧)) - Shingyo (935 - December 7, 1004) was a Buddhist monk of the Hosso and Shingon sects during the middle Heian period.

Shinjitsu (信実) - Shinjitsu (years of birth and death unknown) was a monk at the end of the Heian period.

Shinkan (真観) - Shinkan (1275 - July 16, 1341) was a Ji sect priest from the end of the Kamakura period to the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Shinkei (心敬) - Shinkei (1406 - May 29, 1475) was a Buddhist priest of the Tendai Sect and also a renga poet (linked-verse poet) in the middle of the Muromachi period.

Shinku (Jodo sect) (信空 (浄土宗)) - Shinku (1146 - October 15, 1228) was a priest of the Jodo sect from the latter Heian period through the early Kamakura period.

Shinku (Shingon Ritsushu sect) (信空 (真言律宗)) - Shinku (1231 - February 28, 1316) was a Buddhist monk of the Shingon Ritsushu sect in the late Kamakura period.

Shinnyo sanmayaryu (真如三昧耶流) - Shinnyo sanmayaryu is one of the religious schools of the Shingon sect, which was made famous by Daigo-ji Temple, Sohonzan (the head temple of a Buddhist sect) of the Daigo school of the Shingon sect, but it's also the system of teachings of the Buddhist Shinnyoen himself.

Shinnyo-ji Temple (Kita Ward, Kyoto City) (真如寺 (京都市北区)) - Shinnyo-ji Temple, located in Tojiin Kitamachi, Kita Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture is a temple of the Shokoku-ji Temple school of the Rinzai sect.

Shinnyosanmayado (真如三昧耶堂) - Shinnyosanmayado was built by Daigo-ji Temple, Sohonzan (the head temple of a Buddhist sect) of the Daigo school of the Shingon sect in 1997, in order to solemnly display the righteous behavior of Shinjo ITO, who was the founder of the sect of a religious corporation of Shinnyoen Buddhism.

Shinran (親鸞) - Shinran was a Japanese Buddhist monk in the early Kamakura period.

Shinsei (真盛) - Shinsei (March 8, 1443 - - April 4, 1495) was a priest of the Tendai sect during the Sengoku period (period of warring states).

Shinsho (真紹) - Shinsho (797 - August 7, 873) was a priest of the Shingon Sect in the early part of the Heian period.

Shinsho (真性) - Shinsho (1167 - August 1, 1230) was a priest of the Tendai Sect from the latter part of the Heian period to the early part of the Kamakura period.

Shinshu sect Otani-ha (真宗大谷派) - The Shinshu sect Otani-ha is one of the groups of Jodo Shinshu sect.

Shinzan shiki (晋山式) - Shinzan shiki refers to a ceremony when a new chief priest comes into a temple.

Shinzei (真済) - Shinzei (800 - March 25, 860) was a Shingon Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the first part of the Heian period.

Shinzen (真然) - Shinzen (804 - October 21, 891) was a Shingon Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the first part of the Heian period.

Shippan (実範) - Shippan (unknown – October 15, 1144) was a monk during the late Heian period.

Shisenin Kosen (司箭院興仙) - Shisenin Kosen (year of birth and death unknown) was busho (Japanese military commander), yamabushi (a mountain priest) and Buddhist monk in the Sengoku period (the period of warring states.)

Sho Kannon (聖観音) - Sho Kannon, aarya avalokitezvara in Sanskrit is a venerable entity of Bosatsu, Bodhisattva, which is worshipped in Buddhism.

Shobo (聖宝) - Shobo (832 - July 30, 909) was a Shingon Sect priest in the early Heian period.

Shobo-ji Temple (Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto City) (正法寺 (京都市東山区)) - Shobo-ji Temple, located in Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto City, is a temple of the Ji sect.

Shobo-ji Temple (Saikyo Ward, Kyoto City) (正法寺 (京都市西京区)) - Shobo-ji Temple, located in Saikyo Ward, Kyoto City. is a temple of the To-ji school of the Shingon sect.

Shobo-ji Temple (Yawata City) (正法寺 (八幡市)) - Shobo-ji Temple is a temple of the Jodo (Pure Land) sect, located in Yawata City, Kyoto Prefecture.

Shobogenzo (a Zen-related book) (正法眼蔵) - A Shobogenzo is a Buddhist philosophy-related book written by a Zen priest.

Shodo-mon (Gateway of the Holy Path) (聖道門) - Shodo-mon (Gateway of the Holy Path) is the religious doctrine preaching to become a Buddha by self-power through various practices.

Shoji-ji Temple (勝持寺) - Shoji-ji Temple is a Buddhist temple belonging to the Tendai Sect located in Nishikyo Ward, Kyoto City.

Shojin Otoshi (the end of maigre days) (精進落とし) - Shojin Otoshi originally referred to shifting from maigre meals back to normal meals after the completion of chuin (a period of mourning lasting seven weeks).

Shojin ryori (Vegetarian dishes) (精進料理) - We will introduce two kinds of Shojin ryori here; one are Shojin ryori derived from Buddhism and the other are Shojin ryori that are categorized as one of Japanese cuisine.

Shoju (to embrace and spread the correct teaching) (摂受) - Shoju is an antonym for Shakubuku (to correct another's false views and awaken that person to the truth of Buddhism).

Shokaku (勝覚) - Shokaku (1057 - April 21, 1129) was a Buddhist monk of Shingon sect in the late Heian period.

Shoken (勝賢) - Shoken (March 30, 1138 - July 19, 1196) was a Shingon Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the mid-Heian period.

Shoko (焼香) - Shoko refers to burning incense in Buddhism.

Shoko (a percussion instrument) (鉦鼓) - A shoko is a percussion instrument used in gagaku (Japanese court dance and music), and is the only metal musical instrument used in gagaku.

Shoko-ji Temple (Kyoto City) (勝光寺 (京都市)) - Shoko-ji Temple is a temple of the Nichiren sect, located in Shimogyo Ward, Kyoto City.

Shoku (證空) - Shoku (or Nishiyama, 1177 - December 31, 1247) was the founder of the Seizan Jodo sect, Seizan Zenrin-ji School of the Jodo sect and Seizan Fukakusa School of the Jodo sect.

Shomyo (Invocation of the Buddha's Name) (称名) - Shomyo means the invocation of the name(s) of the Buddha and/or Bodhisattva.

Shomyo Nenbutsu (称名念仏) - Shomyo Nenbutsu is one practice of praying to the Buddha (nenbutsu (Buddhist invocation)), and is a way to chant the name of the Buddha such as 'namuamidabutsu.'

SHONAN Soke (湘南宗化) - Soke SHONAN (year of birth not known (around 1586) - 1637) was a priest of the Myoshin-ji Temple of the Rinzai sect in the Azuchi-Momoyama Period and the Edo Period.

Shonen (称念) - Shonen (1513 - August 27, 1554) was a Buddhist monk of the Jodo Sect in the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States) (Japan).

Shonin (上人) - "Shonin" is a term of respect for a high priest in Buddhism.

Shonyo (証如) - Shonyo (December 23, 1516 - September 19, 1554) was a priest of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) during the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States).

Shorin-in Temple (勝林院) - Shorin-in Temple, a temple of the Tendai sect, is located to the north of Ohara Sanzen-in Temple, Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City.

Shoryodana (shelf with ancestral tablet and altarage in the Bon festival) (精霊棚) - Shoryodana is a shelf placed to welcome the ancestors and spirits in the Bon festival, which is a conventional event in Japan.

Shoryoe (聖霊会) - Shoryoe refers to Daihoyo (major Buddhist memorial service) for the anniversary of Prince Shotoku's death.

Shoshin (性信) - Shoshin (1187 - August 16, 1275) is a Buddhist priest of the Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) who lived during the middle of the Kamakura period.

Shoshin Nenbutsuge (正信念仏偈) - Shoshin Nenbutsuge' is a Gemon (poetic writing in Buddhism, usually honoring its principles and Buddha) included at the end of 'Gyo no maki' in "Ken jodo shinjitsu kyogyosho monrui" (Selected passages revealing the true teaching, practice and attainment of the Pure Land), written by Shinran.

Shoshu (聖守) - Shoshu (1215 - December 26, 1291) was a priest of Todai-ji Temple in the mid Kamakura Period

Shoshun (承俊) - Shoshun (year of birth unknown - January 9, 906) was a priest of the Shingon sect in the early to the mid Heian period.

Shotoku sect (聖徳宗) - Shotoku sect is one of Japanese Buddhism sect for which Horyu-ji Temple in Ikaruga-cho, Ikoma-gun, Nara Prefecture is Sohonzan (Grand Head temple).

Shoyakumon (摂益文) - Shoyakumon is a gemon included in Kanmuryoju-kyo shaku.

Shoyoroku (a Buddhist book) (従容録) - Shoyoroku is a Buddhist book from the era of the Sung dynasty in China.

Shozan (諸山) - Shozan means the rank of temple 'Zenrin', temples of the Zen sect in Japan, which is under the ranks of 'Gozan' and 'Jussatsu.'

Shubin (守敏) - Shubin (dates of birth and death unknown) was a monk in the early Heian period.

Shubun (周文) - Shubun (the years of his birth and death was unknown) was a Zen priest and artist-monk in the middle of the Muromachi period.

Shue (集会) - Shue refers to the council or self-governing body for decision-making of the Buddhist priests in the temples in medieval Japanese temples.

Shuei (宗叡) - Shuei (809 - April 29, 884) was a Shingon Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the first part of the Heian period.

Shuen (修円) - Shuen (771 - July 16, 835) was a Hosso Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the first part of the Heian period.

Shugei Shuchiin School (綜芸種智院) - It is said that the Shugei Shuchiin school was a private facility established by Kukai on January 27, 829, at the residence in Sakyo Kujo in Kyoto, which had been received from FUJIWARA no Mimori, for the purpose of educating the common people and providing comprehensive education in various liberal arts.

Shugendo (a term relating to religions in Japan) (修験道) - Shugendo is a Japan-specific Konko-shukyo (a religion combining Buddhism, Shintoism and other religions) whose objective is to do ascetic practice while confining oneself in the mountains, in order to obtain various shirushi (evidence) which indicate that certain practice levels have been reached.

SHUHO Myocho (宗峰妙超) - Myocho SHUHO (1282 - January 21, 1338) was a priest of Rinzai Sect in the last Kamakura period.

SHUHO Yuki (秀峰尤奇) - Yuki SHUHO (the date of birth unknown - August 1372) was a Zen priest of the Rikkyoku school of Tofuku-ji Temple who was active during the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Shujukudatsu (種熟脱) - "Shujukudatsu" is also known as "Sanyaku" (The Three Stages of Benefit).

Shukongo-shin (執金剛神) - Shukongo-shin is a Buddhist Goho zenjin (good deities protecting dharma) and is also referred to as Kongoshu and Jikongo.

Shukubo (宿坊) - Shukubo is a form of lodging for priests who are conducting ascetic practices, mainly in Buddhist temples.

Shukuzen (宿善) - Shukuzen is one of the words used in the doctrine of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism).

Shumidan (須弥壇) - Shumidan is an altar to place a principal image in Buddhist temples, which is one step higher than other places and is used to place Buddha statues and other figures.

Shumon aratame (the inquisition for suppressing Christianity) (宗門改) - Shumon aratame was religion policy and the control of the public promoted by the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

Shumon aratame-yaku (an officer in charge of the persecution of Christians) (宗門改役) - Shumon aratame-yaku is one of law enforcement posts set up in the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) and in all the domains.

Shumon Ninbetsu Aratame Cho (The Village People Register of Religious Faith and Relationship) (宗門人別改帳) - Shumon Ninbetsu Aratame Cho refers to a register created in the Edo period, which is equivalent to a modern household register.

Shungyo (俊堯) - Shungyo (1118 - 1186) was a Buddhist priest at the end of the Heian Period.

Shuni-e (Omizu-tori or Sacred Water-drawing Festival) (修二会) - Shuni-e refers to one of hoe (Buddhist mass) conducted in Japanese Buddhist temples, which is also called Shunigatsu-e.

Shunjo (俊じょう) - Shunjo (September 6, 1166 - April 25, 1227) was a priest in the former Kamakura period.

Shunkai (俊海) - Shunkai (date of birth and death unknown) was a Shingon sect priest who lived from the end of the Heian period to the early Kamakura period.

Shunkan (俊寛) - Shunkan (1143 - April 17, 1179) was a priest of the Shingon sect of Buddhism in Japan, who lived during the latter Heian period.

SHUNOKU Myoha (春屋妙葩) - Myoha SHUNOKU (1311 - November 9, 1388) was a Zen priest of the Rinzai sect in the Muromachi period.

Shunoku Soen (春屋宗園) - Shunoku Soen (1529 - 1611) was a priest of the Rinzai Sect who lived from the Azuchi-Momoyama period to the beginning of the Edo period.

Shuon-an Temple (酬恩庵) - Shuon-an Temple, located in Kyotanabe City, Kyoto Prefecture, is a temple of Rinzai sect's Daitoku-ji school.

Shuso (首座) - Shuso is a name for the position of the leader of ascetic monks in Zen sects.

Shusseken (出世間) - "Shusseken" means something transcends "Seken," which refers to all the existence of the world corrupted by evils such as earthly desires.

Shuto (衆徒) - The term "shuto," for which "doshu" is also used, is a term from after the Heian period that referred to the status of a priest who originally resided in a big temple and was in charge of the management and practical business of the temple as well as studying and practicing ascetic training.

So-do Hall (僧堂) - A so-do hall is a temple building dedicated to the communal living of practitioners (monks) and the promotion of ascetic practices.

Sobutsuge (送仏偈) - Sobutsuge is a gemon by which to send a soul to where it should reside.

Sogi (Funeral ceremony) (葬儀) - Sogi (funeral ceremony) or Soshiki (funeral ceremony) is a part of Saigi (ceremony) or Sosei (funeral system) to mourn the passing of the deceased.

Sogo (僧綱) - Sogo refers to the profession of Sokan (official positions given to Buddhist priests by Imperial Court) to manage Buddhist priests and nuns in Japan.

Sohei (僧兵) - The term Sohei means samurai (warriors) with the appearance of priests who were active from the Medieval Period until the early modern ages.

Soi (rank of Buddhist priest) (僧位) - Soi (rank of Buddhist priest) is the Ikai (Court rank) assigned to Buddhist monks in Japan.

Sokuhi Nyoitsu (即非如一) - Sokuhi Nyoitsu (June 27, 1616 - June 26, 1671) was a priest of the Obaku School (Obaku Sect) Rinzai Sect, and came from the Ming Dynasty in China in the early part of the Edo period.

Sokuikanjo (即位灌頂) - Sokuikanjo is a ritual of Esoteric Buddhism conducted in an enthronement ceremony for the emperor from the 11th or 13th century up to the Edo period and its contents were treated as a secret ceremony.

Soncho (尊長) - Soncho (year of birth unknown - 1227) is a Buddhist monk in the early Kamakura period.

Songyu (存牛) - Songyu (July 22, 1469 - January 17, 1550) was a Jodo Sect priest who lived from the middle of the Muromachi period to the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States) (Japan).

Soni (尊意) - Soni is part of Buddhist terminology that means listening to the precious views of a priestly mentor.

Soniryo (僧尼令) - Soniryo was a division of the Japanese ritsuryo code.

Sonjun Hosshinno (尊純法親王) - Sonjun Hosshinno (December 1, 1591 - June 21, 1653) was a Buddhist monk of Tendai Sect in the early Edo period.

Sorin (metal pinnacle on the top of a pagoda) (相輪) - Sorin refers collectively to a metal pinnacle built on the roof of a five-storied pagoda, etc., which rises heavenward.

Sorin-ji Temple (Kyoto City) (雙林寺 (京都市)) - Sorin-ji Temple, located in Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto City, is a temple of the Tendai sect.

Sorin-ji Temple (Kyoto City) (双林寺 (京都市)) - The Sorin-ji Temple is a temple of the Tendai sect in Yamashina Ward, Kyoto City.

Soroku (僧録) - Soroku was a position that existed in Japan following the middle ages responsible for religious human affairs such as the registration and appointment of head priests

Soshiki-Bukkyo (葬式仏教) - Soshiki-Bukkyo' (literally, 'funeral Buddhism') refers to a way of belief in which people conduct Buddhist funerals and Buddhist memorial services while being rarely involved in Buddhist activities and in Buddhist doctrines in their daily lives.

Sotan (宗湛) - Sotan (1413 - 1481) was an artist-monk in the middle of the Muromachi period.

Soto Sect (曹洞宗) - The Soto sect is one of the five Zen sects of China (Rinzai, Igyo, Soto, Unmon and Hogen) and one of the five Zen sects (Nihon Daruma, Rinzai, Soto, Obaku and Fuke) in Japan.

Sotoba (卒塔婆) - Sotoba is the Japanese transliteration of the Sanskrit word "stupa."

Stone Buddhist Image (石仏) - The term "stone Buddhist image" is a collective term of the Buddhist image carved in stone and the image of a deity such as Doso-shin (traveler's guardian deity), and it has a variety of sizes ranging from small one which is seen in the precincts of temples and shrines and on roadsides, to Usuki Magaibutsu (A Buddhist image carved into the surface of natural rock such as a cliff face, a large rock, or a stone cave) and other Magaibutsu carved in a large rock such as Ajanta Caves and Ellora Caves in India, Yungang Grottoes and Longmen Caves in China.

Suden (崇伝) - Suden (1569 - February 28, 1633) was a priest of the Rinzai Sect and a politician serving the Tokugawa shogunate from the Azuchi-Momoyama period to the Edo period.

Sugyoroku (Record of the Mirror of the Essential Teaching) (宗鏡録) - Sugyoroku is a book of the Buddhism theory compiled in 100 volumes by Enju EIMIN, the monk who lived during the times between Wu-yueh in the Chinese Godai Jikkoku era and early Northern Sung Dynasty period.

Sukuyodo (a type of astrology) (宿曜道) - The term "Sukuyodo" refers to a kind of astrology which was brought to Japan as a part of the Esoteric Buddhism by priests who studied abroad such as Kukai in the Heian period.

T

Taa (他阿) - Taa (1237 - February 18, 1319) was a Ji Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the latter part of the Kamakura period.

Tachikawa-ryu school (a school of Esoteric Buddhism founded by Ninkan) (立川流 (密教)) - The Tachikawa-ryu school is a school of Esoteric Buddhism founded by Ninkan in the Kamakura period and perfected by Monkan in the period of the Northern and Southern Courts.

Taho Nyorai (多宝如来) - Taho Nyorai (Buddha of Many Treasures who is depicted in the Lotus Sutra) is one of the Nyorai (Tathagata), an object to worship in Buddhism.

Tahoto (多宝塔) - Tahoto (literally, "multiple-treasure pagoda") represent an architecture of pagodas, which are religious buildings in Asia.

Taichu (袋中) - Taichu (February 23, 1552 - February 23, 1639) was a Jodo sect priest in the early Edo period.

Taigaku Shusu (太岳周崇) - Taigaku Shusu (1345 - October 27, 1423) was a priest of the Rinzai Sect of Buddhism from the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan) to the middle of the Muromachi period.

TAIGEN Sessai (太原雪斎) - Sessai TAIGEN or Sufu TAIGEN (1496 - November 23,1555) was a vassal of the Imagawa clan.

Taihan (泰範) - Taihan (778-?) was an early Heian period Buddhist monk of the Shingon sect.

Taikoan (退耕庵) - Taikoan is tatchu (sub-temple on the site of the main temple) of Tofuku-ji Temple, which is the Daihonzan (head temple of a Buddhist sect) of the Rinzai sect, Tofuku-ji Temple school, located in Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto City.

Taimitsu (台密) - Taimitsu is Esoteric Buddhism (Buddhism handed down secretly from general people) handed down by the Tendai Sect.

Taishakuten (帝釈天) - Taishakuten is one of the Tenbu, deities of Buddhism who reside in a heavenly realm, this being one of six realms in which the souls of living beings transmigrate from one to another.

TAKUAN Soho (沢庵宗彭) - Soho TAKUAN (January 3, 1574 - January 27, 1646) was a priest of the Rinzai Sect who was active in the Edo period.

Takuhatsu (托鉢) - Takuhatsu (pindapata in Sanskrit) is one of the forms of ascetic practice for monks of Ancient Indian religions, including Buddhism and Jainism, and it is an ascetic practice to make monks go around the homes of believers, beg for the least amount of food and so on required, and let the believers earn merit.

Tan-luan (曇鸞) - Tan-luan was a Buddhist monk who lived during the period of the Northern and Southern Dynasties in China.

Tango Daibutsu (丹後大仏) - Tango Daibutsu (Great Buddha) is a large statue of Buddha in Honzaka, Ine-cho, Yosa-gun, Kyoto Prefecture.

Tannisho (歎異抄) - "Tannisho" (Notes Lamenting Deviations) is a Buddhist book written in the later Kamakura period.

Tenbu (Celestial Beings) (天部) - Tenbu (deva in Sanskrit) means deities of Buddhism.

Tendai Jimon Sect (天台寺門宗) - Tendai Jimon Sect is one of the Mahayana Buddhist sects.

Tendai Sect (天台宗) - Tendai Sect is a sect of Mahayana (greater vehicle) Buddhism.

Tendai-zasu (天台座主) - Tendai-zasu (head priest of the Tendai sect) is a post that serves as the resident priest of Enryaku-ji Temple on Mt. Hiei, the head temple of the Tendai sect, exercising general supervision over all of its sub-temples.

Tenjikugoshoja (天竺五精舎) - Tenjikugoshoja is five vihara (monasteries or temples) of early Buddhism in the ancient India.

Tenkai (天海) - Tenkai (1536 to November 13, 1643) was a monk of Tendai Sect in the Azuchi-momoyama period to the early Edo period.

Tenkirin (天気輪) - Tenkirin (also called tenkibashira or goshouguruma) is a poll made with stone or wood having a wheel built in it which is placed at the entrance of a temple or a graveyard.

Tenzo (典座) - Tenzo is one of the positions in a Zen temple.

TERAMOTO Enga (寺本婉雅) - Enga TERAMOTO (1872 - 1940), born in Kaito-gun, Aichi Prefecture, was a priest of Higashi Hongan-ji Temple and the third Japanese who entered Tibet.

Terauke Seido (寺請制度) - Terauke seido was a system introduced in 1664, during the early modern age, by the Edo shogunate in order to ban Christianity and the belief of Fujufuse Group (Not Receive and Not Give Group), and to force the believers to convert.

Terauke shomon (寺請証文) - Terauke shomon was a certificate issued by Buddhist temples to danka (supporter of a Buddhist temple) in order to prove that they were actually the danka of the relevant temple under the Terauke seido (the system in which the public should be registered in any one of the designated temples to prove their Buddhist faith) in Edo period.

TETSUGEN Doko (鉄眼道光) - Doko TETSUGEN (February 12, 1630 - April 27, 1682) was a Zen priest of the Obaku School in the early Edo period.

TETSUGYU Doki (鉄牛道機) - Doki TETSUGYU (August 25, 1628 - October 2, 1700) was a Zen priest of the Obaku School in the early Edo period.

Tettsugikai (徹通義介) - Tettsugikai (February 18, 1219 - October 18, 1309) was a Buddhist monk of Soto Sect in the mid-Kamakura period.

Thirty-Six Fudo Temples in the Kinki Region (近畿三十六不動尊) - The designation "Thirty-Six Fudo Temples in the Kinki Region" denotes 36 sacred sites that enshrine Fudo-son (Fudo Myoo (Acala, one of the Five Wisdom Kings)) in the prefectures of Osaka, Hyogo, Kyoto, Wakayama, Shiga and Nara.

To-ji Choja (東寺長者) - To-ji Choja is the chief abbot of To-ji Temple (Kyoogokoku-ji Temple), and acts as its manager and Kami (director).

To-ji school of the Shingon sect (真言宗東寺派) - The To-ji school of the Shingon sect is a Buddhism school of the Shingon sect in Japan.

To-ji Temple Shingon Sect (東寺真言宗) - The To-ji Temple Shingon sect is a Buddhist sect in Japan classified into the Kogi Shingon (Old Shingon) sect.

Togan Ean (東巌慧安) - Togan Ean (1225 - December 6, 1277) was a priest of the Rinzai Sect of Buddhism in the mid Kamakura period.

Tokudo (得度) - Tokudo is a ceremony in Buddhism to enter into priesthood.

Tomitsu (東密) - Tomitsu is Esoteric Buddhism that has been passed down in Shingon Buddhism.

Tonan-in Temple (Nara City) (東南院 (奈良市)) - Tonan-in Temple is the main temple of the Shingon Sect considered to have been located to the southeast of Todai-ji Temple (which is around the present Todaiji Library).

Torin-in Temple (東林院) - Torin-in Temple is one of the sub-temples of Myoshin-ji Temple of the Rinzai sect.

TOSANOBO Shoshun (土佐坊昌俊) - Shoshun TOSANOBO (1143 - November 26, 1185) was busho (Japanese military commander) as well as a Buddhist priest in the last Heian period.

Toshi (historiography) (燈史) - Toshi is a term generally used to represent history books of the Buddhism, specifically, that of the Zen Sect.

Tosu (lavatory) (東司) - Tosu is a lavatory in Buddhist temples.

Tsugenjakurei (通幻寂霊) - Tsugenjakurei (1322 - June 7, 1391) was a Soto sect Buddhist monk during the period of the Northern and Southern Courts.

Tsuisetsu Tsuimin (追説追泯) - The expression "tsuisetsu tsuimin" (literally meaning "re-exposition and re-effacement") is a Japanese Buddhist term that refers to an interpretation given to "the Nirvana Sutra" from the perspective (represented by the Tendai sect and Nichiren sect of Buddhism) that regards the Lotus Sutra as the fundamental sutra that brings salvation to the whole world.

TSUNODA Mugen (角田無幻) - Mugen TSUNODA (year of birth unknown - 1809) was a calligrapher in the Edo era.

Tsuya (Wake) (通夜) - A tsuya is a ritual held throughout the night before the day of the funeral.

U

Ukimi-do (浮御堂) - Ukimi-do is a Buddhist temple of the Kaimonzan Mangetsu-ji Temple, which belongs to the Rinzai sect Daitokuji school, and it is located on a pier extending out into Lake Biwa at katata, Otsu City, Shiga Prefecture.

UNSHO Priest Ikkei (雲章一慶) - Priest Ikkei UNSHO (June 17, 1386 - February 20, 1463) was a priest of the Rinzai Sect in the mid Muromachi Period.

Urabon festival (a Buddhist festival) (盂蘭盆) - The term urabone (ullambana) refers to the last day of an ango practice (the three-month intensified practice of Zen Buddhism), on July 15th in the old calendar, but urabone is mostly used to indicate a memorial service offered for ancestors' souls to relieve severe sufferings on that day.

V

W

Wakei Seijaku (和敬清寂) - Wakei Seijaku (literally meaning harmony, respect, purity and tranquility) is a slogan emphasized in Sado (Japanese tea ceremony), which is particularly respected in the House of Sen through the 'Shiki' (Four Principles of Tea) as laid down by SEN no Rikyu.

Wasan (和讃) - Wasan means an anthem sung in Japanese to praise Buddha, Bosatsu, Soshi (founder of a sect), ancient virtue, Buddhist scriptures, creed, etc.

Wesak Celebration (ウェーサーカ祭) - Wesak is a Buddhist celebration conducted once a year. (Cambodia:Visaka Bochea,India, Bangladesh, Nepal: Visakah Puja, Buddha Purnima or Buddha Jayanti,Thailand: Visakha Bucha,Vietnam:Phật Đản,Indonesia:Waisak,Sri Lanka and Malaysia:Vesak (Wesak),Chinese language areas:fó dàn,Tibet:Saga Dawa,Laos:Vixakha Bouxa)

X

Y

Yakozen (野狐禅) - Yakozen is an evil kind of zen that resembles real Zen but is completely different from the real thing.

Yakuseki (薬石) - Yakuseki means dinner in Zen sect.

Yakushi Nyorai (薬師如来) - Yakushi Nyorai, bhaiSajya-guru in Sanskrit, is a Nyorai of Mahayana Buddhism.

Yakushi sanzon, Yakushi triad (薬師三尊) - Yakushi sanzon, or Yakushi triad, is one of the styles to place Buddhist images in Buddhism.

Yakushiji Kichijoten zo (the Statue of Kichijoten at Yakushi-ji Temple) (薬師寺吉祥天像) - Yakushiji Kichijoten zo is a portrait of Kisshoten (Laksmi) from the Nara period and is a possession of the Yakushi-ji Temple in Nara prefecture.

Yakushin (益信) - Yakushin (827 - April 8, 906) was a Shingon sect priest in the former Heian period.

Yamabushi (山伏) - Yamabushi is a practitioner of Shugendo (Japanese mountain asceticism/shamanism incorporating Shinto and Buddhist concepts) who earnestly walks in the mountains as an ascetic practice.

Yamabushi Shinko (山伏信仰) - Yamabushi Shinko is a belief from the ancient times in Japan, regarding divine spirits that live in the mountains.

YAMADA Etai (山田恵諦) - Etai YAMADA (December 1, 1895 - February 22, 1994) was a Buddhist priest of the Tendai sect in Japan.

Yokan (a priest) (永観 (僧)) - Yokan (or Eikan) (1033 - December 11, 1111) was a priest of Sanron sect (The Three-Discourse Sect of Buddhism) in the later Heian period.

Yokei (余慶) - Yokei (919 - April 5, 991) was a Buddhist monk of Tendai Sect in the mid-Heian period.

Yokoku-ji Temple (楊谷寺) - Yokoku-ji Temple, located in Nagaokakyo City, Kyoto Prefecture, is a temple of the Seizan Jodo sect.

YOSHIDA Kenko (吉田兼好) - Kenko YOSHIDA (1283 - c. May 14, 1350) was a Japanese author and poet in the Kamakura period through the Northern and Southern Courts period (Japan).

YOSHIMOTO Ishin (吉本伊信) - Ishin YOSHIMOTO May 25, 1916 - August 1, 1988) was the founder of Naikanho (or Naikan Therapy; one of the psychotherapies).

Yua (由阿) - Yua (1291 - c.1379) was a Ji Sect Buddhist monk and Manyo scholar who lived from the latter part of the Kamakura period to the Northern and Southern Courts period.

Yuizen (唯善) - Yuizen (1253-March 23, 1317) was a priest of the Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) in the late Kamakura period.

Yukai (宥快) - Yukai (1345 - August 10, 1416) was a Shingon Sect priest scholar who lived from the Northern and Southern Courts period (Japan) to the mid-Muromachi period.

Yuzu Nenbutsu sect (融通念仏宗) - Yuzu Nenbutsu sect is one of the sects of pure land teachings, Jodo-kyo.

Z

Zafu (座蒲) - Zafu is a zabuton (Japanese cushions used to sit on the floor) used for zazen (Zen sitting meditation).

Zao Gongen (蔵王権現) - Zao Gongen is a venerable entity worshipped in Buddhism in Japan.

Zasu (temple's head priest) (座主) - Zasu

Zazen (坐禅) - Zazen (meditation) is a fundamental method of training in Zen Buddhism, in which one meditates sitting with correct posture.

Zazenwasan (坐禅和讃) - Zazenwasan is the commentary on the nature and purpose of Zazen in Japanese which used to be written in classical Chinese and the easy explanation to understand for people.

ZEKKAI Chushin (絶海中津) - Chushin ZEKKAI (December 9, 1334 - May 3, 1405) was a Buddhist monk from the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan) to the early years of the Muromachi period.

Zen (禅) - Zen (the Zen sect) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism which is regarded as having been established in China after being transmitted from India by Daruma (Bodhidharma).

Zencho (禅頂) - Zencho means the mountaintop, particularly the peak, of a sacred mountain.

Zengen Shosenshu Tojo (Commentary of the Ch'an-yuan-chu-ch'uan-chi tu-hsu) (禅源諸詮集都序) - Zengen Shosenshu Tojo is the preface 'Tojo' of "Zengen Shosenshu" (lost book), a collection of words and geju (hymns in honor of doctrine, Buddha and bodhisattva) used by various schools of Zen, compiled by Shumitsu KEIHO who was a monk in the Tang Dynasty period in China and only this part remains in existence today.

Zenji (Zen Master) (禅師) - Zenji is an honorific title for venerable Zen monks used in China and Japan.

Zenjo (禅定) - Zenjo (dhyaana in Sanskrit, jhaana in Pali) is to meditate and observe the truth while focusing one's mind.

Zenjodo (禅定道) - Zenjodo is the mountain path that leads to zencho (the peak of a sacred mountain).

Zennyo (善如) - Zennyo was a monk of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) during the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Zenshin (全真) - Zenshin (1151 - the year of death unknown) was a monk of Tendai sect in the end of Heian period.

Zenshu (善珠) - Zenshu (also known as Zenju, 723 - May 25, 797) was a Buddhist priest who lived from the Nara period to the beginning of the Heian period.

Zokumyojyuho (贖命重宝) - Zokumyojyuho means treasured heirloom to atone life and indicates the teachings in "Nehan-gyo Sutra" (The Sutra of The Great Nirvana) defined by Tendai Daishi Chigi.

Zomyo (増命) - Zomyo (843 - December 12, 927) was a Tendai Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the first part of the Heian period.

Zonkaku (存覚) - Zonkaku was a Buddhist priest of Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) who lived from the late Kamakura period to the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

Zonnyo (存如) - Zonnyo (1396 to July 9, 1457) was a priest of the Jodo Shinshu (the True Pure Land Sect of Buddhism) in the Muromachi period, and the 7th head priest of the Hongan-ji Temple.

Zoyo (増誉) - Zoyo (1032 - February 14, 1116) was a Tendai Sect Buddhist monk who lived during the mid-Heian period.

Zuikei Shuho (瑞渓周鳳) - Zuikei Shuho (January 2, 1392 – June 3, 1473) was a Buddhist priest of the Rinzai sect in the mid-Muromachi Period.

Zuko (塗香) - Zuko refers to applying incense to a Buddha's statue or the body of a practitioner to cleanse impurities.